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Verì, Silvia (2017) The Protection of Foreign Investment in Africa. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (english)

Foreign investment law has evolved rapidly and considerably in the last couple of decades, generating a large body of arbitral decisions and attracting the attention of many scholars. Several textbooks and studies have dealt with most of the legal issues related to the promotion and protection of foreign investment and investors. Host states' obligation to ensure full protection and security in the field of foreign investment, on the contrary, has not been properly considered yet. Thus, the dissertation's purpose is to fill in this gap with a specific focus on the African continent.
A first introductory part has included a historical presentation of the origins of the so called "African specificity". This concept tries to underline how historical events (above all colonisation and the issues related to decolonisation and the post-colonial phase) have influenced investment flows in Africa, the guarantees and protection allowed by host states to foreign investors, and the obligations of those countries.
The research has contributed to define and analyse the obligations regarding the full security and protection owed to foreign investments and investors under bilateral and regional treaties, customary international law, domestic legislation and international contract. The research has carefully considered not only the sources of these obligations, but also state practice and relevant international decisions. This part of the dissertation has followed a pragmatic approach, since it has been fundamental to observe how, in reality, investors and investments are protected and what level of protection they can reasonably expect from host states.
The research has dealt with the questions of attribution to host states of acts threatening or affecting the security of foreign investment or foreign investors. From this perspective, the rules on attribution codified by the International Law Commission have provided the normative framework for the determination of state responsibility for internationally wrongful acts and their consequences. A fundamental part of the analysis has concerned the examination of the settlement of claims related to alleged breaches of the obligations to ensure security and full protection from the perspective of both State-investor and State-State disputes.
The study of African states' obligation to grant protection and security to foreign investment would have been incomplete without the analysis of the circumstances precluding wrongfulness more frequently invoked by states in order to avoid responsibility for alleged violations of the full protection and security standard. The purpose has been to consider in which circumstances specific defences are more likely to be invoked by African countries and whether they tend to be accepted by arbitral tribunals. This is a particularly urgent task, since the recent increasing practice of countries of relying on certain defences is the result of their attempt of finding newer ways to obstacle the deployment and the execution of foreign investment in their territories.

Abstract (italian)

Nel corso dell'ultimo ventennio, il diritto internazionale degli investimenti ha subito un'evoluzione rapida e considerevole, generando un ampio corpus di decisioni arbitrali e attirando l'attenzione della dottrina. Vi sono stati diversi studi dedicati alle questioni giuridiche riguardanti la promozione e protezione degli investitori e degli investimenti esteri. Al contrario, l'obbligo degli stati ospitanti di assicurare piena protezione e sicurezza a tali investimenti non è ancora stato propriamente considerato. L'obiettivo della presente tesi è stato quello di affrontare tale lacuna con particolare attenzione al continente africano.
Una prima parte introduttiva ha incluso una presentazione storica delle origini della cosiddetta "specificità africana". Questo concetto cerca di evidenziare come alcuni eventi storici (principalmente, la colonizzazione, la decolonizzazione e la fase postcoloniale) abbiano influenzato i flussi d'investimento in Africa, le garanzie e la protezione garantite dagli stati ospitanti agli investitori esteri, nonché gli obblighi di questi stati.
Questa ricerca ha contribuito a definire e analizzare gli obblighi relativi alla piena protezione e sicurezza garantita agli investitori esteri e ai loro investimenti dai trattati internazionale e regionali, dalla consuetudine internazionale, dalle legislazioni nazionali e dai contratti internazionali. La ricerca ha considerato, non solo le fonti di tali obblighi, ma anche la prassi degli stati e le decisioni internazionali rilevanti. In questa parte della tesi è stato seguito un approccio pragmatico, essendo fondamentale accertare come gli investimenti e investitori esteri vengano realmente protetti e quale livello di protezione possono ragionevolmente attendersi dagli stati ospitanti.
Il presente studio ha altresì affrontato la questione dell'attribuzione agli stati ospitanti degli atti che hanno minacciato e pregiudicato la sicurezza degli investimenti o degli investitori esteri. Da tale prospettiva, le regole sull'attribuzione codificate dalla Commissione per il diritto internazionale hanno costituito il quadro normativo di riferimento per determinare la responsabilità degli stati per atti internazionalmente illeciti e le loro conseguenze. Una parte fondamentale dello studio ha riguardato l'analisi della soluzione di controversie concernenti presunte violazioni degli obblighi di assicurare piena protezione e sicurezza, esaminandole dalla prospettiva delle controversie fra stati-investitori e fra stati.
L'analisi dell'obbligo degli stati africani di garantire protezione e sicurezza agli investimenti esteri sarebbe stata incompleta senza considerare le circostanze precludenti l'illiceità che sono più frequentemente invocate dagli stati per evitare l'attribuzione della responsabilità in merito alle presunte violazioni dello standard di piena protezione e sicurezza. L'obiettivo è stato quello di esaminare in quali circostanze è maggiormente prevedibile l’opposizione di specifiche difese da parte dei paesi africani e se i tribunali arbitrali siano orientati ad accettarle. Si tratta di una tematica di particolare rilievo, dal momento che l'accresciuta recente prassi degli stati di utilizzare tali difese corrisponde anche al tentativo di individuare nuovi mezzi che consentano di ostacolare l'allocazione e l'esecuzione degli investimenti esteri nei loro territori.

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EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Pietrobon , Alessandra and Werner , Wouter
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > DIRITTO INTERNAZIONALE E DIRITTO PRIVATO E DEL LAVORO
Data di deposito della tesi:19 July 2017
Anno di Pubblicazione:17 July 2017
Key Words:foreign investment, Africa, full protection and security standard, protection, investimenti esteri, Africa, standard di piena protezione e sicurezza, protezione.
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 12 - Scienze giuridiche > IUS/13 Diritto internazionale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Scienze Politiche, Giuridiche e Studi Internazionali
Codice ID:10443
Depositato il:25 Oct 2018 16:02
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