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Bettineschi, Cinzia (2018) Archaeometric study of Egyptian vitreous materials from Tebtynis: integration of analytical and archaeological data. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (english)

While substantial works were carried out on the analytical characterization of the glasses of the Late Bronze Age and the Roman period, Ptolemaic glass is still far from understood. The present research aims at contributing to fill this gap thanks to a multidisciplinary approach focused on the workshop of Tebtynis (Fayum oasis, Egypt), which was excavated by Carlo Anti in the early 1930s.
This project offers a critical interpretation of Anti’s archival documents, in association with the functional and archaeometric investigation of the artifacts which were found in the workshop and that are now preserved at the Egyptian Museum of Turin (Italy). The objects comprise both tools (such as molds, trays, weights) and finished, semi-finished and waste fragments of glass, mainly related to the production of monochrome and polychrome inlays used for the decoration of the liturgical furniture.
After a preliminary study of the whole collection (more than 800 fragments > 2mm), a representative selection of 70 objects comprising 144 different types of glass was sampled for in-depth archaeometric investigations.
The research required the combined use of a wide range of analytical techniques and methods for data processing: stereoscopic and optical microscopy (SM and OM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive system (SEM-EDS), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA), micro-Raman spectroscopy (µ-Raman), multi-focal imaging (MFI), object-based image analysis (OBIA) and principal component analysis (PCA).
The results help to shed new light on Ptolemaic glass-working, constituting the biggest, coherent dataset of this phase analyzed to date. In particular, it was possible to reconstruct the technologies employed for the production of the different classes of glass inlays, investigating the chaîne opératoire and the production markers, also from a micro-textural point of view. A specific interest was also devoted to the identification of the coloring processes and to the characterization of the raw materials, in terms of provenance of the sand source and type of the fluxing agent.
The type and quantity of the unreacted relics of the batch, and especially the heavy mineral fraction, suggest an Egyptian production of the base glass, which is well suited for a traditional craft such as that of glass inlays. Moreover, the analytical data show that the Tebtynis collection is mainly constituted by Low Magnesium Glasses (LMG), in accordance with the classic recipes of the Graeco-Roman glass. A small amount of High Magnesium Glasses (HMG) was also found, especially (but not exclusively) connected with the dull red samples, together with intermediate compositions which were interpreted as natron-based glasses modified during the coloring processes. Soda-lime-lead and leaded glasses are present in all color classes, but the highest PbO levels are always associated to sealing-wax red, yellowish-orange and yellow samples.
Ionic coloring agents are Cu2+ for light blue and turquoise glasses, Co2+ (sometimes associated to Cu2+) for dark blue glasses, Fe2+ mixed with Fe3+ for transparent green and aqua glasses. The dataset comprises both Mn-decolored and Sb-decolored glasses.
The main opacifiers identified in the white, blue, green and yellow glasses are Ca- Na- and Pb-antimoniates, sometimes in solid solution. Both in situ and ex situ technologies were identified, with frequent (but not systematic) associations to specific color-classes. Opaque red glasses were either obtained with nano-sized metallic copper drops (Cu0) or synthetic cuprite (Cu2O). Nano-crystals of cuprous oxide are also responsible for the opaque brown and yellowish-orange colors.
A comparison with the analyses performed on the earlier, coeval and later glasses published in the literature showed that the basic recipes and the technological choices for glass-coloring employed during the Ptolemaic period share important links with the Roman production, but also highlighted the great deal of experimentation which is typical of transitional phases.

Abstract (italian)

Nonostante un gran numero di lavori abbiano riguardato la caratterizzazione analitica di vetri datati alla tarda età del Bronzo e all’epoca Romana, il vetro Tolemaico è ancora poco noto. La ricerca qui presentata intende contribuire a colmare questo vuoto, grazie allo studio multidisciplinare dell’officina di Tebtynis (oasi del Fayum, Egitto), che è stata rinvenuta da Carlo Anti nei primi anni trenta del ‘900.
Questo lavoro offre innanzitutto una revisione critica della documentazione d’archivio, indagata in associazione con lo studio funzionale e archeomentrico dei reperti rinvenuti all’interno dell’officina, che sono ora in gran parte conservati presso il Museo Egizio di Torino (Italia). Gli oggetti indagati comprendono attrezzi (come stampi, vassoi, pesi) e una nutrita serie di prodotti finiti, semi-finiti e scarti in vetro, essenzialmente legati alla produzione di intarsi monocromi e policromi usati per la decorazione del mobilio liturgico.
Dopo un primo censimento e studio dell’intera collezione (oltre 800 frammenti > 2mm), è stato selezionato un campione rappresentativo costituito da 70 reperti comprendenti 144 diversi tipi di vetro, che sono stati scelti per essere sottoposti a ulteriori approfondimenti analitici.
La ricerca ha richiesto l’impiego combinato di una vasta gamma di strumentazioni analitiche e di metodi per il processamento dei dati: microscopio stereoscopico e ottico (SM e OM), microscopio confocale laser a scansione (CLSM), microscopio elettronico a scansione accoppiato a microsonda a dispersione di energia (SEM-EDS), microsonda elettronica (EPMA), spettroscopia micro-Raman (µ-Raman), imaging multi-focale (MFI), analisi d’immagine object-based (OBIA) e analisi delle componenti principali (PCA).
I risultati contribuiscono a gettare nuova luce sulla lavorazione del vetro in epoca Tolemaica e costituiscono il più numeroso set di dati di questa fase analizzato fino ad oggi. In particolare, è stato possibile ricostruire le tecnologie impiegate per le diverse classi di intarsi in vetro, analizzando la chaîne opératoire e gli indicatori di lavorazione, anche da un punto di vista micro-tessiturale. Un approfondimento specifico è stato poi dedicato alla comprensione dei processi di colorazione e alla caratterizzazione delle materie prime, in termini di provenienza delle sabbie e di tipologia di fondenti impiegati.
Il tipo e la quantità di residui minerali derivanti dalle sabbie usate per la miscela vetrificabile, e in particolare i minerali pesanti, suggeriscono una produzione Egiziana del vetro base, che ben si accorda con un artigianato di antica tradizione locale come quello degli intarsi in vetro. Inoltre, i dati analitici mostrano che i reperti da Tebtynis sono perlopiù costituiti vetri LMG (Low Magnesium Glasses), in accordo con le ricette classicamente associate al vetro Romano. Sono stati, inoltre, identificati un piccolo nucleo di vetri HMG (High Magnesium Glasses), principalmente composto da vetri di colore rosso scuro (ma non solo), e altre composizioni intermedie, che sono state interpretate come vetri al natron la cui ricetta è stata modificata durante i processi di colorazione. Vetri sodico-calcico-piombici e piombici sono presenti in tutti i colori, ma i maggiori tenori di PbO sono sempre associati ai vetri rossi, giallo-arancioni e gialli.
Tra i coloranti ionici si segnalano l’impiego di Cu2+ nei vetri azzurri e turchesi, Co2+ (talvolta associato a Cu2+) per i campioni blu scuro, un mix di Fe2+ e Fe3+ nei vetri verdi trasparenti e in quelli non intenzionalmente colorati. Sono inoltre presenti sia campioni decolorati con manganese che con antimonio. I principali opacizzanti nei vetri bianchi, blu, verdi e gialli sono gli antimoniati di calcio, sodio e piombo. Sono testimoniate sia la precipitazione in situ che l’aggiunta ex situ degli opacizzanti, spesso (ma non sempre) ciascuna associata a specifiche classi cromatiche. Il colore rosso opaco è dovuto alla presenza di gocce nanometriche di rame metallico (Cu0) oppure di dendriti di cuprite. Nano-cristalli di Cu2O sono anche responsabili del colore e dell’opacità nei campioni giallo-arancioni e in quello marrone.
La comparazione dei risultati ottenuti con le analisi da letteratura relative a campioni più antichi, coevi e successivi ha dimostrato che le ricette del vetro base e le tecnologie di colorazione impiegate durante il periodo Tolemaico condividono importanti similitudini con la produzione romana, ma ha anche evidenziato una massiccia propensione alla sperimentazione, che è tipica delle fasi di transizione.

EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Molin, Gianmario
Supervisor:Angelini, Ivana and Zanovello, Paola
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 30 > Corsi 30 > STORIA, CRITICA E CONSERVAZIONE DEI BENI CULTURALI
Data di deposito della tesi:25 December 2017
Anno di Pubblicazione:15 January 2018
Key Words:Egitto; epoca Tolemaica; lavorazione del vetro; officina di Tebtynis; produzione di intarsi; archeometria; archeologia / Egypt; Ptolemaic period; glass-working; Tebtynis workshop; inlay production; archaeometry; archaeology
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 10 - Scienze dell'antichità, filologico-letterarie e storico-artistiche > L-ANT/10 Metodologie della ricerca archeologica
Area 04 - Scienze della terra > GEO/09 Georisorse minerarie e applicazioni mineralogico- petrografiche per l'ambiente ed i beni culturali
Area 10 - Scienze dell'antichità, filologico-letterarie e storico-artistiche > L-OR/02 Egittologia e civiltà copta
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Beni Culturali: archeologia, storia dell'arte, del cinema e della musica
Codice ID:10544
Depositato il:09 Nov 2018 09:35
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