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Boscolo, Valentina (2017) Caratteristiche del funzionamento cognitivo e psicologico di soggetti preadolescenti e adolescenti con infezione da HIV-1 da trasmissione verticale. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Background. New diagnoses of HIV infection in children, were accounted every year. In 2015, the new diagnoses in adolescents (15 to 17 years) were the 1.8% of all new diagnoses. The main cause of infection is vertical transmission, and in the 75% of cases occurs in individuals of foreign origin (ISS, 2016). The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, has passed the HIV infection from a life-threatening condition to a chronic disease. More and more children and adolescents became adults. The research may help to clarify important developmental aspects as cognitive and psychological functioning. Neurocognitive impairments (Nachman et al., 2012; Smith et al., 2006; Smith et al., 2012), behavioral and emotional problems, are described in a higher measure than the general population or other high-risk groups (Gadow et al., 2012; Mellins & Malee, 2013).
The main objective of the study is to describe the cognitive and psychological characteristics of HIV-1 infected preadolescents and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy. The specific objectives concern the deepening of the relationship with the social and family variables and medical variables. A cross-sectional study, compared also the psychosocial characteristics of adolescents HIV-infected with a group of adolescents treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
Methods. It have been assessed HIV-infected preadolescents and adolescents and their parents/caregivers. Each participant has been administered with the “Visualization and Reasoning Scale” of Leiter-R and with the Achenbach Youth Self Report Questionnaire. To each parents/caregivers has been asked to complete the Achenbach
CBCL Questionnaire. Social, family and clinical data have been collected. Data have been analyzed using STATA (version 12.0) software.
Results. Thirty patients were recruited. The subjects (mean age 14.4 years) are in 60.7% of cases of foreign origin and in 35.7% living in adoptive/foster families. All attending school and in 28.5% of cases they have repeated at least one school year. They are on antiretroviral therapy for a mean of 11.4 years. The 22.2% are in category C of the CDC
Classification, the viral load is suppressed in 85.7% of cases and the mean of CD4/mm cells count in the sample is 696, 35.
A significant proportion of patients (42.86%), have a score to cognitive assessment that ranks in the lower norm. The scores at the YSR and CBCL, do not exceeded the clinical cut-off (borderline T score > 60 Clinical T score > 64) for all symptomatic and syndromic scales. The Activities Scale score on YSR (M 36.74), approaches the
subclinical range (borderline T 31-35 clinical T score <31). Subclinical and clinical scores have been also recorded in the Internalizing Disorders Scale of CBCL (17.65% borderline - 35.29% clinical). The patients and parents/caregivers report a significant impairment in Activities (borderline and clinical scores in 48,05%) and Total Competence (68.9% patients - 50% parents/caregivers). Social Competence and Activities scores are significantly (p 0.01 p 0.01) lower in HIV-infected patients than in
adolescents HSCT survivors.
Conclusion. The preadolescents and adolescents HIV infected, shows vulnerability on cognitive functioning level and psychosocial impairment, described by internalizing symptoms and by poor social engage compared with the healthy peers but also compared with a group of adolescents with chronic disease.

Abstract (italiano)

Premessa. Ogni anno in Italia si registrano nuove diagnosi di infezione da HIV in età pediatrica. Nel 2015 le nuove diagnosi negli adolescenti (15-17 anni) hanno rappresentato il 1,8% di tutte le nuove diagnosi. La causa principale di infezione è la trasmissione verticale e nel 75% dei casi riguarda soggetti di origine straniera (ISS, 2016). L’introduzione della terapia antiretrovirale di combinazione ha transitato l’infezione da HIV dall’essere una patologia di rischio per la sopravvivenza ad una
patologia di tipo cronico. Sempre più bambini e adolescenti possono accedere all’età adulta. La ricerca può quindi aiutare a chiarire aspetti importanti dello sviluppo come il funzionamento cognitivo e psicologico. Prestazioni inferiori alla norma nei test neurocognitivi (Nachman et al., 2012; Smith et al., 2006; Smith et al., 2012), problemi comportamentali ed emotivi sono rilevati in misura superiore rispetto alla popolazione
generale o ad altri gruppi ad alto rischio (Gadow et al., 2012 Mellins & Malee, 2013).
Obiettivo principale dello studio è quello di descrivere le caratteristiche cognitive e psicologiche di preadolescenti e adolescenti HIV-1 positivi in terapia antiretrovirale.
Obiettivi specifici riguardano l’approfondimento della relazione con le variabili sociofamiliari e con le variabili mediche. È stato inoltre effettuato il confronto trasversale delle caratteristiche psicosociali con un gruppo di adolescenti sopravvissuti a trapianto di cellule staminali emopoietiche (HSCT).
Metodi. Sono stati testati i soggetti pediatrici preadolescenti e adolescenti e i loro genitori/caregivers. Ai partecipanti è stata somministrata la Scala Visualizzazione e Ragionamento della Leiter International Performance Scale - Revised ed è stato richiesto di completare il questionario di Achenbach (Youth Self Report - YSR). Ai genitori/caregivers è stato richiesto di completare il questionario di Achenbach (Children Behaviour Checklist - CBCL). Sono stati raccolti dati socio-anagrafici e
familiari e, dalle cartelle cliniche, i dati relativi allo stato infettivo. I dati sono stati elaborati con il programma STATA versione 12.0.
Risultati. Trenta soggetti sono stati arruolati. I soggetti (età media 14 anni e 4 mesi) sono nel 60,7% dei casi di origine straniera e il 35,7% vive in famiglie affidatarie o adottive. Tutti frequentano la scuola e il 28,5% ha ripetuto almeno un anno scolastico.
Assumono terapia antiretrovirale in media da 11,4 anni, il 22,2% rientra nella categoria C della classificazione CDC, la carica virale risulta soppressa nel 85,7% dei casi e in media la conta delle cellule CD4 /mm è di 696,35.
Una parte significativa di soggetti (42,86%) presenta un punteggio alla valutazione cognitiva che si colloca nella norma inferiore. La media dei punteggi allo YSR e alla CBCL non raggiunge il cut-off per la diagnosi psichiatrica (subclinico T score > 60 clinico T score > 64) e si colloca nella norma in tutte le scale sintomatiche e sindromiche. Allo YSR il punteggio medio (M 36,74) nella scala delle Attività si avvicina al range subclinico (subclinico T score 31-35 clinico T < 31). Punteggi subclinici e clinici si rilevano alla CBCL nella Scala dei Disturbi Internalizzanti (17.65% subclinico - 35.29% clinico). Emerge concordanza tra genitori e pazienti
rispetto alla compromissione significativa nelle Attività (punteggi subclinici e clinici nel 48,05%) e nelle Competenze Totali (68.9% pazienti - 50% genitori/caregivers). I punteggi nelle Attività e nelle Competenze Sociali sono significativamente (p 0.01 e p 0.01) più bassi nei soggetti HIV positivi rispetto agli adolescenti sopravvissuti al trapianto di cellule staminali emopoietiche (HSCT).
Conclusioni. I soggetti preadolescenti e adolescenti con infezione da HIV presentano una vulnerabilità sul piano cognitivo e disturbi psicologici di tipo internalizzante in misura superiore. alla norma. Presentano inoltre una compromissione significativa delle attività e delle relazioni sociali rispetto alla popolazione generale e nel nel confronto con un
altro gruppo di soggetti con patologia cronica.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Giaquinto, Carlo
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 27 > scuole 27 > MEDICINA DELLO SVILUPPO E SCIENZE DELLA PROGRAMMAZIONE > "EMATOONCOLOGIA, GENETICA, MALATTIE RARE E MEDICINA PREDITTIVA"
Data di deposito della tesi:29 Marzo 2017
Anno di Pubblicazione:2017
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):HIV - adoelscenza - Funzionamento cognitivo - carattaeristiche psicosociali - malattia cronica - terapia antiretrovirale HIV - adoelscence - cognitive functioning - psychosocial features - chronic disease - antiretroviral therapy
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/17 Malattie infettive
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Salute della Donna e del Bambino
Codice ID:10403
Depositato il:15 Nov 2017 10:03
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