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Morello, Luca (2017) Sustainable landfilling: hybrid bioreactors and final storage quality. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Modern landfilling constitutes an unavoidable final step in solid waste management. It aims to close the “Material Cycle” bringing elements back to the non-mobile state they were in before their extraction. At the same time, the application of Sustainability Principle to landfills prescribes to guarantee environmental protection and health safety, ensuring that the disposed waste will be chemically and biochemically stable within a reasonable amount of time. A “Sustainable Landfill” must combine these two fundamental purposes, balancing the efforts to obtain a “sustainable closure of material loop”.
The enhancement of biochemical processes in a landfill, with the purpose of reaching faster environmentally safe conditions and terminate the post closure care, is one of the main debated topics in waste management scientific literature. The general aim of the PhD project was giving a contribution to this debate through the lab-scale testing of systems able to simulate landfills behaviour and the analysis of the long-term expectable chemical status of waste undergone to sustainable landfilling.
The first part of the work is an overview on the basic biochemical processes in landfills and on the laboratory-scale landfill simulation tests. The approach used by the PhD student is mainly experimental, starting from the design and the management of several laboratory-scale landfill simulation tests. The elaboration of the obtained data was useful for evaluating the performances of the tested bioreactor concepts as well as for comparing the results to other scientific data derived from a thorough bibliographic research. The original work produced by the student can be subdivided in three different arguments.
The Semi-aerobic, Anaerobic, Aerated (S.An.A. ®) hybrid bioreactor is an innovative landfill concept, lab-scale run with promising results concerning the enhancement of methane production and the reduction of the long-term emissions.
The effects of the recirculation of reverse osmosis leachate concentrate inside the landfill have been analysed to check if the potential accumulation of contaminants in waste body can turn this practice unsustainable.
The Final Storage Quality (FSQ) procedure, for endorsing the landfill Post Closure Care termination, was tested on an over-stabilized waste of which total emissions and chemical speciation of main elements were calculated.

Abstract (italiano)

Il moderno sistema di deposito finale dei rifiuti in discarica costituisce un passaggio inevitabile nella gestione dei rifiuti solidi. Il suo scopo è chiudere il “ciclo della materia” riportando gli elementi allo stato di immobilità in cui erano prima di essere estratti. Contemporaneamente, l’applicazione del principio di sostenibilità alle discariche prescrive di garantire la salvaguardia ambientale e della salute, assicurando che il rifiuto smaltito diventi chimicamente e bio-chimicamente stabile entro un tempo “ragionevole”. Una “Discarica Sostenibile” deve combinare questi due principi, bilanciando i contributi per ottenere una “chiusura sostenibile del ciclo della materia”.
Il potenziamento dei processi biochimici in discarica, con lo scopo di raggiungere più velocemente condizioni che garantiscano la salvaguardia ambientale e terminare la fase di post-chiusura, è uno degli argomenti più dibattuti nella letteratura scientifica inerente alla gestione dei rifiuti. Lo scopo generale del progetto di dottorato è stato contribuire a questo dibattito, mediante lo svolgimento di test in scala di laboratorio utili a simulare l’andamento dei processi in discarica e analizzando lo stato biochimico finale dei rifiuti trattati.
La prima parte del lavoro consiste in una panoramica sui processi biochimici in discarica e sulla metodica dei test biochimici in scala di laboratorio. L’approccio usato dallo studente in questa tesi è principalmente sperimentale, basato sulla progettazione, l’esecuzione e la rielaborazione dei dati di svariate simulazioni di discarica in laboratorio. La discussione dei risultati ottenuti è stata propedeutica alla valutazione delle performance dei modelli concettuali testati così come al confronto con altri risultati ottenuti grazie a una approfondita ricerca bibliografica. Il lavoro originale svolto dallo studente può essere diviso in tre progetti principali.
Il reattore ibrido Semi-aerobico, Anaerobico, Aerato (S.An.A ®) è una concetto innovativo testato in scala di laboratorio con promettenti risultati per quanto concerne la stimolazione della produzione di metano e la riduzione delle emissioni di lungo termine.
Gli effetti del ricircolo del concentrato di percolato da osmosi inversa all’interno del corpo rifiuti di una discarica sono stati analizzati per verificare se possano esistere potenziali accumuli di contaminanti che rendano insostenibile tale pratica.
La procedura di Final Storage Quality (FSQ) per determinare la chiusura della fase di aftercare di una discarica è stata testata su un rifiuto sovra-stabilizzato di sui sono state calcolate emissioni totali e la speciazione chimica degli elementi principali.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina
Correlatore:Raga, Roberto
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 29 > Corsi 29 > SCIENZE DELL'INGEGNERIA CIVILE E AMBIENTALE
Data di deposito della tesi:30 Gennaio 2017
Anno di Pubblicazione:30 Gennaio 2017
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Sustainable Landfilling, Hybrid Bioreactor Landfill, Final Storage Quality, Landfill aeration, Methane Production, Landfill design, Biochemical Processes in Landfills
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 08 - Ingegneria civile e Architettura > ICAR/03 Ingegneria sanitaria-ambientale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale
Codice ID:10122
Depositato il:15 Nov 2017 10:22
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