Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Marchesini, Alexis (2017) Relationships among the three levels of biodiversity - genes, species and ecosystems: an empirical study with alpine amphibians from Trentino. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]
Preview
PDF Document
6Mb

Abstract (english)

In the present study, we investigated amphibian biodiversity of a south-eastern Alpine region, Trentino, considering the evolutionary and ecological processes acting at the different levels of biological diversity (i.e. genes, species, and ecosystems), within a systemic perspective. We chose a model organism, the common frog (Rana temporaria), as target species for investigating patterns of diversity at the genetic level.
We investigated the past evolutionary history of Rana temporaria by means of a phylogeographic study, based on mtDNA data. We highlighted a complex scenario, with three different Pleistocene glacial refugia located in the southern slopes of the Alps, routes of post-glacial recolonization following irregular patterns and a contact zone among different evolutionary lineages in the eastern part of the region.
Afterwards, we conducted a population and landscape genetics study, using microsatellite markers for evaluating patterns of current genetic variability and genetic structure in Rana temporaria populations. We detected a main barrier to gene flow, the Adige river valley, and different spatial patterns, for both genetic variability and fine-scale population structure, in the two sub-regions.
Lastly, we studied the relationship between species diversity of amphibian communities and genetic diversity of the model species, Rana temporaria. We found a strong negative correlation, and we demonstrated that the recorded pattern was due to the opposite influence of environmental factors on the two levels of biological diversity. Our results show the importance of considering the different levels of biodiversity in conservation strategies, and suggest that species diversity cannot be universally used as proxy for genetic diversity in conservation planning.

Abstract (italian)

Nel presente studio, abbiamo analizzato la biodiversità anfibia di una regione delle Alpi sud-orientali, il Trentino, considerando i processi evoluzionistici ed ecologici che agiscono ai vari livelli della diversità biologica, all’interno di una prospettiva sistemica. Abbiamo scelto un organismo modello, la rana di montagna (Rana temporaria), come specie target per lo studio dei pattern di diversità a livello genetico.
Abbiamo analizzato la storia evolutiva passata di Rana temporaria per mezzo di uno studio filogeografico, basato su dati di DNA mitocondriale. Abbiamo messo in luce uno scenario complesso, con tre diversi rifugi glaciali Pleistocenici, situati ai margini meridionali delle Alpi, rotte di ricolonizzazione irregolari, e una zona di contatto tra diverse linee evolutive nella parte orientale della regione.
In seguito, abbiamo condotto uno studio di genetica di popolazione e del paesaggio, utilizzando marcatori microsatelliti per valutare i pattern attuali di diversità genetica e struttura genetica nelle popolazioni di Rana temporaria. Abbiamo riscontrato un’importante barriera al flusso genico, corrispondente alla valle del fiume Adige, e diversi pattern spaziali, sia per la variabilità genetica che per la struttura di popolazioni a scala fine, nelle due sotto-regioni.
Infine, abbiamo studiato le relazioni tra la diversità specifica delle comunità anfibie e la diversità genetica della specie modello, Rana temporaria. Abbiamo riscontrato una forte correlazione negativa, e dimostrato che tale pattern è dovuto all’influenza opposta dei fattori ambientali sui due livelli di diversità biologica. I nostri risultati mostrano l’importanza di considerare i diversi livelli di biodiversità nelle strategie conservazionistiche, e suggeriscono che la diversità specifica non può venir universalmente utilizzata come proxy della diversità genetica nella pianificazione conservazionistica.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Battisti, Andrea
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 27 > scuole 27 > SCIENZE DELLE PRODUZIONI VEGETALI
Data di deposito della tesi:29 January 2017
Anno di Pubblicazione:29 January 2017
Key Words:amphibians, Rana temporaria, phylogeography, Alps, Trentino, population genetics, landscape genetics, genetic diversity, species diversity, biodiversity conservation
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 05 - Scienze biologiche > BIO/11 Biologia molecolare
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e Ambiente
Codice ID:10066
Depositato il:14 Nov 2017 15:03
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

References - Chapter 1 Cerca con Google

Alford, R.A. (1989). Variation in predator phenology affects predator performance and prey community composition. Ecology, 70, 206–219. Cerca con Google

Alford, R.A. & Richards, S.J. (1999). Global amphibian declines: a problem in applied ecology. Annual review of Ecology and Systematics, 133–165. Cerca con Google

Allendorf, F.W. & Luikart, G. (2009). Conservation and the genetics of populations. John Wiley & Sons. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K. Cerca con Google

Allentoft, M.E. & O’Brien, J. (2010). Global amphibian declines, loss of genetic diversity and fitness: a review. Diversity, 2, 47–71. Cerca con Google

Alvarez, D. & Nicieza, A.G. (2002). Effects of temperature and food quality on anuran larval growth and metamorphosis. Functional Ecology, 16, 640–648. Cerca con Google

Anderson, C.D., Epperson, B.K., Fortin, M.-J., Holderegger, R., James, P.M.A., Rosenberg, M.S., et al. (2010). Considering spatial and temporal scale in landscape-genetic studies of gene flow. Mol Ecol, 19, 3565–3575. Cerca con Google

APPA (2012). Settimo rapporto sullo stato dell'ambiente della provincia di Trento. Agenzia provinciale per la protezione dell'ambiente. Trento. Cerca con Google

Arthur, M. & Wilson, R.H. (1967). The theory of Island biogeography. Princeton University Press. Princeton, N.J. Cerca con Google

Avise, J.C. (1995). Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism and a connection between genetics and demography of relevance to conservation. Conservation Biology, 9, 686–690. Cerca con Google

Avise, J.C. (2000). Phylogeography: the history and formation of species. Harvard university press. Cerca con Google

Baillie, J., Hilton-Taylor, C. & Stuart, S.N. (2004). 2004 IUCN red list of threatened species: a global species assessment. Iucn. Cerca con Google

Balkenhol, N., Cushman, S., Storfer, A. & Waits, L. (2015). Landscape genetics: concepts, methods, applications. John Wiley & Sons. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K. Cerca con Google

Barinaga, M. (1990). Where have all the froggies gone? Science, 247, 1033–1034. Cerca con Google

Bartolini, S., Cioppi, E., Rook, L. & Delfino, M. (2014). Late Pleistocene fossils and the future distribution of Rana temporaria (Amphibia, Anura) along the Apennine Peninsula (Italy). Zoological Studies, 53, 1. Cerca con Google

Beebee, T. & Rowe, G. (2008). An introduction to molecular ecology. Oxford University Press. Cerca con Google

Beebee, T.J. & Griffiths, R.A. (2005). The amphibian decline crisis: a watershed for conservation biology? Biological Conservation, 125, 271–285. Cerca con Google

Beebee, T.J.C. (2005). Conservation genetics of amphibians. Heredity (Edinb), 95, 423–427. Cerca con Google

Beebee, T.J.C., Flower, R.J., Stevenson, A.C., Patrick, S.T., Appleby, P.G., Fletcher, C., et al. (1990). Decline of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Britain: palaeoecological, documentary and experimental evidence for breeding site acidification. Biological Conservation, 53, 1–20. Cerca con Google

Berger, L., Speare, R., Daszak, P., Green, D.E., Cunningham, A.A., Goggin, C.L., et al. (1998). Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. PNAS, 95, 9031–9036. Cerca con Google

Bernini F. & Razzetti E., 2006. Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758. Rana temporaria, Common frog (pp. 368-373). In: Sindaco R., Doria G., Razzetti E. & Bernini F. (eds); Atlante degli Anfibi e dei Rettili d’Italia, Atlas of Italian Amphibians and Reptiles. Polistampa, Firenze. Cerca con Google

Blaustein, A.R. (1994). Chicken Little or Nero’s fiddle? A perspective on declining amphibian populations. Herpetologica, 50, 85–97. Cerca con Google

Blaustein, A.R. & Bancroft, B.A. (2007). Amphibian population declines: evolutionary considerations. BioScience, 57, 437–444. Cerca con Google

Blaustein, A.R., Han, B.A., Relyea, R.A., Johnson, P.T., Buck, J.C., Gervasi, S.S., et al. (2011). The complexity of amphibian population declines: understanding the role of cofactors in driving amphibian losses. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1223, 108–119. Cerca con Google

Blaustein, A.R., Hatch, A.C., Belden, L.K., Scheessele, E. & Kiesecker, J.M. (2003). Global change: challenges facing amphibians. Amphibian conservation, 187–198. Cerca con Google

Blaustein, A.R. & Kiesecker, J.M. (2002). Complexity in conservation: lessons from the global decline of amphibian populations. Ecology letters, 5, 597–608. Cerca con Google

Blaustein, A.R., Walls, S.C., Bancroft, B.A., Lawler, J.J., Searle, C.L. & Gervasi, S.S. (2010). Direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibian populations. Diversity, 2, 281–313. Cerca con Google

Bletz, M.C., Rosa, G.M., Andreone, F., Courtois, E.A., Schmeller, D.S., Rabibisoa, N.H., et al. (2015). Widespread presence of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild amphibian communities in Madagascar. Scientific reports, 5, 8633. Cerca con Google

Boone, M.D. & Bridges, C.M. (2003). Effects of pesticides on amphibian populations. Amphibian conservation, 152–167. Cerca con Google

Boone, M.D., Semlitsch, R.D., Little, E.E. & Doyle, M.C. (2007). Multiple stressors in amphibian communities: effects of chemical contamination, bullfrogs, and fish. Ecological Applications, 17, 291–301. Cerca con Google

Booy, G., Hendriks, R., Smulders, M., Van Groenendael, J. & Vosman, B. (2000). Genetic diversity and the survival of populations. Plant biology, 2, 379–395. Cerca con Google

Bosch, J., Marti´nez-Solano, I. & Garci´a-Pari´s, M. (2001). Evidence of a chytrid fungus infection involved in the decline of the common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) in protected areas of central Spain. Biological conservation, 97, 331–337. Cerca con Google

Bradley, G.A., Rosen, P.C., Sredl, M.J., Jones, T.R. & Longcore, J.E. (2002). Chytridiomycosis in native Arizona frogs. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 38, 206–212. Cerca con Google

Bragazza, L. (2008). A climatic threshold triggers the die-off of peat mosses during an extreme heat wave. Global Change Biology, 14, 2688–2695. Cerca con Google

Bridges, C.M. (1999). Effects of a pesticide on tadpole activity and predator avoidance behavior. Journal of Herpetology, 33, 303–306. Cerca con Google

Bridges, C.M. & Semlitsch, R.D. (2000). Variation in pesticide tolerance of tadpoles among and within species of Ranidae and patterns of amphibian decline. Conservation Biology, 14, 1490–1499. Cerca con Google

Brook, B.W., Sodhi, N.S. & Bradshaw, C.J. (2008). Synergies among extinction drivers under global change. Trends in ecology & evolution, 23, 453–460. Cerca con Google

Brooks, T.M., Pimm, S.L. & Oyugi, J.O. (1999). Time lag between deforestation and bird extinction in tropical forest fragments. Conservation Biology, 13, 1140–1150. Cerca con Google

Butchart, S.H., Walpole, M., Collen, B., Van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J.P., Almond, R.E., et al. (2010). Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science, 328, 1164–1168. Cerca con Google

Caldonazzi M., Pedrini P. & Zanghellini S. (2002). Atlante degli Anfibi e Rettili della provincia di Trento 1987-1996 con aggiornamenti 2001. Museo Trid. Sc. Nat., Trento. 173 pp. Cerca con Google

Canestrelli, D., Zampiglia, M. & Nascetti, G. (2013). Widespread occurrence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in contemporary and historical samples of the endangered Bombina pachypus along the Italian peninsula. PloS one, 8, e63349. Cerca con Google

Carey, C., Bradford, D.F., Brunner, J.L., Collins, J.P., Davidson, E.W., Longcore, J.E., et al. (2003). Biotic factors in amphibian population declines. Amphibian decline: an integrated analysis of multiple stressor effects. SETAC, Pensacola, Florida, 153–208. Cerca con Google

Carey, C. & Bryant, C.J. (1995). Possible interrelations among environmental toxicants, amphibian development, and decline of amphibian populations. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103, 13. Cerca con Google

Ceballos, G. & Ehrlich, P.R. (2002). Mammal population losses and the extinction crisis. Science, 296, 904–907. Cerca con Google

Ceballos, G., Ehrlich, P.R., Barnosky, A.D., Garcia, A., Pringle, R.M. & Palmer, T.M. (2015). Accelerated modern human-induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction. Science Advances, 1, e1400253. Cerca con Google

Collins, J.P. & Storfer, A. (2003). Global amphibian declines: sorting the hypotheses. Diversity and distributions, 9, 89–98. Cerca con Google

Conner, J.K., Hartl, D.L. & others. (2004). A primer of ecological genetics. Sinauer Associates. Sunderland, MA. Cerca con Google

Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., De Groot, R., Faber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., et al. (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Ecological economics, 25(1), 3-16. Cerca con Google

Cunningham, A.A., Langton, T.E.S., Bennett, P.M., Lewin, J.F., Drury, S.E.N., Gough, R.E., et al. (1996). Pathological and microbiological findings from incidents of unusual mortality of the common frog (Rana temporaria). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 351, 1539–1557. Cerca con Google

Cunningham, H.R., Rissler, L.J. & Apodaca, J.J. (2009). Competition at the range boundary in the slimy salamander: using reciprocal transplants for studies on the role of biotic interactions in spatial distributions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78, 52–62. Cerca con Google

Cushman, S.A. (2006). Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on amphibians: a review and prospectus. Biological conservation, 128, 231–240. Cerca con Google

Daszak, P., Cunningham, A.A. & Hyatt, A.D. (2003). Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. Diversity and Distributions, 9, 141–150. Cerca con Google

Daszak, P., Strieby, A., Cunningham, A.A., Longcore, J.E., Brown, C.C. & Porter, D. (2004). Experimental evidence that the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is potential carrier of chytridiomycosis, an emerging fungal disease of amphibians. Herpetological Journal, 14, 201–207. Cerca con Google

Davidson, C. (2004). Declining downwind: amphibian population declines in California and historical pesticide use. Ecological Applications, 14, 1892–1902. Cerca con Google

Davidson, C., Shaffer, H.B. & Jennings, M.R. (2002). Spatial tests of the pesticide drift, habitat destruction, UV-B, and climate-change hypotheses for California amphibian declines. Conservation Biology, 16, 1588–1601. Cerca con Google

De Vos, J.M., Joppa, L.N., Gittleman, J.L., Stephens, P.R. & Pimm, S.L. (2015). Estimating the normal background rate of species extinction. Conservation Biology, 29, 452–462. Cerca con Google

Decout, S., Manel, S., Miaud, C. & Luque, S. (2012). Integrative approach for landscape-based graph connectivity analysis: a case study with the common frog (Rana temporaria) in human-dominated landscapes. Landscape ecology, 27, 267–279. Cerca con Google

Demaynadier, P.G. & Hunter, M.L. (1998). Effects of silvicultural edges on the distribution and abundance of amphibians in Maine. Conservation Biology, 12, 340–352. Cerca con Google

DeSalle, R. & Amato, G. (2004). The expansion of conservation genetics. Nature Reviews Genetics, 5, 702–712. Cerca con Google

Drost, C.A. & Fellers, G.M. (1996). Collapse of a regional frog fauna in the Yosemite area of the California Sierra Nevada, USA. Conservation biology, 10, 414–425. Cerca con Google

Duffus, A.L., Waltzek, T.B., Stöhr, A.C., Allender, M.C., Gotesman, M., Whittington, R.J., et al. (2015). Distribution and host range of ranaviruses. In: Ranaviruses. Springer, pp. 9–57. Cerca con Google

Dunson, W.A., Wyman, R.L. & Corbett, E.S. (1992). A symposium on amphibian declines and habitat acidification. Journal of Herpetology, 349–352. Cerca con Google

Egea-Serrano, A., Relyea, R.A., Tejedo, M. & Torralva, M. (2012). Understanding of the impact of chemicals on amphibians: a meta-analytic review. Ecology and evolution, 2, 1382–1397. Cerca con Google

Ehrlich, P.R., Annett, H. & Ehrlich, A.H. (1983). Extinction: the causes and consequences of the disappearance of species. Ballantine Books. Cerca con Google

Ellison, A.M., Bank, M.S., Clinton, B.D., Colburn, E.A., Elliott, K., Ford, C.R., et al. (2005). Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3, 479–486. Cerca con Google

Felix, Z.I., Wang, Y. & Schweitzer, C.J. (2010). Effects of experimental canopy manipulation on amphibian egg deposition. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 74, 496–503. Cerca con Google

Fellers, G.M., McConnell, L.L., Pratt, D. & Datta, S. (2004). Pesticides in mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) from the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 23, 2170–2177. Cerca con Google

Findlay, T., Scot, C. & Bourdages, J. (2000). Response time of wetland biodiversity to road construction on adjacent lands. Conservation Biology, 14, 86–94. Cerca con Google

Fisher, R.N. & Shaffer, H.B. (1996). The decline of amphibians in California’s Great Central Valley. Conservation biology, 10, 1387–1397. Cerca con Google

Flather, C.H., Hayward, G.D., Beissinger, S.R. & Stephens, P.A. (2011). Minimum viable populations: is there a “magic number”for conservation practitioners? Trends in ecology & evolution, 26, 307–316. Cerca con Google

Fog, K. & Schmedes, A. (n.d.). Rosenørn de Lasson D (1997) Nordens padder og krybdyr. GEC Gads Forlag, København. Cerca con Google

Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L., et al. (2004). Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 557–581. Cerca con Google

Frankel, O. & Soulé, M.E. (1981). Conservation and evolution. Cambridge University Press, UK. Cerca con Google

Frankham, R. (2003). Genetics and conservation biology. C R Biol, 326 Suppl 1, S22–29. Cerca con Google

Frankham, R. (2005). Genetics and extinction. Biological conservation, 126, 131–140. Cerca con Google

Frankham, R., Ballou, J.D. & Briscoe, D.A. (2004). A primer of conservation genetics. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. Cerca con Google

Frankham, R., Briscoe, D.A. & Ballou, J.D. (2002). Introduction to conservation genetics. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. Cerca con Google

Freda, J. & Dunson, W.A. (1985). Field and laboratory studies of ion balance and growth rates of ranid tadpoles chronically exposed to low pH. Copeia, 415–423. Cerca con Google

Gardner, T. (2001). Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon in conservation biology. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 24, 25–44. Cerca con Google

Garner, T.W.J., Walker, S., Bosch, J., Hyatt, A.D., Cunningham, A.A. & Fisher, M.C. (2005). Chytrid fungus in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11, 1639–1641. Cerca con Google

Gaston, K. & Spicer, J. (2004). Biodiversity: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing, London. Cerca con Google

Gaston, K.J. (2010). Valuing common species. Science, 327, 154–155. Cerca con Google

Gaston, K.J. (2011). Common ecology. Bioscience, 61, 354–362. Cerca con Google

Gaston, K.J. & Fuller, R.A. (2008). Commonness, population depletion and conservation biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 14–19. Cerca con Google

Gordon, I.J., Pettorelli, N., Katzner, T., Gompper, M.E., Mock, K., Redpath, S., et al. (2010). International year of biodiversity: missed targets and the need for better monitoring, real action and global policy. Animal Conservation, 13, 113–114. Cerca con Google

Grant, E.H.C., Miller, D.A., Schmidt, B.R., Adams, M.J., Amburgey, S.M., Chambert, T., et al. (2016). Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines. Scientific reports, 6. Cerca con Google

Gray, M.J., Miller, D.L. & Hoverman, J.T. (2009). Ecology and pathology of amphibian ranaviruses. Diseases of aquatic organisms, 87, 243–266. Cerca con Google

Griffis-Kyle, K.L. (2007). Sublethal effects of nitrite on eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and wood frog (Rana sylvatica) embryos and larvae: implications for field populations. Aquatic Ecology, 41, 119–127. Cerca con Google

Grossenbacher, K. (1997). Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758. In: Gasc J., Cabela A., Crnobrnja-Isilovic J., Dolmen D., Grossenbacher K., Haffner P., Lescure J., Martens H., Oliveira M., Sofianidou T., Veith M. & Zuiderwijk A. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Europe. Societas Europaea Herpetologica and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (pp. 158-159). Cerca con Google

Halliday, T. (1998). Ecology: a declining amphibian conundrum. Nature, 394, 418–419. Cerca con Google

Hänninen, H. (1991). Does climatic warming increase the risk of frost damage in northern trees? Plant, Cell & Environment, 14, 449–454. Cerca con Google

Hansson, B. & Westerberg, L. (2002). On the correlation between heterozygosity and fitness in natural populations. Molecular Ecology, 11, 2467–2474. Cerca con Google

Hayes, T.B., Collins, A., Lee, M., Mendoza, M., Noriega, N., Stuart, A.A., et al. (2002). Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 5476–5480. Cerca con Google

He, F. & Hubbell, S.P. (2011). Species-area relationships always overestimate extinction rates from habitat loss. Nature, 473, 368–371. Cerca con Google

Hels, T. & Buchwald, E. (2001). The effect of road kills on amphibian populations. Biological conservation, 99, 331–340. Cerca con Google

Henle, K., Dick, D., Harpke, A., Kühn, I., Schweiger, O. & Settele, J. (2008). Climate change impacts on European amphibians and reptiles. In: Biodiversity and climate change: Reports and guidance developed under the Bern Convention. Council of Europe Publishing, Strasbourg, France, pp. 225–305. Cerca con Google

Hill, M.O. (1973). Diversity and evenness: a unifying notation and its consequences. Ecology, 54, 427–432. Cerca con Google

Hitchings, S.P. & Beebee, T.J. (1997). Genetic substructuring as a result of barriers to gene flow in urban Rana temporaria (common frog) populations: implications for biodiversity conservation. Heredity, 79. Cerca con Google

Hoban, S.M., Hauffe, H.C., Pérez-Espona, S., Arntzen, J.W., Bertorelle, G., Bryja, J., et al. (2013). Bringing genetic diversity to the forefront of conservation policy and management. Conservation Genetics Resources, 5, 593–598. Cerca con Google

Höglund, J. (2009). Evolutionary conservation genetics. Oxford University Press. Oxford, UK. Cerca con Google

Holderegger, R. & Wagner, H.H. (2008). Landscape genetics. Bioscience, 58, 199–207. Cerca con Google

Hopkins, W.A. (2007). Amphibians as models for studying environmental change. Ilar Journal, 48, 270–277. Cerca con Google

Houlahan, J.E. & Findlay, C.S. (2003). The effects of adjacent land use on wetland amphibian species richness and community composition. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 60, 1078–1094. Cerca con Google

Houlahan, J.E., Findlay, C.S., Schmidt, B.R., Meyer, A.H. & Kuzmin, S.L. (2000). Quantitative evidence for global amphibian population declines. Nature, 404, 752–755. Cerca con Google

Hoverman, J.T., Gray, M.J. & Miller, D.L. (2010). Anuran susceptibilities to ranaviruses: role of species identity, exposure route, and a novel virus isolate. Diseases of aquatic organisms, 89, 97–107. Cerca con Google

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 December 2016. Vai! Cerca con Google

Jancovich, J.K., Davidson, E.W., Morado, J.F., Jacobs, B.L. & Collins, J.P. (1997). Isolation of a lethal virus from the endangered tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum stebbinsi. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 31, 161–167. Cerca con Google

Jancovich, J.K., Mao, J., Chinchar, V.G., Wyatt, C., Case, S.T., Kumar, S., et al. (2003). Genomic sequence of a ranavirus (family Iridoviridae) associated with salamander mortalities in North America. Virology, 316, 90–103. Cerca con Google

Jedrzejewska, B., Brzezinski, M. & Jedrzejewski, W. (2003). Seasonal dynamics and breeding of amphibians in pristine forests (Bialowieza National Park, E Poland) in dry years. Folia Zoologica, 52, 77–86. Cerca con Google

Jennings, M.R. & Hayes, M.P. (1985). Pre-1900 overharvest of California red-legged frogs (Rana aurora draytonii): the inducement for bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) introduction. Herpetologica, 94–103. Cerca con Google

Jensen, J.B. & Camp, C.D. (2003). Human exploitation of amphibians: direct and indirect impacts. Amphibian Conservation, 199–213. Cerca con Google

Jiguet, F., Gregory, R.D., Devictor, V., Green, R.E., Vorisek, P., Van Strien, A., et al. (2010). Population trends of European common birds are predicted by characteristics of their climatic niche. Global change biology, 16, 497–505. Cerca con Google

Johannesson, K., Smolarz, K., Grahn, M. & André, C. (2011). The future of Baltic Sea populations: local extinction or evolutionary rescue? Ambio, 40, 179–190. Cerca con Google

Johansson, F., Veldhoen, N., Lind, M.I. & Helbing, C.C. (2013). Phenotypic plasticity in the hepatic transcriptome of the European common frog (Rana temporaria): the interplay between environmental induction and geographical lineage on developmental response. Molecular ecology, 22, 5608–5623. Cerca con Google

Johansson, M., Primmer, C.R. & Merilae, J. (2007). Does habitat fragmentation reduce fitness and adaptability? A case study of the common frog (Rana temporaria). Molecular Ecology, 16, 2693–2700. Cerca con Google

Johnson, P.T. & Chase, J.M. (2004). Parasites in the food web: linking amphibian malformations and aquatic eutrophication. Ecology Letters, 7, 521–526. Cerca con Google

Jost, L., Chao, A. & Chazdon, R.L. (2011). Compositional similarity and ß (beta) diversity. In: A. Magurran, A. &McGill, B. Biological diversity: frontiers in measurement and assessment. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 66–87. Cerca con Google

Kareiva, P. & Marvier, M. (2003). Conserving biodiversity coldspots. American Scientist, 91, 344. Cerca con Google

Kats, L.B. & Ferrer, R.P. (2003). Alien predators and amphibian declines: review of two decades of science and the transition to conservation. Diversity and Distributions, 9, 99–110. Cerca con Google

Kerr, J.T., Southwood, T.R. & Cihlar, J. (2001). Remotely sensed habitat diversity predicts butterfly species richness and community similarity in Canada. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 98, 11365–11370. Cerca con Google

Kiesecker, J.M., Blaustein, A.R. & Belden, L.K. (2001a). Complex causes of amphibian population declines. Nature, 410, 681–684. Cerca con Google

Kiesecker, J.M., Blaustein, A.R. & Miller, C.L. (2001b). Transfer of a pathogen from fish to amphibians. Conservation Biology, 15, 1064–1070. Cerca con Google

Kilpatrick, A.M., Briggs, C.J. & Daszak, P. (2010). The ecology and impact of chytridiomycosis: an emerging disease of amphibians. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25, 109–118. Cerca con Google

Knapp, R.A. & Matthews, K.R. (2000). Non-Native Fish Introductions and the Decline of the Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog from within Protected Areas. Conservation Biology, 14, 428–438. Cerca con Google

Kuzmin S., Ishchenko V., Tuniyev B., Beebee T., Andreone F., Nyström P., Anthony B., Schmidt B., Ogrodowczyk A., Ogielska M., Bosch J., Miaud M., Loman J., Cogalniceanu D., Kovács T., Kiss I., 2008. Rana temporaria. In: IUCN 2016. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. http://www.iucnredlist.org/. Vai! Cerca con Google

Laikre, L., Allendorf, F.W., Aroner, L.C., Baker, C.S., Gregovich, D.P., Hansen, M.M., et al. (2009a). Neglect of genetic diversity in implementation of the convention on biological diversity. Conservation Biology, 24, 86. Cerca con Google

Laikre, L., Nilsson, T., Primmer, C.R., Ryman, N. & Allendorf, F.W. (2009b). Importance of genetics in the interpretation of favourable conservation status. Conservation Biology, 23, 1378–1381. Cerca con Google

Lannoo, M.J., Lang, K., Waltz, T. & Phillips, G.S. (1994). An altered amphibian assemblage: Dickinson County, Iowa, 70 years after Frank Blanchard’s survey. American Midland Naturalist, 311–319. Cerca con Google

Lanza, B., Nistri, A. & Vanni, S. (2009). Anfibi d’Italia. Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare; Istituto Superiore per la protezione la ricerca ambientale, Roma. Cerca con Google

Lapini, L. & di Storia Naturale, M.F. (2005). Si fa presto a dire rana: guida al riconoscimento degli anfibi anuri nel Friuli Venezia Giulia. Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale, Udine. Cerca con Google

Laroche, F., Jarne, P., Lamy, T., David, P. & Massol, F. (2015). A neutral theory for interpreting correlations between species and genetic diversity in communities. The American Naturalist, 185, 59. Cerca con Google

Laugen, A.T., Laurila, A., Räsänen, K. & Merilä, J. (2003). Latitudinal countergradient variation in the common frog (Rana temporaria) development rates–evidence for local adaptation. Journal of evolutionary biology, 16, 996–1005. Cerca con Google

Laurila, A., Karttunen, S. & Merilä, J. (2002). Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and genetics of larval life histories in two Rana temporaria populations. Evolution, 56, 617–627. Cerca con Google

Leakey, R. & Lewin, R. (1996). The sixth extinction: biodiversity and its survival. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London. Cerca con Google

Lees, A.C. & Pimm, S.L. (2015). Species, extinct before we know them? Current Biology, 25, R177–R180. Cerca con Google

Linder, G., Krest, S.K. & Sparling, D.W. (2003). Amphibian decline: an integrated analysis of multiple stressor effects. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL. Cerca con Google

Lips, K.R. (1999). Mass mortality and population declines of anurans at an upland site in western Panama. Conservation Biology, 13, 117–125. Cerca con Google

Lips, K.R., Brem, F., Brenes, R., Reeve, J.D., Alford, R.A., Voyles, J., et al. (2006). Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences of the United States of America, 103, 3165–3170. Cerca con Google

Lodé, T. (1996). Polecat predation on frogs and toads at breeding sites in western France. Ethology Ecology & Evolution, 8, 115–124. Cerca con Google

Loman, J. (2004). Density regulation in tadpoles of Rana temporaria: a full pond field experiment. Ecology, 85, 1611–1618. Cerca con Google

Loreau, M. (2000). Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: recent theoretical advances. Oikos, 91, 3–17. Cerca con Google

Luiselli, L., Anibaldi, C. & Capula, M. (1995). The diet of juvenile adders, Vipera berus, in an alpine habitat. Amphibia-reptilia, 16, 404–407. Cerca con Google

Magurran, A.E. (1988). Ecological diversity and it’s measurement. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. Cerca con Google

Magurran, A.E. (2005). Ecology: linking species diversity and genetic diversity. Current biology, 15, R597–R599. Cerca con Google

Maiorano, L., Amori, G., Capula, M., Falcucci, A., Masi, M., Montemaggiori, A., et al. (2013). Threats from climate change to terrestrial vertebrate hotspots in Europe. PLoS One, 8, e74989. Cerca con Google

Malkmus, R. (2006): Jahrhundertdürre in Portugal – Auswirkungen auf die Amphibienpopulationen. Elaphe N.F. 14(2): 48-51. Cerca con Google

Manel, S., Schwartz, M.K., Luikart, G. & Taberlet, P. (2003). Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics. Trends in ecology & evolution, 18, 189–197. Cerca con Google

Marchese, C. (2015). Biodiversity hotspots: A shortcut for a more complicated concept. Global Ecology and Conservation, 3, 297–309. Cerca con Google

Marco, A. & Blaustein, A.R. (1999). The effects of nitrite on behavior and metamorphosis in Cascades frogs (Rana cascadae). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18, 946–949. Cerca con Google

Martel, A., Blooi, M., Adriaensen, C., Van Rooij, P., Beukema, et al. (2014). Recent introduction of a chytrid fungus endangers Western Palearctic salamanders. Science, 346, 630–631. Cerca con Google

Martel, A., Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A., Blooi, M., Bert, W., Ducatelle, R., Fisher, M.C., et al. (2013). Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov. causes lethal chytridiomycosis in amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 15325–15329. Cerca con Google

May, R.M., Lawton, J.H. & Stork, N.E. (1995). Assessing extinction rates. In: Extinction rates, (J.H. Lawton y R.M. May, eds). Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1–24. Cerca con Google

McCann, K.S. (2000). The diversity-stability debate. Nature, 405, 228–233. Cerca con Google

McCartney-Melstad, E. & Shaffer, H.B. (2015). Amphibian molecular ecology and how it has informed conservation. Mol Ecol, 24, 5084–5109. Cerca con Google

Mendelson, J.R., Lips, K.R., Gagliardo, R.W., Rabb, G.B., Collins, J.P., Diffendorfer, J.E., et al. (2006). Confronting amphibian declines and extinctions. Science, 313, 48–48. Cerca con Google

Merilä, J., Laurila, A., Pahkala, M., Räsänen, K. & Timenes Laugen, A. (2000). Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in timing of metamorphosis in the common frog Rana temporaria. Ecoscience, 7, 18–24. Cerca con Google

Miaud, C., Guyétant, R. & Elmberg, J. (1999). Variations in life-history traits in the common frog Rana temporaria (Amphibia: Anura): a literature review and new data from the French Alps. Journal of Zoology, 249, 61–73. Cerca con Google

Mitchell, S.C. (2005). How useful is the concept of habitat?–a critique. Oikos, 110, 634–638. Cerca con Google

Morehouse, E.A., James, T.Y., Ganley, A.R., Vilgalys, R., Berger, L., Murphy, P.J., et al. (2003). Multilocus sequence typing suggests the chytrid pathogen of amphibians is a recently emerged clone. Molecular Ecology, 12, 395–403. Cerca con Google

Moritz, C. (1994). Defining “evolutionarily significant units” for conservation. Trends in ecology and evolution, 9, 373–374. Cerca con Google

Muir, A.P., Biek, R., Thomas, R. & Mable, B.K. (2014). Local adaptation with high gene flow: temperature parameters drive adaptation to altitude in the common frog (Rana temporaria). Molecular ecology, 23, 561–574. Cerca con Google

Myers, N. (1988). Threatened biotas: “hot spots” in tropical forests. Environmentalist, 8, 187–208. Cerca con Google

Myers, N. (1993). Biodiversity and the precautionary principle. Ambio, 74–79. Cerca con Google

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., Da Fonseca, G.A. & Kent, J. (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853–858. Cerca con Google

Olson, D.H., Aanensen, D.M., Ronnenberg, K.L., Powell, C.I., Walker, S.F., Bielby, J., et al. (2013). Mapping the global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the amphibian chytrid fungus. PloS one, 8, e56802. Cerca con Google

Omizzolo, A., Lorenzi, P., Gianesini, G. & Bruno, S. (2002). Appunti sugli anfibi del Trentino. Ann. Mus. civ Rovereto. Cerca con Google

Ortiz, M.E., Marco, A., Saiz, N. & Lizana, M. (2004). Impact of ammonium nitrate on growth and survival of six European amphibians. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 47, 234–239. Cerca con Google

Palo, J.U., Schmeller, D.S., Laurila, A., Primmer, C.R., Kuzmin, S.L. & Merilä, J. (2004). High degree of population subdivision in a widespread amphibian. Mol. Ecol., 13, 2631–2644. Cerca con Google

Pechmann, J.H., Scott, D.E., Gibbons, J.W. & Semlitsch, R.D. (1989). Influence of wetland hydroperiod on diversity and abundance of metamorphosing juvenile amphibians. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 1, 3–11. Cerca con Google

Petchey, O.L. & Gaston, K.J. (2002). Functional diversity (FD), species richness and community composition. Ecology Letters, 5, 402–411. Cerca con Google

Pierce, B.A. (1985). Acid tolerance in amphibians. BioScience, 35, 239–243. Cerca con Google

Piha, H., Luoto, M., Piha, M. & MERILÄ, J. (2007). Anuran abundance and persistence in agricultural landscapes during a climatic extreme. Global Change Biology, 13, 300–311. Cerca con Google

Pilliod, D.S. & Peterson, C.R. (2001). Local and landscape effects of introduced trout on amphibians in historically fishless watersheds. Ecosystems, 4, 322–333. Cerca con Google

Pimm, S.L., Russell, G.J., Gittleman, J.L. & Brooks, T.M. (1995). The future of biodiversity. Science-AAAS-Weekly Paper Edition, 269, 347–349. Cerca con Google

Pounds, J.A., Bustamante, M.R., Coloma, L.A., Consuegra, J.A., Fogden, M.P., Foster, P.N., et al. (2006). Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature, 439, 161–167. Cerca con Google

Reading, C.J. (2007). Linking global warming to amphibian declines through its effects on female body condition and survivorship. Oecologia, 151, 125–131. Cerca con Google

Redford, K.H., Berger, J. & Zack, S. (2013). Abundance as a conservation value. Oryx, 47, 157 Cerca con Google

Reed, D.H. & Frankham, R. (2003). Correlation between fitness and genetic diversity. Conservation biology, 17, 230–237. Cerca con Google

Relyea, R.A. (2009). A cocktail of contaminants: how mixtures of pesticides at low concentrations affect aquatic communities. Oecologia, 159, 363–376. Cerca con Google

Reusch, T.B., Ehlers, A., Hämmerli, A. & Worm, B. (2005). Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 2826–2831. Cerca con Google

Richter-Boix, A., Teplitsky, C., Rogell, B. & Laurila, A. (2010). Local selection modifies phenotypic divergence among Rana temporaria populations in the presence of gene flow. Molecular Ecology, 19, 716–731. Cerca con Google

Rocchini, D. & Neteler, M. (2012). Spectral rank–abundance for measuring landscape diversity. International journal of remote sensing, 33, 4458–4470. Cerca con Google

Rodríguez, J.P. (2001). Exotic species introductions into South America: an underestimated threat? Biodiversity & Conservation, 10, 1983–1996. Cerca con Google

Rowe, C.L., Hopkins, W.A. & Bridges, C.M. (2003). Physiological ecology of amphibians in relation to susceptibility to natural and anthropogenic factors. In Amphibian decline: an integrated analysis of multiple stressor effects. Linder, G., Krest, S., Sparling, D. (eds). SETAC, Pensacola, FL. Cerca con Google

SCBD (2010). COP-10 Decision X/2. Secretariat of the convention on biological diversity. Cerca con Google

Smith, M. & M Green, D. (2005). Dispersal and the metapopulation paradigm in amphibian ecology and conservation: are all amphibian populations metapopulations? Ecography, 28, 110–128. Cerca con Google

Semlitsch, R.D. (2003). Conservation of pond-breeding amphibians. Pages. 8-23 in RD Semlitsch, editor. Amphibian Conservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. Cerca con Google

Semlitsch, R.D., Todd, B.D., Blomquist, S.M., Calhoun, A.J., Gibbons, J.W., Gibbs, J.P., et al. (2009). Effects of timber harvest on amphibian populations: understanding mechanisms from forest experiments. BioScience, 59, 853–862. Cerca con Google

Shaffer, M.L. (1981). Minimum population sizes for species conservation. BioScience, 31, 131–134. Cerca con Google

Shinn, C., Marco, A. & Serrano, L. (2008). Inter-and intra-specific variation on sensitivity of larval amphibians to nitrite. Chemosphere, 71, 507–514. Cerca con Google

Singh, J. S., in: Conserving Biodiversity for Sustainable Development (eds Ramakrishnan, P. S., Das, A. K. and Saxena, K. G.), Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, 1996, pp. 117–129. Cerca con Google

Snodgrass, J.W., Casey, R.E., Joseph, D. & Simon, J.A. (2008). Microcosm investigations of stormwater pond sediment toxicity to embryonic and larval amphibians: variation in sensitivity among species. Environmental Pollution, 154, 291–297. Cerca con Google

Sodhi N.S., Ehrlich P. (eds.) 2010. Conservation Biology for All. Oxford University Press. 344 pp. Cerca con Google

Sparling, D.W., Fellers, G.M. & McConnell, L.L. (2001). Pesticides and amphibian population declines in California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 20, 1591–1595. Cerca con Google

Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A., Martel, A., Asselberghs, J., Bales, E.K., Beukema, W., Bletz, M.C., et al. (2016). Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe. Emerging infectious diseases, 22. Cerca con Google

Spitzen-van der Sluijs, A., Spikmans, F., Bosman, W., de Zeeuw, M., van der Meij, T., Goverse, E., et al. (2013). Rapid enigmatic decline drives the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) to the edge of extinction in the Netherlands. Amphibia-Reptilia, 34, 233–239. Cerca con Google

Stefani, F., Gentilli, A., Sacchi, R., Razzetti, E., Pellitteri-Rosa, D., Pupin, F., et al. (2012). Refugia within refugia as a key to disentangle the genetic pattern of a highly variable species: the case of Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758 (Anura, Ranidae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65, 718–726. Cerca con Google

Storfer, A., Murphy, M.A., Evans, J.S., Goldberg, C.S., Robinson, S., Spear, S.F., et al. (2007). Putting the “landscape”in landscape genetics. Heredity, 98, 128–142. Cerca con Google

Stork, N.E. (2010). Re-assessing current extinction rates. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19, 357–371. Cerca con Google

Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S., Fischman, D.L., et al. (2004). Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science, 306, 1783–1786. Cerca con Google

Stuart, S. N., Hoffmann, M., Chanson, J. S., Cox, N. A., Berridge, R. J., Ramani, P. et al. (2008). Threatened Amphibians of the World. Lynx Ediciones. Zusammenarbeit mit IUCN, Conservation International und NatureServe. Cerca con Google

Sztatecsny, M., Gallauner, A., Klotz, L., Baierl, A. & Schabetsberger, R. (2013). The presence of common frogs (Rana temporaria) increases the body condition of syntopic Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) in oligotrophic high-altitude ponds: benefits of high-energy prey in a low-productivity habitat. In: Annales Zoologici Fennici. BioOne, pp. 209–215. Cerca con Google

Taberlet, P., Zimmermann, N.E., Englisch, T., Tribsch, A., Holderegger, R., Alvarez, N., et al. (2012). Genetic diversity in widespread species is not congruent with species richness in alpine plant communities. Ecology Letters, 15, 1439–1448. Cerca con Google

Tafani, M., Cohas, A., Bonenfant, C., Gaillard, J.-M. & Allainé, D. (2013). Decreasing litter size of marmots over time: a life history response to climate change? Ecology, 94, 580–586. Cerca con Google

Teacher, A.G.F., Cunningham, A.A. & Garner, T.W.J. (2010). Assessing the long-term impact of ranavirus infection in wild common frog populations. Animal Conservation, 13, 514–522. Cerca con Google

Teacher, A.G.F., Garner, T.W.J. & Nichols, R.A. (2009). European phylogeography of the common frog (Rana temporaria): routes of postglacial colonization into the British Isles, and evidence for an Irish glacial refugium. Heredity, 102, 490–496. Cerca con Google

Thomas, C.D., Cameron, A., Green, R.E., Bakkenes, M., Beaumont, L.J., Collingham, Y.C., et al. (2004). Extinction risk from climate change. Nature, 427, 145–148. Cerca con Google

Tilman, D., Wedin, D. & Knops, J. (1996). Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems. Nature, 379, 718–720. Cerca con Google

Tilman, D. (2001). Functional diversity. In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (ed. Levin, S.A.). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 109–120. Cerca con Google

Tuomisto, H. (2010). A consistent terminology for quantifying species diversity? Yes, it does exist. Oecologia, 164, 853–860. Cerca con Google

UNEP, 1992. Convention on Biological Diversity. Rio de Janeiro http://www.cdb.int/ Vai! Cerca con Google

Van der Heijden, M.G., Klironomos, J.N., Ursic, M., Moutoglis, P., Streitwolf-Engel, R., Boller, T., et al. (1998). Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. Nature, 396, 69–72. Cerca con Google

Vandergast, A.G., Bohonak, A.J., Hathaway, S.A., Boys, J. & Fisher, R.N. (2008). Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern California? Biological Conservation, 141, 1648–1664. Cerca con Google

Veith, M., Baumgart, A., Dubois, A., Ohler, A., Galán, P., Vieites, D.R., et al. (2012). Discordant patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial introgression in Iberian populations of the European common frog (Rana temporaria). Journal of Heredity, 103, 240–249. Cerca con Google

Veith, M., Kosuch, J. & Vences, M. (2003). Climatic oscillations triggered post-Messinian speciation of Western Palearctic brown frogs (Amphibia, Ranidae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 26, 310–327. Cerca con Google

Veith, M., Vences, M., Vieites, D. R., Nieto-Roman, S., & Palanca, A. (2002). Genetic differentiation and population structure within Spanish common frogs (Rana temporaria complex; Ranidae, Amphibia). Folia Zool, 51, 307–318. Cerca con Google

Vellend, M. (2003). Island biogeography of genes and species. The American Naturalist, 162, 358–365. Cerca con Google

Vellend, M. (2005). Species diversity and genetic diversity: parallel processes and correlated patterns. The American Naturalist, 166, 199–215. Cerca con Google

Vellend, M. & Geber, M.A. (2005). Connections between species diversity and genetic diversity. Ecology letters, 8, 767–781. Cerca con Google

Vitt, L.J., Caldwell, J.P., Wilbur, H.M. & Smith, D.C. (1990). Amphibians as harbingers of decay. BioScience, 40, 418–418. Cerca con Google

Vorburger, C. & Reyer, H.-U. (2003). A genetic mechanism of species replacement in European waterfrogs? Conservation Genetics, 4, 141–155. Cerca con Google

Vos, C.C., Goedhart, P.W., Lammertsma, D.R. & Spitzen-Van der Sluijs, A.M. (2007). Matrix permeability of agricultural landscapes: an analysis of movements of the common frog (Rana temporaria). The Herpetological Journal, 17, 174–182. Cerca con Google

Waldman, B. & Tocher, M. (1998). Behavioral ecology, genetic diversity, and declining amphibian populations. Behavioral Ecology and Conservation Biology, 394–443. Cerca con Google

Walther, G.-R., Post, E., Convey, P., Menzel, A., Parmesan, C., Beebee, T.J., et al. (2002). Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature, 416, 389–395. Cerca con Google

Wang, I.J. (2010). Recognizing the temporal distinctions between landscape genetics and phylogeography. Mol Ecol, 19, 2605–2608. Cerca con Google

Weldon, C., Du Preez, L.H., Hyatt, A.D., Muller, R. & Speare, R. (2004). Origin of amphibian chytrid fungus. Emerging infectious diseases, 10, 2100–2105. Cerca con Google

Whiles, M.R., Lips, K.R., Pringle, C.M., Kilham, S.S., Bixby, R.J., Brenes, R., et al. (2006). The effects of amphibian population declines on the structure and function of Neotropical stream ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 4, 27–34. Cerca con Google

Whiteley, A.R., Spruell, P. & Allendorf, F.W. (2006). Can common species provide valuable information for conservation? Molecular Ecology, 15, 2767–2786. Cerca con Google

Whittaker, R.H. (1960). Vegetation of the Siskiyou mountains, Oregon and California. Ecological monographs, 30, 279–338. Cerca con Google

Willoughby, J.R., Sundaram, M., Wijayawardena, B.K., Kimble, S.J., Ji, Y., Fernandez, N.B., et al. (2015). The reduction of genetic diversity in threatened vertebrates and new recommendations. regarding IUCN conservation rankings. Biological Conservation, 191, 495–503. Cerca con Google

Wilson, E.O. (1992). The Diversity of Life. W. Norton & Co., New York. Cerca con Google

Wilson, E.O. & Peter, F.M. (1988). Biodiversity. National Academies Press, US. Cerca con Google

Wright, K.M. & Whitaker, B.R. (2001). Amphibian medicine and captive husbandry. Krieger Publishing Company. Florida, USA. Cerca con Google

Wright, S. (1931). Evolution in Mendelian populations. Genetics, 16, 97–159. Cerca con Google

WWF 2016. Living Planet Report 2016. Risk and resilience in a new era. WWF International, Gland, Switzerland. Cerca con Google

Zeisset, I. & Beebee, T. (2008). Amphibian phylogeography: a model for understanding historical aspects of species distributions. Heredity, 101, 109–119. Cerca con Google

# Cerca con Google

References - Chapter 2 Cerca con Google

Albach, D.C., Schoenswetter, P. & Tribsch, A. (2006). Comparative phylogeography of the Veronica alpine complex in Europe and North America. Molecular Ecology, 15, 3269–3286. Cerca con Google

Angelucci, D. (2013). La valle dell'Adige: genesi e modificazione di una grande valle alpina come interazione tra dinamiche naturali e fattori antropici. In: Il fiume, le terre, l’immaginario. L’Adige come fenomeno storiografico complesso. Osiride, Rovereto, pp. 9-43. Cerca con Google

Avise, J.C. (2000). Phylogeography: the history and formation of species. Harvard University Press. Cerca con Google

Avise, J.C. (2009). Phylogeography: retrospect and prospect. Journal of biogeography, 36, 3–15. Cerca con Google

Avise, J.C. (2010). Perspective: conservation genetics enters the genomics era. Conservation Genetics, 11, 665–669. Cerca con Google

Avise, J.C., Arnold, J., Ball, R.M., Bermingham, E., Lamb, T., Neigel, J.E., et al. (1987). Intraspecific phylogeography: the mitochondrial DNA bridge between population genetics and systematics. Annual review of ecology and systematics, 489–522. Cerca con Google

Bandelt, H.-J., Forster, P., Sykes, B.C. & Richards, M.B. (1995). Mitochondrial portraits of human populations using median networks. Genetics, 141, 743–753. Cerca con Google

Bartolini, S., Cioppi, E., Rook, L. & Delfino, M. (2014). Late Pleistocene fossils and the future distribution of Rana temporaria (Amphibia, Anura) along the Apennine Peninsula (Italy). Zoological Studies, 53, 1. Cerca con Google

Bassetti, M. & Borsato, A. (2005). Evoluzione geomorfologica della Bassa Valle dell’Adige dall’Ultimo Massimo Glaciale: sintesi delle conoscenze e riferimenti ad aree limitrofe. Studi Trentini di Scienze Naturali Acta Geol., 82, 31–42. Cerca con Google

Beebee, T. (1996). Ecology and conservation of amphibians. Springer Science & Business Media. Cerca con Google

Benjamini, Y. & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the royal statistical society. Series B (Methodological), 289–300. Cerca con Google

Bialozyt, R., Ziegenhagen, B. & Petit, R. (2006). Contrasting effects of long distance seed dispersal on genetic diversity during range expansion. Journal of evolutionary biology, 19, 12–20. Cerca con Google

Bona, F., Laurenti, B. & Delfino, M. (2009). Climatic fluctuations during the last glacial in the North-Western lombardian prealps: the upper Pleistocene faunal assemblages of the Caverna Generosa (Como, Italy). Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia (Research In Paleontology and Stratigraphy), 115. Cerca con Google

Bonin, A., Taberlet, P., Miaud, C. & Pompanon, F. (2006). Explorative genome scan to detect candidate loci for adaptation along a gradient of altitude in the common frog (Rana temporaria). Molecular Biology and Evolution, 23, 773–783. Cerca con Google

Brede, E. & Beebee, T. (2004). Contrasting population structures in two sympatric anurans: implications for species conservation. Heredity, 92, 110–117. Cerca con Google

Brede, E.G. & Beebee, T.J. (2006). Consistently different levels of genetic variation across the European ranges of two anurans, Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria. The Herpetological Journal, 16, 265–271. Cerca con Google

Buskirk, J. (2012). Permeability of the landscape matrix between amphibian breeding sites. Ecology and evolution, 2, 3160–3167. Cerca con Google

Canestrelli, D., Bisconti, R., Sacco, F. & Nascetti, G. (2014). What triggers the rising of an intraspecific biodiversity hotspot? Hints from the agile frog. Scientific Reports, 4, 5042. Cerca con Google

Caldonazzi, M., & Avanzini, M. (2011). Storia geologica del Trentino. Albatros, Trento. Cerca con Google

Clement, M., Posada, D. & Crandall, K.A. (2000). TCS: a computer program to estimate gene genealogies. Molecular ecology, 9, 1657–1659. Cerca con Google

Delfino, M. (2002) Erpetofaune italiane del Neogene e del Quaternario. Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia. Ph.D. Dissertation. Cerca con Google

Dufresnes, C. & Perrin, N. (2015). Effect of biogeographic history on population vulnerability in European amphibians. Conservation Biology, 29, 1235–1241. Cerca con Google

Dupanloup, I., Schneider, S. & Excoffier, L. (2002). A simulated annealing approach to define the genetic structure of populations. Molecular Ecology, 11, 2571–2581. Cerca con Google

Excoffier, L. & Lischer, H.E. (2010). Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Molecular ecology resources, 10, 564–567. Cerca con Google

Excoffier, L. & Ray, N. (2008). Surfing during population expansions promotes genetic revolutions and structuration. Trends in ecology & evolution, 23, 347–351. Cerca con Google

Excoffier, L., Smouse, P.E. & Quattro, J.M. (1992). Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics, 131, 479–491. Cerca con Google

Folmer, O., Black, M., Hoeh, W., Lutz, R. & Vrijenhoek, R. (1994). DNA primers for amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase Subunit 1 from diverse metazoan invertebrates. Molecular Marine Biology and Biotechnology. Cerca con Google

Gasc, J.-P., Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, D., Dolmen, K., Grossenbacher, K., Haffner, P., et al. (1997). Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Europe. Cerca con Google

Gosner, K.L. (1960). A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification. Herpetologica, 16, 183–190. Cerca con Google

Gugerli, F., Sperisen, C., Büchler, U., Magni, F., Geburek, T., Jeandroz, S., et al. (2001). Haplotype variation in a mitochondrial tandem repeat of Norway spruce (Picea abies) populations suggests a serious founder effect during postglacial re-colonization of the western Alps. Molecular Ecology, 10, 1255–1263. Cerca con Google

Hall, T.A. (1999). BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. In: Nucleic acids symposium series. pp. 95–98. Cerca con Google

Hampe, A. & Petit, R.J. (2005). Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters. Ecology letters, 8, 461–467. Cerca con Google

Haubrich, K. & Schmitt, T. (2007). Cryptic differentiation in alpine-endemic, high-altitude butterflies reveals down-slope glacial refugia. Molecular Ecology, 16, 3643–3658. Cerca con Google

Hewitt, G. (2000). The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Nature, 405, 907–913. Cerca con Google

Hewitt, G. (2004). Genetic consequences of climatic oscillations in the Quaternary. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 359, 183–195. Cerca con Google

Hickerson, M., Carstens, B., Cavender-Bares, J., Crandall, K., Graham, C., Johnson, J., et al. (2010). Phylogeography’s past, present, and future: 10 years after. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 54, 291–301. Cerca con Google

Johansson, F., Veldhoen, N., Lind, M.I. & Helbing, C.C. (2013). Phenotypic plasticity in the hepatic transcriptome of the European common frog (Rana temporaria): the interplay between environmental induction and geographical lineage on developmental response. Molecular ecology, 22, 5608–5623. Cerca con Google

Johansson, M., Primmer, C.R. & Merilae, J. (2007). Does habitat fragmentation reduce fitness and adaptability? A case study of the common frog (Rana temporaria). Molecular Ecology, 16, 2693–2700. Cerca con Google

Johansson, M., Primmer, C.R., Sahlsten, J. & Merilä, J. (2005). The influence of landscape structure on occurrence, abundance and genetic diversity of the common frog, Rana temporaria. Global Change Biology, 11, 1664–1679. Cerca con Google

Kerner, A. (1870). Die natürlichen Floren im Gelände der Deutschen Alpen. Jena: Fromann. Cerca con Google

Klopfstein, S., Currat, M. & Excoffier, L. (2006). The fate of mutations surfing on the wave of a range expansion. Molecular biology and evolution, 23, 482–490. Cerca con Google

Librado, P. & Rozas, J. (2009). DnaSP v5: a software for comprehensive analysis of DNA polymorphism data. Bioinformatics, 25, 1451–1452. Cerca con Google

Manni, F., Guerard, E. & Heyer, E. (2004). Geographic patterns of (genetic, morphologic, linguistic) variation: how barriers can be detected by using Monmonier’s algorithm. Human biology, 76, 173–190. Cerca con Google

Morelli, T.L., Daly, C., Dobrowski, S.Z., Dulen, D.M., Ebersole, J.L., Jackson, S.T., et al. (2016). Managing climate change refugia for climate adaptation. PLoS One, 11, e0159909. Cerca con Google

Moritz, C., Langham, G., Kearney, M., Krockenberger, A., VanDerWal, J. & Williams, S. (2012). Integrating phylogeography and physiology reveals divergence of thermal traits between central and peripheral lineages of tropical rainforest lizards. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367, 1680–1687. Cerca con Google

Palo, J.U., Schmeller, D.S., Laurila, A., Primmer, C.R., Kuzmin, S.L. & Merilä, J. (2004). High degree of population subdivision in a widespread amphibian. Mol. Ecol., 13, 2631–2644. Cerca con Google

Petit, R.J., Aguinagalde, I., de Beaulieu, J.-L., Bittkau, C., Brewer, S., Cheddadi, R., et al. (2003). Glacial refugia: hotspots but not melting pots of genetic diversity. Science, 300, 1563–1565. Cerca con Google

Rogers, A.R. & Harpending, H. (1992). Population growth makes waves in the distribution of pairwise genetic differences. Molecular biology and evolution, 9, 552–569. Cerca con Google

Rowe, G., Beebee, T. & Burke, T. (1998). Phylogeography of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Britain: genetic differentiation of native and translocated populations. Molecular Ecology, 7, 751–760. Cerca con Google

Ruffo, S. (1950). Descrizione di due nuovi Catopidi cavernicoli del Veronese ed osservazioni sul genere Neobathyscia Müll. Mem. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Verona, 2, 125–133. Cerca con Google

Ruffo, S. (1958). Speleofaune regionali e biogeografia italiana. Le caratteristiche della fauna cavernicola pugliese in rapporto alla paleageografia della regione adriatica. Actes II Congr. lnt. Spél. Bari-Lecce-Salerno. Cerca con Google

Schmeller, D.S., Palo, J.U. & Merilä, J. (2008). A contact zone between two distinct Rana temporaria lineages in northern Germany. Alytes, 25, 93–98. Cerca con Google

Schönswetter, P., Tribsch, A., Barfuss, M. & Niklfeld, H. (2002). Several Pleistocene refugia detected in the high alpine plant Phyteuma globulariifolium Sternb. & Hoppe (Campanulaceae) in the European Alps. Molecular Ecology, 11, 2637–2647. Cerca con Google

Sgro, C.M., Lowe, A.J. & Hoffmann, A.A. (2011). Building evolutionary resilience for conserving biodiversity under climate change. Evolutionary Applications, 4, 326–337 Cerca con Google

Slatkin, M. & Hudson, R.R. (1991). Pairwise comparisons of mitochondrial DNA sequences in stable and exponentially growing populations. Genetics, 129, 555–562. Cerca con Google

Stapley, J., Reger, J., Feulner, P.G., Smadja, C., Galindo, J., Ekblom, R., et al. (2010). Adaptation genomics: the next generation. Trends in ecology & evolution, 25, 705–712. Cerca con Google

Stefani, F., Gentilli, A., Sacchi, R., Razzetti, E., Pellitteri-Rosa, D., Pupin, F., et al. (2012). Refugia within refugia as a key to disentangle the genetic pattern of a highly variable species: the case of Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758 (Anura, Ranidae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65, 718–726. Cerca con Google

Stevens, V.M., Verkenne, C., Vandewoestijne, S., Wesselingh, R.A. & Baguette, M. (2006). Gene flow and functional connectivity in the natterjack toad. Molecular Ecology, 15, 2333–2344. Cerca con Google

Teacher, A.G.F., Garner, T.W.J. & Nichols, R.A. (2009). European phylogeography of the common frog (Rana temporaria): routes of postglacial colonization into the British Isles, and evidence for an Irish glacial refugium. Heredity (Edinb), 102, 490–496. Cerca con Google

Templeton, A.R., Crandall, K.A. & Sing, C.F. (1992). A cladistic analysis of phenotypic associations with haplotypes inferred from restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequence data. III. Cladogram estimation. Genetics, 132, 619–633. Cerca con Google

Teske, P.R., Papadopoulos, I., Newman, B.K., Dworschak, P.C., McQuaid, C.D. & Barker, N.P. (2008). Oceanic dispersal barriers, adaptation and larval retention: an interdisciplinary assessment of potential factors maintaining a phylogeographic break between sister lineages of an African prawn. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8, 1. Cerca con Google

Veith, M., Kosuch, J. & Vences, M. (2003). Climatic oscillations triggered post-Messinian speciation of Western Palearctic brown frogs (Amphibia, Ranidae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 26, 310–327. Cerca con Google

Vences, M., Hauswaldt, J.S., Steinfartz, S., Rupp, O., Goesmann, A., Künzel, S., et al. (2013). Radically different phylogeographies and patterns of genetic variation in two European brown frogs, genus Rana. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 68, 657–670. Cerca con Google

Vernesi, C., Hoban, S.M., Pecchioli, E., Crestanello, B., Bertorelle, G., Rosà, R., et al. (2016). Ecology, environment and evolutionary history influence genetic structure in five mammal species from the Italian Alps. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 117, 428–446. Cerca con Google

Zeisset, I. & Beebee, T. (2008). Amphibian phylogeography: a model for understanding historical aspects of species distributions. Heredity, 101, 109–119. Cerca con Google

# Cerca con Google

References – Chapter 3 Cerca con Google

Barry, J.P., Baxter, C.H., Sagarin, R.D. & Gilman, S.E. (1995). Climate-related, long-term faunal changes in a California rocky intertidal community. Science, 267, 672. Cerca con Google

Bartolini, S., Cioppi, E., Rook, L. & Delfino, M. (2014). Late Pleistocene fossils and the future distribution of Rana temporaria (Amphibia, Anura) along the Apennine Peninsula (Italy). Zoological Studies, 53, 1. Cerca con Google

Benjamini, Y. & Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the royal statistical society. Series B (Methodological), 289–300. Cerca con Google

Blaustein, A.R. & Bancroft, B.A. (2007). Amphibian population declines: evolutionary considerations. BioScience, 57, 437–444. Cerca con Google

Blaustein, A.R., Han, B.A., Relyea, R.A., Johnson, P.T., Buck, J.C., Gervasi, S.S., et al. (2011). The complexity of amphibian population declines: understanding the role of cofactors in driving amphibian losses. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1223, 108–119. Cerca con Google

Blaustein, A.R. & Kiesecker, J.M. (2002). Complexity in conservation: lessons from the global decline of amphibian populations. Ecology letters, 5, 597–608. Cerca con Google

Booy, G., Hendriks, R.J.J., Smulders, M.J.M., Van Groenendael, J.M. & Vosman, B. (2000). Genetic diversity and the survival of populations. Plant biology, 2, 379–395. Cerca con Google

Brede, E.G. & Beebee, T.J. (2006). Consistently different levels of genetic variation across the European ranges of two anurans, Bufo bufo and Rana temporaria. The Herpetological Journal, 16, 265–271. Cerca con Google

Brunetti, M., Lentini, G., Maugeri, M., Nanni, T., Auer, I., Boehm, R., et al. (2009). Climate variability and change in the Greater Alpine Region over the last two centuries based on multi-variable analysis. International Journal of Climatology, 29, 2197–2225. Cerca con Google

de Campos Telles, M.P. & Diniz-Filho, J.A.F. (2005). Multiple Mantel tests and isolation-by-distance, taking into account long-term historical divergence. Genet. Mol. Res, 4, 742–748. Cerca con Google

Caldonazzi, M., & Avanzini, M. (2011). Storia geologica del Trentino. 191 pp. Cerca con Google

Caldonazzi M., Pedrini P. & Zanghellini S. (2002). Atlante degli Anfibi e Rettili della provincia di Trento 1987-1996 con aggiornamenti 2001. Museo Trid. Sc. Nat., Trento. 173 pp. Cerca con Google

Cannone, N., Diolaiuti, G., Guglielmin, M. & Smiraglia, C. (2008). Accelerating climate change impacts on alpine glacier forefield ecosystems in the European Alps. Ecological Applications, 18, 637–648. Cerca con Google

Chemini, C. & Rizzoli, A. (2014). Land use change and biodiversity conservation in the Alps. Journal of Mountain Ecology, 7. Cerca con Google

Collins, J.P. & Storfer, A. (2003). Global amphibian declines: sorting the hypotheses. Diversity and distributions, 9, 89–98. Cerca con Google

Cushman, S.A. (2006). Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on amphibians: a review and prospectus. Biological conservation, 128, 231–240. Cerca con Google

Earl, D.A. & others. (2012). STRUCTURE HARVESTER: a website and program for visualizing STRUCTURE output and implementing the Evanno method. Conservation genetics resources, 4, 359–361. Cerca con Google

Epperson, B.K. (2003). Geographical Genetics (MPB-38). Princeton University Press. 376 pp. Cerca con Google

Evanno, G., Regnaut, S. & Goudet, J. (2005). Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Molecular ecology, 14, 2611–2620. Cerca con Google

Excoffier, L. & Lischer, H.E. (2010). Arlequin suite ver 3.5: a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Molecular ecology resources, 10, 564–567. Cerca con Google

Excoffier, L., Smouse, P.E. & Quattro, J.M. (1992). Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data. Genetics, 131, 479–491. Cerca con Google

Falush, D., Stephens, M. & Pritchard, J.K. (2003). Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: linked loci and correlated allele frequencies. Genetics, 164, 1567–1587. Cerca con Google

Frankham, R. (2005). Genetics and extinction. Biological conservation, 126, 131–140. Cerca con Google

Frankham, R., Briscoe, D.A. & Ballou, J.D. (2002). Introduction to conservation genetics. Cambridge University Press. 617 pp. Cerca con Google

Funk, W.C., Blouin, M.S., Corn, P.S., Maxell, B.A., Pilliod, D.S., Amish, S., et al. (2005). Population structure of Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) is strongly affected by the landscape. Molecular ecology, 14, 483–496. Cerca con Google

Gardner, T. (2001). Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon in conservation biology. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 24, 25–44. Cerca con Google

Gasc, J.-P., Cabela, A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, D., Dolmen, K., Grossenbacher, K., Haffner, P., et al. (1997). Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Europe. 494 pp. Cerca con Google

Gaston, K.J. (2010). Valuing common species. Science, 327, 154–155. Cerca con Google

Gaston, K.J. & Fuller, R.A. (2008). Commonness, population depletion and conservation biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23, 14–19. Cerca con Google

Gobiet, A., Kotlarski, S., Beniston, M., Heinrich, G., Rajczak, J. & Stoffel, M. (2014). 21st century climate change in the European Alps—a review. Science of the Total Environment, 493, 1138–1151. Cerca con Google

Goslee, S.C., Urban, D.L. & others. (2007). The ecodist package for dissimilarity-based analysis of ecological data. Journal of Statistical Software, 22, 1–19. Cerca con Google

Grant, E.H.C., Miller, D.A., Schmidt, B.R., Adams, M.J., Amburgey, S.M., Chambert, T., et al. (2016). Quantitative evidence for the effects of multiple drivers on continental-scale amphibian declines. Scientific reports, 6. Cerca con Google

Hansson, B. & Westerberg, L. (2002). On the correlation between heterozygosity and fitness in natural populations. Molecular Ecology, 11, 2467–2474. Cerca con Google

Heller, R. & Siegismund, H.R. (2009). Relationship between three measures of genetic differentiation GST, DEST and G’ST: how wrong have we been? Molecular Ecology, 18, 2080–2083. Cerca con Google

Hitchings, S.P. & Beebee, T.J. (1997). Genetic substructuring as a result of barriers to gene flow in urban Rana temporaria (common frog) populations: implications for biodiversity conservation. Heredity, 79. Cerca con Google

Höglund, J. (2009). Evolutionary conservation genetics. Oxford University Press. Cerca con Google

Houlahan, J.E., Findlay, C.S., Schmidt, B.R., Meyer, A.H. & Kuzmin, S.L. (2000). Quantitative evidence for global amphibian population declines. Nature, 404, 752–755. Cerca con Google

IUCN 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. <http://www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 December 2016. Vai! Cerca con Google

Johansson, M., Primmer, C.R. & Merilae, J. (2006). History vs. current demography: explaining the genetic population structure of the common frog (Rana temporaria). Molecular Ecology, 15, 975–983. Cerca con Google

Jost, L. (2008). GST and its relatives do not measure differentiation. Molecular ecology, 17, 4015–4026. Cerca con Google

Kimura, M. & Ohta, T. (1978). Stepwise mutation model and distribution of allelic frequencies in a finite population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 75, 2868–2872. Cerca con Google

Lanza, B., Nistri, A. & Vanni, S. (2009). Anfibi d’Italia. Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare; Istituto Superiore per la protezione la ricerca ambientale. Cerca con Google

Lassen, P. & Savoia, S. (2005). Ecoregion conservation plan for the Alps. WWF European Alpine Programme, Bellinzona, Switzerland. Cerca con Google

Laugen, A.T., Laurila, A., Räsänen, K. & Merilä, J. (2003). Latitudinal countergradient variation in the common frog (Rana temporaria) development rates–evidence for local adaptation. Journal of evolutionary biology, 16, 996–1005. Cerca con Google

Legendre, P. & Legendre, L. (1998). Numerical ecology: second English edition. Developments in environmental modelling, 20. 870 pp. Cerca con Google

Leng, L. & Zhang, D.-X. (2011). Measuring population differentiation using GST or D? A simulation study with microsatellite DNA markers under a finite island model and nonequilibrium conditions. Molecular Ecology, 20, 2494–2509. Cerca con Google

Li, R., Chen, W., Tu, L. & Fu, J. (2009). Rivers as barriers for high elevation amphibians: a phylogeographic analysis of the alpine stream frog of the Hengduan Mountains. Journal of Zoology, 277, 309–316. Cerca con Google

Lodé, T. (1996). Polecat predation on frogs and toads at breeding sites in western France. Ethology Ecology & Evolution, 8, 115–124. Cerca con Google

Lomolino, M.V. & Davis, R. (1997). Biogeographic scale and biodiversity of mountain forest mammals of western North America. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 57–76. Cerca con Google

Luiselli, L., Anibaldi, C. & Capula, M. (1995). The diet of juvenile adders, Vipera berus, in an alpine habitat. Amphibia-reptilia, 16, 404–407. Cerca con Google

Ma, L., Ji, Y.-J. & Zhang, D.-X. (2015). Statistical measures of genetic differentiation of populations: Rationales, history and current states. Current Zoology, 61, 886–897. Cerca con Google

Marsh, D.M. & Trenham, P.C. (2001). Metapopulation dynamics and amphibian conservation. Conservation biology, 15, 40–49. Cerca con Google

Matsuba, C., & Merilä, J. (2009). Isolation and characterization of 145 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the common frog (Rana temporaria). Molecular ecology resources, 9(2), 555-562. Cerca con Google

Meirmans, P.G. (2012). The trouble with isolation by distance. Molecular ecology, 21, 2839–2846. Cerca con Google

Meirmans, P.G., Goudet, J. & Gaggiotti, O.E. (2011). Ecology and life history affect different aspects of the population structure of 27 high-alpine plants. Molecular Ecology, 20, 3144–3155. Cerca con Google

Meirmans, P.G. & Hedrick, P.W. (2011). Assessing population structure: FST and related measures. Molecular Ecology Resources, 11, 5–18. Cerca con Google

Miaud, C., Guyétant, R. & Elmberg, J. (1999). Variations in life-history traits in the common frog Rana temporaria (Amphibia: Anura): a literature review and new data from the French Alps. Journal of Zoology, 249, 61–73. Cerca con Google

Moritz, C., Langham, G., Kearney, M., Krockenberger, A., VanDerWal, J. & Williams, S. (2012). Integrating phylogeography and physiology reveals divergence of thermal traits between central and peripheral lineages of tropical rainforest lizards. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367, 1680–1687. Cerca con Google

Muir, A.P., Biek, R. & Mable, B.K. (2014). Behavioural and physiological adaptations to low-temperature environments in the common frog, Rana temporaria. BMC evolutionary biology, 14, 1. Cerca con Google

Palo, J.U., Schmeller, D.S., Laurila, A., Primmer, C.R., Kuzmin, S.L. & Merilä, J. (2004). High degree of population subdivision in a widespread amphibian. Mol. Ecol., 13, 2631–2644. Cerca con Google

Peakall, R. & Smouse, P.E. (2006). GENALEX 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Molecular ecology notes, 6, 288–295. Cerca con Google

Pisa, G., Orioli, V., Spilotros, G., Fabbri, E., Randi, E. & Bani, L. (2015). Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure: the case study of the Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) in Northern Italy. Ecology and evolution, 5, 743–758. Cerca con Google

Pritchard, J.K., Stephens, M. & Donnelly, P. (2000). Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics, 155, 945–959. Cerca con Google

Redford, K.H., Berger, J. & Zack, S. (2013). Abundance as a conservation value. Oryx, 47, 157. Cerca con Google

Reed, D.H. & Frankham, R. (2003). Correlation between fitness and genetic diversity. Conservation biology, 17, 230–237. Cerca con Google

Reusch, T.B., Ehlers, A., Hämmerli, A. & Worm, B. (2005). Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 2826–2831. Cerca con Google

Richter-Boix, A., Teplitsky, C., Rogell, B. & Laurila, A. (2010). Local selection modifies phenotypic divergence among Rana temporaria populations in the presence of gene flow. Molecular Ecology, 19, 716–731. Cerca con Google

Rousset, F. (1997). Genetic differentiation and estimation of gene flow from F-statistics under isolation by distance. Genetics, 145, 1219–1228. Cerca con Google

Slatkin, M. (1995). A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies. Genetics, 139, 457–462. Cerca con Google

Smouse, P.E., Long, J.C. & Sokal, R.R. (1986). Multiple regression and correlation extensions of the Mantel test of matrix correspondence. Systematic zoology, 35, 627–632. Cerca con Google

Spear, S.F., Peterson, C.R., Matocq, M.D. & Storfer, A Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record