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Marino, Massimiliano (2017) Promozione di comportamenti prosociali e competenze trasversali attraverso l'educazione fisica. Sviluppo e valutazione di una risorsa didattica per insegnanti. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

School, as the main institution in terms of citizens education, is required to provide people with both theoretical knowledge and practical skills (how to live in the world). However, school community has to face an extremely complex and changing educational phase in which young people have to cope with a situation of great vulnerability, which often leads to antisocial behaviours, e.g. lack of interest, violent and destructive behaviours, drugs abuse, isolation, rejection of personal responsibilities and disconnection from educational services. School is therefore entrusted with an important educational task, as it is the place where prosocial behaviours are promoted and transversal competences are learnt, i.e. the competences which are not related to specific subjects and are necessary for people's personal development, active citizenship, social involvement and employment.
The problem of antisocial behaviours, together with the commitment in the promotion of prosocial behaviours among school-age children, are nowadays topics of great interest for research. The analysis of literature regarding the study of the causes of prosocial and antisocial behaviours leads to focus on two crucial factors: empathy and caring climate. Most of researchers agree to say that empathy plays a key role in encouraging prosocial behaviours and curbing the antisocial ones, and also that both depend on the development and enhancement of people’s emphatic skills. In the same way, there is important evidence showing that the quality of relationships among people living at school has an important influence on antisocial and prosocial behaviours. This relationships system constitutes the school or class climate, the quality of which determines the sense of an atmosphere oriented towards people caring. Empathy and caring climate are supposed to be bound because, when someone has caring behaviours towards another person, a certain receptiveness is shown and people's needs are met.
An interesting study and policy area, where empathy, positive relationships and prosocial behaviours are promoted, is Physical Education (PE), which is the most suitable context, both because of the possibility of creating plenty of relationship opportunities and because of a body-based communication. There are numerous studies emphasizing significant changes in empathy, caring climate and prosocial or antisocial behaviours thanks to specific PE programs. Moreover, numerous PE-based policies and response actions against antisocial behaviours are spreading internationally. One of the most noteworthy projects has been promoted recently by a partnership of international Agencies, such as WADA, UNESO and IOC, and has been developed by a group of European Universities belonging to the Association Internationale des Ecoles Superieures d'Education Physique (AIESEP), and has been coordinated by the University of Padua. The project provides the development of a toolkit to support teachers in promoting educational aspects such as fairness, equity, respect and inclusion through PE.

This research includes the preparation and experimentation of an instructional design based on the above-mentioned Toolkit, the construction of which has been an integral part of the research project. The instructional design and, by extension, the Toolkit, are based on some effectiveness features highlighted in literature, which are mainly represented by a play-based learning and by the use of active learning strategies. The experimental phase of the research was conducted at a middle school in the province of Verona, involving 87 pupils from four second-year classes, divided into two experimental classes and two control classes. The experimental groups participated in a cycle of 11 workshops, taking place once or twice a week. The experimentation had three aims: (a) looking into the effectiveness and the impact of the intervention on empathy, caring climate and prosocial behaviours and on the construction of an equity concept related to the development of transversal competences; (b) analysing the validity and effectiveness of the instructional design based on the Toolkit; (c) assessing the methods, procedures and instrument which characterize this pilot projects, in order to support and improve the following research steps. The data were collected at baseline (T0), post-intervention (T1) and follow-up, and analysed combining a quantitative and qualitative approach. An intervention fidelity measuring instrument was also used.
Analyses reveal a close connection between empathy, prosocial behaviours and sense of caring climate, although with a significant difference in gender considering the three measurement phases. Significant positive effects were highlighted regarding the intervention on empathy and prosocial behaviours, mainly in boys from the experimental groups. There was also a significant decrease in the prosocial behaviour assessment gap between pupils and teachers.

By means of quantitative analyses, T1 shows a more complex and developed equity concept, closer to the definition of equity itself, compared to T0. The emerged codes and topics serve to identify the presence of critical thinking, argumentative, transfer and generalizing skills, and also to detect an increasing awareness of personal responsibility within a context of equity, in terms of respecting people's needs and feeling. The improvement in critical and reasoning skills seem to be connected to the changes in empathy, prosocial behaviour and caring climate, which has a weaker influence in an experimental group compared to control groups in T1. Validity and effectiveness analyses show numerous strong and weak points of the project: on one hand, it is viewed positively because of its flexibility and cross-curricularity, on the other hand, it was noticed that teachers have to be trained in order to work using active learning strategies.

Finally, the project is becoming increasingly important in the advancement of research, as it aims at filling a relevant gap, which is highlighted in literature, and regards a generalized lack of validity and effects assessment in projects designed to develop educational aspects through PE and school sports.

Abstract (italiano)

La scuola, come prima responsabile dell'educazione dei cittadini, è oggi investita da una domanda che comprende, insieme, l'apprendimento e il saper stare al mondo. Tuttavia, la comunita'  scolastica si trova ad affrontare un paesaggio educativo estremamente complesso e mutevole di fronte al quale i giovani si trovano in una situazione di alta vulnerabilità che spesso sfocia in comportamenti antisociali: disinteresse, comportamenti violenti, abusi di sostanze, emarginazione, rifiuto di responsabilità personale e allontanamento dai servizi educativi. Alla scuola viene pertanto affidato un importante mandato educativo in quanto luogo per la promozione di comportamenti prosociali e l'apprendimento di quelle competenze trasversali, non direttamente riconducibili a specifici settori disciplinari, necessarie per la realizzazione e lo sviluppo personale, la cittadinanza attiva, l'inclusione sociale e l'occupazione.
La problematica rappresentata dai comportamenti antisociali, insieme all'impegno nella promozione di comportamenti prosociali in eta' scolare, costituiscono oggi un prominente interesse di ricerca. L'analisi della letteratura riguardante lo studio delle determinanti dei comportamenti prosociali e antisociali porta ad individuare due elementi di rilevante importanza: la dimensione dell'empatia e la percezione di un clima di cura e benessere. E' largamente confermata l'ipotesi che l'empatia giochi un ruolo chiave nella messa in atto di comportamenti prosociali e nell'inibizione di quelli antisociali e che entrambi i comportamenti dipendano, a loro volta, dallo sviluppo e dal potenziamento delle capacita'  empatiche degli individui. Allo stesso modo, vi sono importanti evidenze che la qualita'  delle relazioni che intercorrono fra le persone che abitano la scuola influenzi in modo importante il manifestarsi di comportamenti antisociali e prosociali. Questo sistema di relazioni costituisce il clima scolastico, o di classe, la cui qualita'  determina la percezione di un clima orientato verso la cura e il benessere degli individui. La dimensione dell'empatia e la percezione del clima sembrano essere tra loro legate poiché, nel momento in cui si manifestano comportamenti di cura verso l'altro, viene dimostrata ricettivita'  ed accoglienza dei suoi bisogni.
Un'interessante area di studio e di intervento per la promozione di empatia, relazioni positive e comportamenti prosociali e' rappresentata dall'educazione fisica (EF) in quanto contesto privilegiato, sia per il gran numero di opportunita'  relazionali che si possono attivare, sia per il coinvolgimento della dimensione corporea che veicola la comunicazione. Sono numerosi gli studi che hanno evidenziato significativi cambiamenti nell'empatia, nel clima di cura e nei comportamenti prosociali e antisociali attraverso specifici programmi di EF. A livello internazionale, inoltre, si stanno diffondendo numerose politiche ed azioni di intervento che utilizzano l'EF per contrastare la diffusione di comportamenti antisociali. Uno dei progetti di particolare rilievo e' stato recentemente promosso da una partnership di Agenzie internazionali, fra cui la WADA, l'UNESO e l'IOC, e sviluppato da un gruppo di università europee facenti parte dell'Association Internationale des coles Supèrieures d'Education Physique (AIESEP) e coordinato dall'Università di Padova. Il progetto prevedeva lo sviluppo di uno strumento (Toolkit) che supportasse gli insegnanti nella promozione di aspetti educativi legati alle dimensioni di fairness, equita' , rispetto ed inclusione attraverso l'EF.
La presente ricerca comprende la preparazione e la sperimentazione di una progettazione didattica formulata sulla base del sopracitato Toolkit, la cui costruzione e' stata parte integrante del progetto di ricerca. La progettazione didattica e, per estensione, il Toolkit si basano su alcune caratteristiche di efficacia evidenziate in letteratura, che sono principalmente rappresentate da un approccio ludico all'apprendimento e dall'utilizzo di strategie di apprendimento attivo. La fase sperimentale della ricerca è stata condotta in una scuola secondaria di primo grado della provincia di Verona coinvolgendo 87 studenti di quattro classi seconde suddivise, a loro volta, in due classi sperimentali e due di controllo. Le classi sperimentali hanno partecipato ad un ciclo di 11 lezioni, con una frequenza di 1/2 incontri a settimana. La sperimentazione ha assunto il triplice scopo di: (a) indagare l'efficacia e l'impatto dell'intervento sull'empatia, sul clima di cura e benessere percepito, sui comportamenti prosociali e sulla costruzione del concetto di equita'  in relazione allo sviluppo di competenze trasversali; (b) analizzare la validita'  e la fattibilità della progettazione didattica attuata a partire dal Toolkit di riferimento; (c) valutare l'idoneita'  delle metodologie, delle procedure e degli strumenti caratterizzanti questo progetto pilota per supportare e migliorare i successivi passi di ricerca. I dati sono stati raccolti alla baseline (T0), al post-intervento (T1) e al follow-up (T2) ed analizzati utilizzando un approccio misto quantitativo-qualitativo. E' stato inoltre utilizzato uno strumento per la misurazione della fedelta'  dell'intervento.
Dalle analisi e' emersa una stretta relazione fra l'empatia, i comportamenti prosociali e la percezione del clima di cura, evidenziando tuttavia una rilevante differenza di genere nei tre tempi di misurazione. Si sono evidenziati significativi effetti positivi dell'intervento sull'empatia e sui comportamenti prosociali, principalmente nei maschi delle classi sperimentali. Viene inoltre rilevata una significativa diminuzione della discrepanza di valutazione del comportamento prosociale fra allievi e insegnanti.
Attraverso le analisi qualitative, emerge al T1 un concetto di equita'  maggiormente articolato e complesso rispetto al T0 e maggiormente aderente alla definizione stessa di equita' . I codici e i temi emersi consentono di identificare la presenza di capacita'  critiche, argomentative, di transfer e di generalizzazione, nonche' di rilevare una maggior consapevolezza della responsabilità personale nel rendere un contesto equo, rispettando bisogni ed emozioni altrui. Il miglioramento delle capacita'  critico-flessive sembra collegato ai cambiamenti rilevati nell'empatia, nel comportamento prosociale e nella percezione del clima di cura che, per una classe sperimentale, risulta minore rispetto alle classi controllo al T1. Le analisi di validita'  e fattibilita'  rilevano diversi punti di forza e criticita'  del progetto: se da una parte e' valutato positivamente per la sua flessibilità e cross-curricolarita' , dall'altra viene riconosciuta la necessità di formare il docente che vuole operare con metodologie di apprendimento attivo.
Il progetto assume infine un'importanza strategica nell'avanzamento della ricerca poiche' tenta di colmare un rilevante gap, evidenziato in letteratura, che riguarda la diffusa mancanza di valutazione degli effetti e della validita'  dei progetti finalizzati allo sviluppo di aspetti educativi attraverso l'EF e lo sport scolastico.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Carraro, Attilio
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 29 > Corsi 29 > SCIENZE PEDAGOGICHE, DELL'EDUCAZIONE E DELLA FORMAZIONE
Data di deposito della tesi:02 Agosto 2017
Anno di Pubblicazione:Luglio 2017
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Competenze trasversali Comportamenti antisociali Values-based education Educazione fisica
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-EDF/01 Metodi e didattiche delle attività motorie
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Filosofia, Sociologia, Pedagogia e Psicologia Applicata
Codice ID:10502
Depositato il:31 Ott 2018 09:57
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