Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Gramazio, Sarah (2018) From human beings to sexual objects: effects of sexualised portrayals of women (and men). [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

PDF Document

Abstract (english)

Sexual objectification is perpetrated whenever someone is reduced to a thing, thus seen and treated like a sexual object. The body or body parts are separated out from the identity and used for pleasure and consumption of others (Bartky, 1990; Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). According to the literature, when people become objects or instruments for others’ appreciation they can be denied their humanity, inner mental life, and moral standing (e.g., Heflick, Goldenberg, Cooper, & Puvia, 2011; Loughnan, Haslam, Murnane, Vaes, Reynolds, & Suitner, 2010; Vaes, Paladino, & Puvia, 2011). Moreover, previous objectification research suggests that experiences of sexual objectification are translated into problems that undermine psychological well-being, such as increased body shame, appearance anxiety, depression, eating and sexual disorders (Moradi & Huang, 2008). From the perspective of objectification theory, the most insidious way in which objectifying gaze infuses Western culture is through visual media (e.g., magazines, advertisements, television, music video, movies). On a daily basis, we are constantly surrounded by sexually objectified images. Examples are advertising in which male and female bodies are denuded to attract and sell products (Zotos & Tsichla, 2014) and visual media delivering sexual harassment or rape news, in which victims are often portrayed in a sexualised manner (Zanardo, 2010). Given the scarcity of specific research and the serious repercussions of sexual objectification on people’s well-being, the present work sought to expand the objectification theoretical framework by empirically testing the causal role of sexual objectification in the under-investigated areas of sexual harassment and advertising. First, in Chapter 1 we provide a brief overview of previous research grounded in the objectification theoretical framework.
In Chapter 2, we present our first set of studies with the general aim to merge sexual objectification and sexual harassment research areas. Our work starts by noticing that these two areas are developed mostly independently to each other. Indeed, although extensive research has investigated the negative consequences of sexual objectification, surprisingly far less research has examined the consequences of sexual objectification in the context of sexual harassment. Specifically, we aimed to examine the effects of victims’ sexualised appearance on bystanders’ reactions to an episode of workplace sexual harassment. Our findings generally support the idea that sexualisation lead to biased perception, providing evidence that sexualised victims (i.e., wearing sexy clothes) are perceived as more immoral and blameful for being sexually harassed than non sexualised victims (i.e., wearing jeans and sweater). More important, we provide novel evidence that these biased perceptions in turn reduce bystanders’ willingness to offer support and help to the sexualised victims of sexual harassment. In addition, we show that endorsement of traditional masculine norms (i.e., ambivalent sexism toward women and non-relational attitudes toward sexuality) further enhanced biased perception of the sexualised than non-sexualised victims.
In Chapter 3, we present a set of six studies that have systematically examined how both men and women react to sexually objectifying advertising. The underlying premise governing the use of sexualized images in advertisement is that “sex sells”. Indeed, although it has been shown that advertising acts as catalyst for a multitude of problematic behaviours (e.g., Groesz, Levine, & Murnen, 2002), sex in advertising has long been used to sell just about everything. Surprisingly, even though brand attitudes and purchasing intention are the two crucial antecedents to purchasing behaviour (Shimp & Gresham, 1983), very little research has empirically investigated these antecedents to test whether sex actually works. Therefore, we investigated both female and male participants’ product attractiveness and purchasing intentions after exposure to female or male sexually objectified (versus neutral) ads. Importantly, the overall pattern of results contradicts current sexualising marketing strategies: women negatively reacted to both female and male sexually objectifying ads showing higher negative emotions, that in turn disinclined them to purchase the sexualised product; surprisingly, men were indifferent and did not show any significant increment either on product attractiveness or purchasing intention after exposure to female sexually objectifying than neutral ads. More importantly, our findings suggest that advertising may create an environment that implicitly primes viewers to appraise negatively a sexualised target. For example, sexually objectified ads primed male beliefs that women enjoy being sexualised, and also led to higher benevolent sexism compared to men exposed to neutral ads. Other results showed the effects that exposure to specific female sexualised images may have on the dehumanisation of the whole women category. Importantly, we showed that exposure to female sexually objectified ads increases women body surveillance (i.e., self-objectification) and their internalisation of beauty standards. Thus our findings support the notion that exposure to female sexually objectifying ads not only has negative consequences on how people (specifically men) view women, but also on how women view themselves (i.e., thinking that their look matters). Lastly, both men and women who endorsed traditional beliefs on gender relationships (i.e., men are sex-driven and have trouble being faithful) and men higher in hostile sexism showed higher purchasing intention after viewing sexually objectified than neutral ads. Overall, our findings extend previous research by empirically demonstrating the vicious cycle of sexual objectification.
Finally, in Chapter 4 we discuss the implications of the present findings within the objectification theoretical framework and suggest future directions. Our first set of findings suggest that the appraisal of sexual harassment incidents as the result of sexualised women’s appearance, which is also associated with traditional norms on gender roles, may have serious consequences. First of all, this perception may be dangerous for the victims because it decreases significantly the actual probability of receiving support. Furthermore, the present findings are worrisome at the societal level considering the widespread manifestation of both sexualisation and sexual harassment on a daily basis, especially in the workplace (e.g., Page & Pina, 2015). Furthermore, in the second set of studies, our findings show the paradox of sexual objectification in advertising: not only it has negative outcomes for women, but it is also questionable regarding the main purpose of advertising, that is selling products. These findings should be a stimulus to reflect on alternative marketing strategies, possibly more effective and less harmful than using sexually objectifying images.

Abstract (italian)

L’oggetivazione sessuale si presenta tutte le volte in cui una persona è pensata e trattata come un oggetto, strumento, merce che serve scopi specifici dell’osservatore. Le parti del corpo o le sue funzioni sessuali sono separate dal resto della persona, ridotte allo status di mero strumento utile per l’uso e il piacere sessuale altrui (Bartky, 1990; Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). In accordo con la letteratura, quando le persone diventano oggetti o strumenti per il raggiungimento di fini altrui, vengono percepite come meno umane, meno competenti e meno morali (e.g., Heflick, Goldenberg, Cooper, & Puvia, 2011; Loughnan, Haslam, Murnane, Vaes, Reynolds, & Suitner, 2010; Vaes, Paladino, & Puvia, 2011). Inoltre, secondo il modello teorico dell’oggettivazione, le esperienze di oggettivazione sessuale si traducono in problemi che minano il benessere psicologico (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). In accordo, precedenti studi dimostrano come esperienze sessualmente oggettivanti siano collegate a maggiore vergogna per il proprio corpo, all’ansia legata all’apparenza e all’insorgenza di depressione, disordini alimentari e sessuali (Moradi & Huang, 2008). Dal punto di vista della teoria dell'oggettivazione, il modo più insidioso in cui lo sguardo oggettivante infonde la cultura occidentale è attraverso i mass media (e.g., riviste, pubblicità, televisione, video musicali, film). Di fatto, ogni giorno, siamo costantemente circondati da immagini sessualmente oggettivate, per esempio, nella pubblicità in cui corpi maschili e femminili sono denudati per attirare e vendere prodotti (Zotos & Tsichla, 2014) oppure nei media che riportano notizie di molestie sessuali o stupri, in cui le vittime sono spesso ritratte in modo sessualizzato (Zanardo, 2010). Pertanto, il presente lavoro si propone di ampliare il quadro teorico dell’oggettivazione, analizzando empiricamente il ruolo causale dell'oggettivazione sessuale sia nel contesto della pubblicità sia in quello delle molestie sessuali. In primo luogo, nel primo capitolo è fornita una breve rassegna delle ricerche precedenti che hanno indagato il processo di oggettivazione sessuale.
Nel secondo capitolo, sono presentati due studi che avevano come obiettivo generale quello di unire empiricamente l’area di ricerca dell'oggettivazione sessuale e quella delle molestie sessuali. Il nostro lavoro è iniziato notando che le due aree si sono sviluppate per lo più in modo indipendente l’una dall’altra. Infatti, sebbene in letteratura siano presenti numerose ricerche che hanno indagato le conseguenze negative dell'oggettivazione sessuale, molto meno numerose sono le ricerche che ne hanno indagato le conseguenze nel contesto della molestia sessuale. In particolare, abbiamo esaminato come l’aspetto sessualizzato della vittima possa influenzare le reazioni di potenziali testimoni a episodi di molestie sessuali in ambito lavorativo. I due studi hanno fornito forti evidenze a sostegno dell'idea che la sessualizzazione causa percezioni distorte, mostrando che la vittima sessualizzata (i.e., fotografata con abiti succinti) è percepita come più immorale e colpevole per essere stata sessualmente molestata rispetto alla vittima non sessualizzata (i.e., fotografata con jeans e maglione). Inoltre, i risultati hanno dimostrato, per la prima volta, che queste percezioni distorte riducono a loro volta la disponibilità dei testimoni a offrire il proprio aiuto e sostegno alla vittima sessualizzata (rispetto alla vittima non-sessualizzata). Successivamente, abbiamo dimostrato che l'approvazione di norme tradizionali maschili (i.e., sessismo ambivalente nei confronti delle donne e atteggiamenti non relazionali verso la sessualità) ha ulteriormente rafforzato la percezione distorta della vittima sessualizzata rispetto a quella non sessualizzata.
Nel terzo capitolo, è presentata una serie di sei studi che hanno sistematicamente esaminato come uomini e donne reagiscono alla pubblicità sessualmente oggettivata. La premessa sottostante all'uso di immagini sessualizzate in pubblicità è che "il sesso vende". Infatti, benché sia stato dimostrato che la pubblicità sessualizzata agisce come catalizzatore di una moltitudine di comportamenti problematici (e.g., Groesz, Levine, & Murnen, 2002), il sesso è da tempo utilizzato nella pubblicità per vendere qualsiasi tipo di prodotto. Nonostante sia stato dimostrato che gli atteggiamenti verso il prodotto e l'intenzione di acquisto siano i due antecedenti cruciali del comportamento d’acquisto (Shimp & Gresham, 1983), un numero sorprendentemente esiguo di ricerche li ha analizzati empiricamente per testare se il sesso effettivamente vende. Pertanto, nei nostri studi, abbiamo esaminato sia l'attrattiva del prodotto sia l'intenzione di acquisto manifestate dai partecipanti (uomini e donne) dopo l'esposizione a pubblicità sessualmente oggettivate (sia maschili sia femminili) oppure neutre. Nel complesso, è interessante notare che i risultati ottenuti contraddicono le attuali strategie di marketing focalizzate sulla sessualizzazione. Infatti, le donne hanno reagito negativamente alle pubblicità sessualmente oggettivanti (indipendentemente dal genere del target), mostrando maggiori emozioni negative che, a loro volta, hanno diminuito le loro intenzioni di acquisto rispetto alle pubblicità neutre. Inaspettatamente, gli uomini si sono mostrati indifferenti, vale a dire che dopo l'esposizione a pubblicità femminili sessualmente oggettivate (anziché neutre) non hanno manifestato alcun incremento significativo né sull'attrazione verso il prodotto né sull'intenzione di acquisto. Ancora più importante, abbiamo mostrato risultati che suggeriscono che la pubblicità può creare un ambiente che induce implicitamente alla categorizzazione negativa di un target sessualizzato. I risultati dimostrano che l’esposizione a pubblicità femminili sessualmente oggettivate (anziché neutre) ha innescato negli uomini la credenza che alle donne piaccia essere sessualizzate. Inoltre, gli uomini esposti a pubblicità femminili sessualmente oggettivanti hanno mostrato livelli più alti di sessismo benevolo rispetto agli uomini esposti a pubblicità neutre. Altri dati hanno mostrato gli effetti che l’esposizione a specifiche immagini femminili sessualizzate può avere sulla deumanizzazione dell’intera categoria delle donne. Inoltre, mostriamo evidenze a sostegno dell’idea che l'esposizione a pubblicità femminili sessualmente oggettivanti non solo ha conseguenze negative su come le persone (in particolare gli uomini) percepiscono le donne, ma anche su come le donne percepiscono se stesse (i.e., pensando che l’aspetto fisico le rappresenti come persone). I risultati mostrano come l'esposizione a pubblicità femminili sessualmente oggettivate (anziché neutre) abbia portato le donne a monitorare maggiormente il proprio corpo (i.e., auto-oggettivazione) e ad interiorizzare maggiormente i canoni di bellezza socio-culturali. Infine, gli uomini con livelli più alti di sessismo ostile e gli uomini e le donne che hanno maggiormente interiorizzato credenze tradizionali sulle relazioni di genere (i.e., gli uomini sono guidati dal sesso e hanno difficoltà a essere fedeli) hanno mostrato maggiore intenzione d'acquisto nella condizione di oggettivazione sessuale rispetto alla neutra. Più in generale, i nostri risultati estendono i risultati delle ricerche precedenti dimostrando empiricamente il circolo vizioso dell’oggettivazione sessuale.
Infine, nel quarto capitolo, discuteremo le implicazioni dei risultati ottenuti e le direzioni di ricerca future all'interno del quadro teorico dell'oggettivazione. I risultati dei nostri primi studi suggeriscono che la valutazione di episodi di molestia sessuale sulla base dell’aspetto sessualizzato delle vittime può avere gravi conseguenze. Conseguenze che sono state corroborate dal risultato sull’ulteriore aumento dell’interiorizzazione di norme tradizionali sui ruoli di genere. In primo luogo, le percezioni distorte causate dalla sessualizzazione possono essere pericolose per le vittime, diminuendo significativamente la probabilità reale di ricevere sostegno. In secondo luogo, i risultati sono preoccupanti a livello sociale, considerando la diffusa e quotidiana manifestazione sia della sessualizzazione che delle molestie sessuali, soprattutto in ambito lavorativo (e.g., Page & Pina, 2015). Inoltre, nella seconda serie di studi, i risultati mostrano il paradosso dell’oggettivazione sessuale in pubblicità: non solo ha conseguenze negative sulle donne, ma anche su quello che dovrebbe essere il suo fine ultimo, vale a dire vendere prodotti. I nostri risultati dovrebbero essere uno stimolo per riflettere su strategie di marketing alternative, forse più efficaci sul piano economico e sicuramente meno nocive sulle donne, rispetto all'utilizzo di immagini sessualizzate.

Statistiche Download
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Cadinu, Mara
Supervisor:Maass, Anne
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 30 > Corsi 30 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:11 January 2018
Anno di Pubblicazione:11 January 2018
Key Words:sexual objectification, sexual harassment, advertising
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/05 Psicologia sociale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione
Codice ID:10673
Depositato il:26 Oct 2018 08:55
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format


I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

Abbey, A., Cozzarelli, C., McLaughlin, K., & Harnish, J. R. (1987). The effects of clothing and dyad sex composition on perceptions of sexual intent: Do women and men evaluate these cues differently. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17(2), 108-126. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1987.tb00304.x Cerca con Google

Abrams, D., Viki, G. T., Masser, B., & Bohner, G. (2003). Perceptions of stranger and acquaintance rape: The role of benevolent and hostile sexism in victim blame and rape proclivity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1), 111-125. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.1.111 Cerca con Google

Abramson, E., & Valene, P. (1991). Media use, dietary restraint, bulimia, and attitudes toward obesity: A preliminary study. British Review of Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa, 5, 73–76 Cerca con Google

Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Chicago: Dorsey Press Cerca con Google

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211. doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T Cerca con Google

Albarello, F., & Rubini, M. (2012). Reducing dehumanisation outcomes towards Blacks: The role of multiple categorisation and of humanity identity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 875–882. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1902 Cerca con Google

Albers-Miller, N.D., & Gelb, B.D. (1996). Business advertising appeals as a mirror of cultural dimensions: A study of eleven countries. Journal of Advertising, 25, 57-70 Cerca con Google

American Psychological Association (2007). Report of the APA task force on the sexualization of girls. Washington, DC: Author Cerca con Google

American Psychological Association (2010). Task force on the sexualization of girls. Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf Vai! Cerca con Google

Archer, D., Iritani, B., Kimes, D. D., & Barrios, M. (1983). Face-ism: Five studies of sex differences in facial prominence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 725-735 Cerca con Google

Aubrey, J. S. (2006). Effects of sexually objectifying media on self-objectification and body surveillance in undergraduates: Results of a 2-year panel study. Journal of Communication, 56, 366-386 Cerca con Google

Aubrey, J. S. (2007). The impact of sexually objectifying media exposure on negative body emotions and sexual self-perceptions: Investigating the mediating role of body self- consciousness. Mass Communication and Society, 10, 1-23 Cerca con Google

Aubrey, J. S., & Frisby, C. M. (2011). Sexual objectification in music videos: A content analysis comparing gender and genre. Mass Communication and Society, 14, 475-501 Cerca con Google

Baker, S. (1961). Visual Persuasions: The effects of pictures on the subconscious. New York: McGraw-Hill Cerca con Google

Baker, M. J., & Churchill, G. A. (1977). The impact of physically attractive models on advertising evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 24, 538-555 Cerca con Google

Bang, H.K., Ellinger, A. E., Hadjimarcou, J., & Traichal, P. A. (2000). Consumer concern, knowledge, belief, and attitude toward renewable energy: An application of the reasoned action theory. Psychology & Marketing, 17(6), 449-468 Cerca con Google

Bartky, S. L. (1990). Femininity and domination: Studies in the phenomenology of oppression. Psychology Press Cerca con Google

Bastian, B., Jetten, J., Chen, H., Radke, H. R. M., Harding, J. F., & Fasoli, F. (2013). Losing our humanity: The self-dehumanizing consequences of social ostracism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(2), 156-169. doi: 10.1177/0146167212471205 Cerca con Google

Belch, M. A., Holgerson, B. E., Belch G. E., & Koppman J. (1981). Psychophysical and cognitive responses to sex in advertising. In A.A. Mitchell (Ed.), Advances in Consumer Research, 9 (pp. 424-427). Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research Cerca con Google

Bello, D. C., Pitts, P. E., & Etzel, M. J. (1983). The communication effects of controversial sexual content in television programs and commercials. Journal of Aduertising, 12(3), 32-42 Cerca con Google

Bentham, J. (1789/2011). An introduction to the principles of moral sand legislation. London, UK: British Library Cerca con Google

Berger, J. (2008). Ways of Seeing. London: British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books Cerca con Google

Bernard, P., Gervais, S. J., Allen, J., Campomizzi, S., & Klein, O. (2012). Integrating sexual objectification with object versus person recognition: The sexualized-body-inversion hypothesis. Psychological Science, 23(5), 469-471. doi:10.1177/0956797611434748 Cerca con Google

Bernard, P., Gervais S., Allen J., Delmée A., & Klein O. (2015). From sex objects to human beings: masking sexual body parts and humanization as moderators to women’s objectification. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39(4), 432-446 Cerca con Google

Bernard, P., Loughnan, S., Marchal, C., Godart, A., & Klein, O. (2015). The exonerating effect of sexual objectification: Sexual objectification decreases rapist blame in a stranger rape context. Sex roles, 72(11-12), 499-508. doi: 10.1007/s11199-015-0482-0 Cerca con Google

Bongiorno R., Bain P.G., & Haslam N. (2013). When sex doesn't sell: Using sexualized images of women reduces support for ethical campaigns. PLoS ONE, 8(12), e83311. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083311 Cerca con Google

Brambilla, M., & Leach, C. W. (2014). On the importance of being moral: The distinctive role of morality in social judgment. Social Cognition, 32(4), 397-408. doi: 10.1521/soco.2014.32.4.397 Cerca con Google

Brambilla, M., Rusconi, P., Sacchi, S., & Cherubini, P. (2011). Looking for honesty: The primary role of morality (vs. sociability and competence) in information gathering. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(2), 135-143. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.744 Cerca con Google

Brambilla, M., Sacchi, S., Rusconi, P., Cherubini, P., & Yzerbyt, V. Y. (2012). You want to give a good impression? Be honest! Moral traits dominate group impression formation. British Journal of Social Psychology, 51(1), 149-166. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8309.2010.02011.x Cerca con Google

Brandt, M. J. (2013). Do the disadvantaged legitimize the social system? A large-scale test of the status–legitimacy hypothesis. Journal of personality and social psychology, 104(5), 765. doi: 10.1037/a0031751 Cerca con Google

Brems, C., & Wagner, P. (1994). Blame of victim and perpetrator in rape versus theft. The Journal of social psychology, 134(3), 363-374. doi: 10.1080/00224545.1994.9711741 Cerca con Google

Bushman, B. J., & Bonacci, A. M. (2002). Violence and sex impair memory for television ads. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 557–564. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.557 Cerca con Google

Cahoon, D. D., & Edmonds, E. M. (1989). Male–female estimates of opposite-sex first impressions concerning females’ clothing styles. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 27, 280–281. doi:10.3758/BF03334607 Cerca con Google

Calogero, R. M. (2004). A test of objectification theory: The effect of the male gaze on appearance concerns in college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 16–21. doi:10.1111/j.1471- 6402.2004.00118.x Cerca con Google

Calogero, R. M., Tantleff-Dunn, S. E., & Thompson, J. (2011). Self-objectification in women: Causes, consequences, and counteractions. American Psychological Association Cerca con Google

Calogero, R. M., & Thompson, J. K. (2010). Gender and body image. In Handbook of gender research in psychology (pp. 153-184). Springer New York. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1467-5_8 Cerca con Google

Carr, E. R., & Szymanski, D. M. (2010). Sexual objectification and substance abuse in young adult women. The Counseling Psychologist, 39, 39-66 Cerca con Google

Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1990). Origins and functions of positive and negative affect: A control-process view. Psychological Review, 97, 19-35 Cerca con Google

Cash, T.F., Cash, D.W., & Butters, J.W. (1983). Mirror, mirror, on the wall...? Contrast effects and self-evaluations of physical attractiveness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9(3), 351-358. doi: 10.1177/0146167283093004 Cerca con Google

Chapleau, K. M., Oswald, D. L., & Russell, B. L. (2007). How ambivalent sexism toward women and men support rape myth acceptance. Sex Roles, 57(1-2), 131-136. doi: 10.1007/s11199-007-9196-2 Cerca con Google

Cikara, M., Eberhardt, J. L., & Fiske, S. T. (2010). From agents to objects: Sexist attitudes and neural responses to sexualized targets. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 540–551. doi:10.1162/jocn.2010. 21497 Cerca con Google

Cohen, J. D., Dunbar, K., & McClelland, J. L. (1990). On the control of automatic processes: A parallel distributed processing account of the Stroop effect. Psychological Review, 97, 332–361 Cerca con Google

Collins, A. M., & Loftus E. F. (1975). A spreading activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 82, 407-428 Cerca con Google

Conley, T. D., & Ramsey, L. R. (2011). Killing us softly? Investigating portrayals of women and men in contemporary magazine advertisements. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35, 469-478 Cerca con Google

Cortese, A. J. P. (1999). Provocateur: images of women and minorities in advertising. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Cerca con Google

Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2003). Raising voice, risking retaliation: Events following interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace. Journal of occupational health psychology, 8(4), 247-265 Cerca con Google

Cuddy, A. J., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2008). Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: The stereotype content model and the BIAS map. Advances in experimental social psychology, 40, 61-149. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2601(07)00002-0 Cerca con Google

Dakanalis, A., Di Mattei, V.E., Prunas, A., Riva, G., Sarno, L., Volpato, C., Zanetti, M. A. (2012). Il corpo oggettivato: Media, benessere psicofisico e differenze di genere, in "Psicologia sociale", 2, 261-284, doi: 10.1482/37698 Cerca con Google

Dens, N., De Pelsmacker, P., & Janssens, W. (2009). Effects of scarcely dressed Models in advertising on body esteem for Belgian men and women. Sex Roles, 60, 366-378. Cerca con Google

Diekmann, K. A., Sillito Walker, S. D., Galinsky, A. D., & Tenbrunsel, A. E. (2013). Double victimization in the workplace: Why observers condemn passive victims of sexual harassment. Organization Science, 24(2), 614-628. doi:10.1287/orsc.1120.0753 Cerca con Google

Dillard, J. P., & Wilson, B. J. (1993). Communication and affect: Thoughts, feelings, and issues for the future. Communication Research, 20, 637-646 Cerca con Google

Dudley, S. C. (1999). Consumer attitudes toward nudity in advertising. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 79(4), 89-96 Cerca con Google

Duncan, M. C. (1990). Sports photographs and sexual difference: Images of women and men in 1984 and 1988 Olympic Games. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7, 22-43 Cerca con Google

Dworkin, A. (1997). Life and death / Andrea Dworkin. New York: Free Press Cerca con Google

Ellemers, N., Pagliaro, S., & Barreto, M. (2013). Morality and behavioural regulation in groups: A social identity approach. European Review of Social Psychology, 24(1), 160-193. doi: 10.1080/10463283.2013.841490 Cerca con Google

Engle, R. W. (2002). Working memory capacity as executive attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 19–23 Cerca con Google

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights [FRA] (2014). Violence against women: an EU-wide survey. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union Cerca con Google

Eysenck, M. W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., & Calvo, M. G. (2007). Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory. Emotion, 7, 336-353 Cerca con Google

Fairchild, K., & Rudman, L. A. (2008). Everyday stranger harassment and women’s objectification. Social Justice Research, 21, 338-357 Cerca con Google

Ferguson, M. (1978). Imagery and ideology: The cover photographs of traditional women’s magazines. In G. Tuchman, A. K. Daniels, & J. Benet (Eds.), Hearth and home: Images of women in the mass media (pp. 97-115). New York: Oxford University Press Cerca con Google

Fitzgerald, L. F., Gelfand, M. J., & Drasgow, F. (1995). Measuring sexual harassment: Theoretical and psychometric advances. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17(4), 425-445. doi: 10.1207/s15324834basp1704_2 Cerca con Google

Fitzgerald, L. F., Shullman, S., L., Bailey, N., Richards, M., Swecker, J., Gold, Y., Ormerod, M., Weitzman, L. (1988). The incidence and dimensions of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 152-175. doi: 10.1016/0001-8791(88)90012-7 Cerca con Google

Fitzgerald, L. F., Swan, S., & Magley, V. J. (1997). But was it really sexual harassment?: Legal, behavioral, and psychological definitions of the workplace victimization of women. In O'Donohue, William, (Ed), Sexual harassment: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 5-28). Needham Heights, MA, US: Allyn & Bacon Cerca con Google

Fouts, G., & Burggraf, K. (2000). Television situation comedies: Female weight, male negative comments, and audience reactions. Sex Roles, 42, 925-932 Cerca con Google

Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T. A. (1997). Objectification theory: toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173–206 Cerca con Google

Fredrickson, B. L., Roberts, T. A., Noll, S. M., Quinn, D. M., & Twenge, J. M. (1998). That swimsuit becomes you: Sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 269–284 Cerca con Google

Furnham, A., & Mainaud, L. (2011). The effect of French television sexual program content on the recall of sexual and nonsexual advertisements. Journal of Sex Research, 48, 590 –598. doi: 10.1080/ 00224499.2010.503947 Cerca con Google

Galdi, S., Maass, A., & Cadinu, M. (2014). Objectifying media: Their effect on gender role norms and sexual harassment of women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38(3), 398-413. doi: 10.1177/0361684313515185 Cerca con Google

Galdi, S., Maass, A., & Cadinu, M. (2017). Defending the Victim of Sexual Harassment: The Influence of Civil Courage and Media Exposure. Psychology of Women Quarterly, doi: 0361684317709770 Cerca con Google

Gapinski, K. D., Brownell, K. D., & LaFrance, M. (2003). Body objectification and “fat talk”: Effects on emotion, motivation, and cognitive performance. Sex Roles, 48, 377-388 Cerca con Google

Gervais, S., Holland, A., & Dodd, M. (2013). My eyes are up here: The nature of the objectifying gaze toward women. Sex Roles, 69, 557-570. doi:10.1007/s11199-013-0316-x Cerca con Google

Gervais, S. J., Vescio, T. K., & Allen, J. (2011). When what you see is what you get: The consequences of the objectifying gaze for women and men. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35, 5–17. doi:10.1177/0361684310386121
 Cerca con Google

Gervais, S. J., Vescio, T. K., Maass, A., Förster, J., & Suitner, C. (2012). Seeing women as objects: The sexual body part recognition bias. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 743–753. doi:10.1002/ ejsp.1890 Cerca con Google

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of personality and social psychology, 70(3), 491. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.491 Cerca con Google

Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1999). The Ambivalence toward Men Inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent beliefs about men. Psychology of women quarterly, 23(3), 519-536. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1999.tb00379.x Cerca con Google

Glick, P., Larsen, S., Johnson, C., & Branstiter, H. (2005). Evaluations of sexy women in low- and high-status jobs. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29(4), 389-395. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2005.00238.x Cerca con Google

Glomb, T. M., Munson, L. J., Hulin, C. L., Bergman, M. E., & Drasgow, F. (1999). Structural equation models of sexual harassment: Longitudinal explorations and cross-sectional generalizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(1), 14-28. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.84.1.14 Cerca con Google

Goffman, E. (1979). Gender advertisements. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Cerca con Google

Goodpaster, K. E. (1978). On being morally considerable. The Journal of Philosophy, 75, 308-325. doi:10.2307/2025709 Cerca con Google

Grabe, S., & Hyde, J. S. (2009). Body objectification, MTV, and psychological outcomes among female Adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39, 2840-2858 Cerca con Google

Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., & Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 460-476 Cerca con Google

Gray, H. M., Gray, K., & Wegner, D. M. (2007). Dimensions of mind perception. Science, 315, 619. doi:10.1126/science.1134475 Cerca con Google

Gray, K., Knobe, J., Sheskin, M., Bloom, P., & Barrett, L. F. (2011). More than a body: Mind perception and the nature of objectification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(6), 1207-1220. doi: 10.1037/a0025883 Cerca con Google

Gray, K., & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Moral typecasting: Divergent perceptions of moral agents and thes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 505-520. doi:10.1037/a0013748 Cerca con Google

Grazer, W. F., & Keesling, G. (1995). The effect of print advertising’s use of sexual themes on brand recall and purchase intention: A product specific investigation of male responses. Journal of Applied Business Research, 11(3), 47-58 Cerca con Google

Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480 Cerca con Google

Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 197-216 Cerca con Google

Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17-41 Cerca con Google

Groesz, L. M., Levine, M. P., & Murnen, S. K. (2002). The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction: a meta-analytic review. International Journal of Eating Disorder, 31, 1–16 Cerca con Google

Grubb, A. R., & Harrower, J. (2009). Understanding attribution of blame in cases of rape: An analysis of participant gender, type of rape and perceived similarity to the victim. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 15(1), 63-81. doi: 10.1080/13552600802641649 Cerca con Google

Guastini, M., Cosenza, G., Colombari, J., & Gasparri E. (2104). Come la pubblicità racconta le donne e gli uomini, in Italia. Report of the Directors Club Italiano. Retrieved from: http://cdn.youmark.it/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Come-la-pubblicità-racconta-gli-italiani.pdf Vai! Cerca con Google

Guizzo, F. & Cadinu, M. (2016). Effects of objectifying gaze on female cognitive performance: The role of flow experience and internalization of beauty ideals. British Journal of Social Psychology, 56, 281–292. doi: 10.1111/bjso.12170 Cerca con Google

Guizzo, F., Cadinu, M., Galdi, S., Maass, A., & Latrofa, M. (2016). Objecting to objectification: Women’s collective action against sexual objectification on Television. Sex Roles, 1-14. doi: 10.1007/s11199-016-0725-8 Cerca con Google

Gulas, C. S., & McKeage, K. (2000). Extending social comparison: An examination of the unintended consequences of idealised advertising imagery. Joumal of Advertising, 29(2), 17-28 Cerca con Google

Hadwin, J. A., Brogan, J., & Stevenson, J. (2005). State anxiety and working memory in children: A test of processing efficiency theory. Educational Psychology, 25, 379- 393 Cerca con Google

Hae-kyong, B., Ellinger, A. E., Hadjimarcou, J., & Traichal, P.A. (2000). Consumer concern, knowledge, belief, and attitude toward renewable energy: An application of the reasoned action theory. Psychology and Marketing, 17(6), 449– 468 Cerca con Google

Hall, S. (1980). Encoding/decoding. In S. Hall, D. Hobson, A. Lowe, & P. Willis (Eds.), Culture, media, language. London: Hutchison Cerca con Google

Hargreaves, D. A., & Tiggemann, M. (2004). Idealized media images and adolescent body image: “Comparing” boys and girls. Body image, 1, 351-361 Cerca con Google

Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An integrative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 252–264 Cerca con Google

Harker M., Harker D., & Svensen S. (2005). Attitudes towards gender portrayal in advertising: an Australian perspective. Journal of Marketing Management, 21(1-2), 251-264 Cerca con Google

Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An integrative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 252–264 
 Cerca con Google

Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication monographs, 76(4), 408-420. doi: 10.1080/03637750903310360 Cerca con Google

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press Cerca con Google

Hatton, E., & Trautner, M. N. (2011). Equal opportunity objectification? The sexualization of men and women on the cover of Rolling Stone. Sexuality & Culture, 15, 256–278. doi:10.1007/ s12119-011-9093-2 Cerca con Google

Heflick, N., & Goldenberg, J. (2009). Objectifying Sarah Palin: Evidence that objectification causes women to be perceived as less competent and less fully human. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 598–601. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2009.02.008 Cerca con Google

Heflick, N., Goldenberg, J., Cooper, D., & Puvia, E. (2011). From women to objects: Appearance focus, target gender, and perceptions of warmth, morality and competence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 572–581. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2010.12.020 Cerca con Google

Hirschman, C., Impett, E. A., & Schooler, D. (2006). Dis/embodied voices: What late-adolescent girls can teach us about objectification and sexuality. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 3, 8-20 Cerca con Google

Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H., & Schmitt, M. (2005). A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1369-1385 Cerca con Google

Holland, E., Koval, P., Stratemeyer, M., Thomson, F., & Haslam, N. (2016). Sexual objectification in women’s daily lives: A smartphone ecological momentary assessment study. British Journal of Social Psychology, doi:10.1111/bjso.12152 Cerca con Google

Holmstrom, A. (2004). The effects of the media on body image: A meta-analysis. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 48, 196–217 Cerca con Google

Hulin, C. L., Fitzgerald, L. F., & Drasgow, F. (1996). Organizational influences on sexual harassment. Sage Publications, Inc. Cerca con Google

ISTAT (2006). Le molestie sessuali. Roma, Italy: Author Cerca con Google

Impett, E. A., Schooler, D., & Tolman, D. L. (2006). To be seen and not heard: Femininity ideology and adolescent girls’ sexual health. Archives of sexual behavior, 35(2), 129- 142 Cerca con Google

Johnston-Robledo, I., & Fred, V. (2008). Self-Objectification and Lower Income Pregnant Women's Breastfeeding Attitudes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1-21 Cerca con Google

Johnson, K. K. P., & Workman, J. E. (1994). Blaming the Victim: Attributions Concerning Sexual Harassment Based on Clothing, Just-World Belief, and Sex of Subject. Home Economics Research Journal, 22, 382–400. doi: 10.1177/0046777494224002 Cerca con Google

Joseph, W. B. (1982). The credibility of physically attractive communicators: a review. Journal of Advertising, 11(3), 15-24 Cerca con Google

Jost, J. T., & Banaji, M. R. (1994). The role of stereotyping in system‐justification and the production of false consciousness. British journal of social psychology, 33(1), 1-27. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8309.1994.tb01008.x Cerca con Google

Jost, J. T., Pelham, B. W., Sheldon, O., & Ni Sullivan, B. (2003). Social inequality and the reduction of ideological dissonance on behalf of the system: Evidence of enhanced system justification among the disadvantaged. European journal of social psychology, 33(1), 13-36. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.127 Cerca con Google

Jost, J. T., Rudman, L. A., Blair, I. V., Carney, D. R., Dasgupta, N., Glaser, J., & Hardin, C. D. (2009). The existence of implicit bias is beyond reasonable doubt: A refutation of ideological and methodological objections and executive summary of ten studies that no manager should ignore. In A. P. Brief & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior, 29 (pp. 39-69). New York, NY: Elsevier. Cerca con Google

Kane, M. J., & Engle, R. W. (2003). Working-memory capacity and the control of attention: The contributions of goal neglect, response competition, and task set to Stroop interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 132, 47– 70 Cerca con Google

Kant, I. (1785). Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Mary Gregor (ed.), Cambridge University Press, 1998 Cerca con Google

Kaschak, E. (1992). Engendered lives: A new psychology of women’s experience. New York: Basic Books Cerca con Google

Kay, A. C., & Jost, J. T. (2014). Theoretical integration in motivational science: System justification as one of many “autonomous motivational structures”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(02), 146-147. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X13002057 Cerca con Google

Kilbourne, J. (1999). Deadly persuasion: Why women and girls must fight the addictive power of advertising. New York: The Free Press Cerca con Google

Kilbourne, J. (2005). What else does sex sell? International Journal of Advertising, 24, 119–122 Cerca con Google

Knapp, D. E., Faley, R. H., Ekeberg, S. E., & Dubois, C. L. Z. (1997). Determinants of target responses to sexual harassment: A conceptual framework. Academy of Management Review, 22, 687–729. doi: 10.2307/259410 Cerca con Google

Kozee, H. B., Tylka, T. L., Augustus‐Horvath, C. L., & Denchik, A. (2007). Development and psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal sexual objectification scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31(2), 176-189. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00351.x Cerca con Google

Lang, A,, Dhillon, K., & Dong, Q. (1995). The effects of emotional arousal and valence on television viewers’ cognitive capacity and memory. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 39, 313-327 Cerca con Google

Langton, R. (2009). Sexual solipsism: philosophical essays on pornography objectification. Oxford: Oxford University Press Cerca con Google

LaTour, M. S. (1990). Female nudity in print advertising: An analysis of gender differences in arousal and ad response. Psychology & Marketing, 7, 65-81 Cerca con Google

LaTour, M. S., & Henthorne, T. L. (1994). Ethical judgments of sexual appeals in print advertising. Journal of Advertising, 23(3), 81-90 Cerca con Google

Lavine, H., Sweeney, D., & Wagner, S. H. (1999). Depicting women as sex objects in television advertising: Effects on body dissatisfaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 1049-1058 Cerca con Google

Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer Publishing Company Cerca con Google

Leach, C. W., Ellemers, N., & Barreto, M. (2007). Group virtue: the importance of morality (vs. competence and sociability) in the positive evaluation of in-groups. Journal of personality and social psychology, 93(2), 234. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.93.2.234 Cerca con Google

Leit, R. A., Gray, J. J., & Pope, H. G. Jr. (2002). The media’s representation of the ideal male body: A cause for muscle dysmorphia? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31, 334-338 Cerca con Google

Leyens J.P., Demoulin S., Vaes J., Gaunt R., & Paladino M.P. (2007). Infra- humanization: The wall of group differences. Social Issues and Policy Review, 1, 139-172. 
 Cerca con Google

Levant, R. F., Smalley, K. B., Aupont, M., House, A. T., Richmond, K., & Noronha, D. (2007). Initial validation of the male role norms inventory-revised (MRNI-R). The Journal of Men's Studies, 15(1), 83-100. doi: 10.3149/jms.1501.83 Cerca con Google

Lindberg, S. M., Hyde, J. S., & McKinley, N. M. (2006). A measure of objectified body consciousness for preadolescent and adolescent youth. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30, 65– 76 Cerca con Google

Linz, D. G., Donnerstein, E., & Penrod, S. (1988). Effects of long-term exposure to violent and sexually degrading depictions of women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 758-768 Cerca con Google

Liss, M., Erchull, M., J., & Ramsey, L. R. (2011). Empowering or oppressing? Development and exploration of the enjoyment of sexualization scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 55-68. doi:10.1177/0146167210386119 Cerca con Google

Lonsway, K. A., Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2008). Sexual Harassment Mythology: Definition, Conceptualization, and Measurement. Sex Roles, 58(9-10), 599-615. doi: 10.1007/s11199-007-9367-1 Cerca con Google

Lorenzen, L. A., Grieve, F. G., & Thomas, A. (2004). Exposure to male models decreases men’s body satisfaction. Sex Roles, 51, 743-748 Cerca con Google

Loughnan, S., Haslam, N., Murnane, T., Vaes, J., Reynolds, C., & Suitner, C. (2010). Objectification leads to depersonalization: The denial of mind and moral concern to objectified others. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 709–717. doi:10.1002/ejsp.755 Cerca con Google

Loughnan, S., & Pacilli, M. G. (2014). Seeing (and treating) others as sexual objects: Towards a more complete mapping of sexual objectification. Testing Pyschometrics and Methodology in Applied Psychology, 21, 1–17. doi:10.4473/TPM21.3.6 Cerca con Google

Loughnan,S., Pina,A.,Vasquez, E. A., & Puvia, E. (2013). Sexual objectification increases rape victim blame and decreases perceived suffering. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37, 455–461. doi:10.1177/0361684313485718 Cerca con Google

Lowery, S. E., Kurpius, S. E. R., Befort, C., Blanks, E. H., Sollenberger, S., Nicpon, M. F., et al. (2005). Body image, self-esteem, and health-related behaviors among male and female first year college students. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 612–623 Cerca con Google

Lull, R.B., & Bushman, B. J. (2015). Do sex and violence sell? A meta-analytic review of the effects of sexual and violent media and ad content on memory, attitudes, and buying intentions. Psychological Bullettin, 141(5), 1022-1048. doi: 10.1037/bul0000018 Cerca con Google

Lysonski, S. (1985). Role portrayals in British magazine advertisements. European Journal of Marketing, 19, 37-55 Cerca con Google

MacKinnon, C. A. (1989). Toward a Feminist Theory of the State. Harvard University Press Cerca con Google

MacKinnon, C. (1993). Only Words. Cambridge: Harvard University Press Cerca con Google

McDonald, P. (2012). Workplace sexual harassment 30 years on: A review of the literature. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14, 1–17. doi: 10. 1111/j.1468-2370.2011.00300.x Cerca con Google

McKinley, N. M. (1998). Gender differences in undergraduates’ body esteem: The mediating effect of objectified body consciousness and actual/ideal weight discrepancy. Sex Roles, 39, 113–123 Cerca con Google

McKinley, N. M. (2006). Longitudinal gender differences in objectified body consciousness and weight-related attitudes and behaviors: Cultural and developmental contexts in the transition from college. Sex Roles, 54, 159–173 Cerca con Google

McKinley, N. M., & Hyde, J. S. (1996). The Objectified Body Consciousness Scale: Development and validation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 181–215 Cerca con Google

Mehrabian, A., & Russell, J. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press Cerca con Google

Merskin, D. (2006). Where are the clothes? The pornographic gaze in mainstream American fashion advertising. In Reichert & Lambiase (Eds.), Sex in consumer culture. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Cerca con Google

Milburn, M., Mather, R., & Conrad, S. (2000). The effects of viewing R-rated movie scenes that objectify women on perceptions of date rape. Sex Roles, 43, 645–664 Cerca con Google

Moradi, B., Dirks, D., & Matteson, A. V. (2005). Roles of sexual objectification experiences and internalization of standards of beauty in eating disorder symptomatology: A test and extension of Objectification Theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 420 Cerca con Google

Moradi, B., & Huang, Y. P. (2008). Objectification theory and psychology of women: A decade of advance and future directions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32, 377-398 Cerca con Google

Muehling, D. D., & McCann, M. (1993). Attitude toward the ad: A review. Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 15(2), 25-58 Cerca con Google

Mulvey, L. (1999). Visual pleasure and narrative cinema. In Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen (Eds.), Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings (pp. 833-844). New York: Oxford UP Cerca con Google

Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). The Implicit Association Test at age 7: A methodological and conceptual review. In J. A. Bargh (Ed.), Social psychology and the unconscious: The automaticity of higher mental processes (pp. 265-292). New York, NY: Psychology Press Cerca con Google

Nussbaum, M. (1995). Objectification. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 24, 249–291. doi:10.1111/j.1088-4963.1995.tb00032.x Cerca con Google

Nussbaum, M. (1999). Sex and Social Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press Cerca con Google

Pacilli, M. G., & Mucchi-Faina, A. (2010). Come mi vorrei: interiorizzazione di modelli mediatici e immagine di sé. In E. Camussi & N. Monacelli. (Eds.), Giornate di Studio su “Questioni sul corpo in psicologia sociale” Milano 7-8 maggio 2010, 32-38. Parma: Casa Editrice Universitaria Uninova Cerca con Google

Pacilli, M. G., Pagliaro, S., Loughnan, S., Gramazio, S., Spaccatini, F., & Baldry, A.C. (2017). Sexualization reduces helping intentions towards female victims of intimate partner violence through mediation of moral patiency. British Journal of Social Psychology, 56(2), 293-313. doi: 10.1111/bjso.12169. Cerca con Google

Pacilli, M. G., Tomasetto, C., & Cadinu, M. (2016). Exposure to sexualized advertisements disrupts children’s math performance by reducing working memory. Sex Roles, 74, 389–398. doi:10.1007/s11199-016-0581-6 Cerca con Google

Page, T. E., & Pina, A. (2015). Moral disengagement as a self-regulatory process in sexual harassment perpetration at work: A preliminary conceptualization. Aggression and violent behavior, 21, 73-84. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2015.01.004 Cerca con Google

Pagliaro, S. (2012). On the relevance of morality in social psychology: An introduction to a virtual special issue. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42(4), 400-405. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1840 Cerca con Google

Pagliaro, S., Ellemers, N., Barreto, M., & Di Cesare, C. (2016). Once Dishonest, Always Dishonest? The Impact of Perceived Pervasiveness of Moral Evaluations of the Self on Motivation to Restore a Moral Reputation. Frontiers in psychology, 7 Cerca con Google

Paludi, M. A. (1990). Ivory power: Sexual harassment on campus. SUNY Press Cerca con Google

Papadaki, E. L. (2007). Sexual objectification: From Kant to contemporary feminism. Contemporary Political Theory, 6(3), 330-348 Cerca con Google

Papadaki, E. (2012). Understanding Objectification: Is There Special Wrongness Involved in Treating Human Beings Instrumentally?. Prolegomena: časopis za filozofiju, 11(1), 5-24 Cerca con Google

Parker, E., & Furnham, A. (2007). Does sex sell? The effect of sexual programme content on the recall of sexual and non-sexual advertisements. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21, 1217–1228. doi: 10.1002/acp.1325 Cerca con Google

Peterson, R. A., & Kerin, R. A. (1977). The female role in advertisements: Some experimental evidence. Journal of Marketing, 41, 59-63 Cerca con Google

Pope, H. Jr., Phillips, K., & Olivardia, R. (2000). The Adonis complex: The secret crisis of male body obsession. New York: Free Press Cerca con Google

Powell, A. (2012). More than ready: Bystander action to prevent violence against women in the Victorian community (Research Report). Melbourne, Australia: Victorian Health Promotion Foundation. Retrieved March 1, 2017, from https://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/ media-and-resources/publications/bystander-research-project Vai! Cerca con Google

Pryor, J. B. (1987). Sexual harassment proclivities in men. Sex Roles, 17, 269-290 Cerca con Google

Puvia, E., & Vaes, J. (2013). Being a body: Women’s appearance related self-views and their dehumanization of sexually objectified female targets. Sex Roles, 68, 484-495. doi:10.1007/s11199-012-0255-y Cerca con Google

Puvia, E., & Vaes, J. (2015). Promoters versus victims of objectification: Why women dehumanize sexually objectified female targets. Revue internationale de psychologie sociale, 28(1), 63-93 Cerca con Google

Quinn, D. M., Kallen, R. W., & Cathey, C. (2006). Body on my mind: The lingering effect of state self-objectification. Sex Roles, 55, 869-874 Cerca con Google

Quinn, D. M., Kallen, R. W., Twenge, J. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2006). The disruptive effect of self-objectifcation on performance. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30, 59-64 Cerca con Google

Reichert, T. (2002). Sex in advertising research: A review of content, effects, and functions of sexual information in consumer advertising. Annual Review of Sex Research, 13(1), 241-273 Cerca con Google

Reichert, T., Heckler, S. E., & Jackson, S. (2001). The effects of sexual social marketing appeals on cognitive processing and persuasion. Journal of Advertising, 30(1), 13-27 Cerca con Google

Reid, L. N., & Soley, L. C. (1981). Another look at the ‘decorative’ female model: The recognition of visual and verbal ad components. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 3, 122-133 Cerca con Google

Reid, L. N., & Soley, L. C. (1983). Decorative models and the readership of magazine ads. Journal of Advertising Research, 23(2), 27-32 Cerca con Google

Reynolds, C., & Haslam, N. (2011). Evidence for an association between women and nature: An analysis of media images and mental representations. Ecopsychology, 3, 59-64 Cerca con Google

Riger, S. (1991). Gender dilemmas in sexual harassment policies and procedures. American Psychologist, 46, 497–505. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.46.5.497 Cerca con Google

Riva, P., Brambilla, M., & Vaes, J. (2015). Bad guys suffer less (social pain): Moral status influences judgements of others’ social suffering. British Journal of Social Psychology, 55(1), 88-108. doi:10.1111/bjso.12114 Cerca con Google

Roberts, T. A., & Gettman, J. Y. (2004). Mere exposure: Gender differences in the negative effects of priming a state of self-objectification. Sex Roles, 51, 17-27 Cerca con Google

Rohlinger, A.R. (2002). Eroticizing men: Cultural influences on advertising and male objectification. Sex Roles, 46(3-4), 61-74 Cerca con Google

Rudman, L. A. (2011). Implicit measures for social and personality psychology. London, England: SAGE Cerca con Google

Rudman, L. A., & Borgida, E. (1995). The afterglow of construct accessibility: The behavioral consequences of priming men to view women as sexual objects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31, 493-517 Cerca con Google

Rudman L.A., & Mescher, K. (2012). Of animals and objects: Men’s implicit dehumanization of women and likelihood of sexual aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 734–746 Cerca con Google

Sanchez, D. T., & Kiefer, A. K. (2007). Body concerns in and out of the bedroom: Implications for sexual pleasure and problems. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 808-820 Cerca con Google

Shimp, T. A., & Gresham, L. G. (1983). An information processing perspective on recent advertising literature. Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 6, 39–75 Cerca con Google

Schneider, K. T., Swan, S., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (1997). Job-Related and psychological effects of sexual harassment in the workplace: Empirical evidence from two organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(3), 401-415. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.82.3.401 Cerca con Google

Schubert, T. W., & Otten, S. (2002). Overlap of self, ingroup, and outgroup: Pictorial measures of self-categorization. Self and Identity, 1, 353-376. doi:10.1080/152988602760328012 Cerca con Google

Simpson, P., Horton S., & Brown G. (1996). Male nudity in advertisements: A modified replication and extension of gender and product effects. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Sciences, 24(3), 257-262 Cerca con Google

Singer, P. (1979). Practical ethics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press Cerca con Google

Smith, S. L., Choueiti, M., Scofield, E., & Pieper, K. (2013). Gender inequality in 500 popular films: Examining on-screen portrayals and behind-the-scenes employment patterns in motion pictures released between 2007-2012. Study by the University of Southern California Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism. Retrieved from: http://annenberg.usc.edu/pages/~/media/MDSCI/Gender_Inequality_in_500_Popular _Films_-_Smith_2013.ashx Vai! Cerca con Google

Sojo, V. E., Wood, R. E., & Genat, A. E. (2015). Harmful workplace experiences and women’s occupational well-being: A meta-anal- ysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 40, 10–40. doi:10.1177/ 0361684315599346 Cerca con Google

Soley, L., & Kurzbard, G. (1986). Sex in advertising: A comparison of 1964 and 1984 magazine advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 15(3), 46-54, 64 Cerca con Google

Sommers-Flanagan, R., Sommers-Flanagan, J., & Davis, B. (1993). What's happening on Music Television? A gender role content analysis. Sex Roles, 28(11-12), 745-753. doi: 10.1007/BF00289991 Cerca con Google

Sriram, N., & Greenwald, A. G. (2009). The brief Implicit Association Test. Experimental Psychology, 56, 283-294 Cerca con Google

Stankiewicz, J. M., & Rosselli, F. (2008). Women as sex objects and victims in print advertisements. Sex Roles, 58, 579-89 Cerca con Google

Steadman, M. (1969). How Sexy Illustrations Affect Brand Recall. Journal of Advertising Research, 9(1), 15-19 Cerca con Google

Stefanile, C., Matera, C., Nerini, A., & Pisani, E. (2011). Validation of an Italian version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) on adolescent girls. Body Image, 8, 432-436 Cerca con Google

Strelan, P., & Hargreaves, D. (2005). Reasons for exercise and body esteem: Men’s responses to self-objectification. Sex Roles, 53, 495–503 Cerca con Google

Strelan, P., Mehaffey, S. J., & Tiggemann, M. (2003). Brief report: Self-objectification and esteem in young women: The mediating role of reasons for exercise. Sex Roles, 48, 89-95 Cerca con Google

Summers, R. J. (1996). The effect of harasser performance status and complainant tolerance on reactions to a complaint of sexual harassment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 53–67. doi:10. 1006/jvbe.1996.0033 Cerca con Google

Sutton, S. (1998). Predicting and explaining intentions and behavior: How well are we doing?. Journal of applied social psychology, 28(15), 1317-1338. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01679.x Cerca con Google

Swim, J. K., Hyers, L. L., Cohen, L. L., & Ferguson, M. J. (2001). Everyday sexism: Evidence for its incidence, nature, and psychological impact from three daily diary studies. Journal of Social Issues, 57(1), 31-53. doi: 10.1111/0022-4537.00200 Cerca con Google

Tang, T. L. P., & McCollum, S. L. (1996). Sexual harassment in the workplace. Public Personnel Management, 25(1), 53-58. doi: 10.1177/009102609602500105 Cerca con Google

Tellis, G. J. (2009). Generalizations about advertising effectiveness in markets. Journal of Advertising Research, 49, 240–245. doi: .org/10.2501/S0021849909090357 Cerca con Google

Thayer, R. E. (1967). Measures of activation through self-report. Psychological Reports, 20, 663-678 Cerca con Google

Thompson, J. K., van den Berg, P., Roehrig, M., Guarda, A. S., & Heinberg, L. J. (2004). The sociocultural attitudes towards appearance scale-3 (SATAQ-3): Development and validation. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 35, 293-304 Cerca con Google

Tiggemann, M. (2011). Mental health risks of self-objectification: A review of the empirical evidence for disordered eating, depressed mood, and sexual dysfunction. In Calogero, Rachel M., Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey, & Thompson, J. Kevin (Eds.). Self-objectification in women: Causes, consequences, and counteractions, (pp. 139-159). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association Cerca con Google

Tiggemann, M., & Kuring, J. K. (2004). The role of body objectification in disordered eating and depressed mood. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 299-311 Cerca con Google

Tiggemann, M., & McGill, B. (2004). The role of social comparison in the effect of magazine advertisements on women’s mood and body dissatisfaction. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 23-44 Cerca con Google

Tsichla, E., & Zotos, Y.C. (2013). Gender stereotypes in Cypriot magazine advertisements: A comparison of single and relationship portrayals. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communication, April 11-12, Salerno, Italy Cerca con Google

Unger, R. K., & Crawford, M. E. (1996). Women and gender: A feminist psychology (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Cerca con Google

Vaes, J., Paladino, P., Castelli, L., Leyens, J. P., & Giovanazzi A. (2003). On the behavioral consequences of infrahumanization: the implicit role of uniquely human emotions in intergroup relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(6), 1016-1034 Cerca con Google

Vaes, J., Paladino, P., & Puvia, E. (2011). Are sexualized women complete human beings? Why men and women dehumanize sexually objectified women. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41(6), 774-785. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.824 Cerca con Google

Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2012). Understanding sexual objectification: A comprehensive approach toward media exposure and girls' internalization of beauty ideals, self-objectification, and body surveillance. Journal of Communication, 62, 869-887 Cerca con Google

Vandenbosch, L., Vervloessem, D., & Eggermont, S. (2013). “I might get your heart racing in my skin-tight jeans”: Sexualization on music entertainment television. Communication Studies, 64, 178-194 Cerca con Google

Vaughan-Turnbull, C., & Lewis, V. (2015). Body image, objectification, and Attitudes Toward Cosmetic Surgery. Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research, 20, 179-196 Cerca con Google

Viki, G. T., & Abrams, D. (2002). But she was unfaithful: Benevolent sexism and reactions to rape victims who violate traditional gender role expectations. Sex Roles, 47(5), 289-293. doi: 10.1023/A:1021342912248 Cerca con Google

Viki, G. T., & Abrams, D. (2003). Infra-humanization: Ambivalent sexism and the attribution of primary and secondary emotions to women. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 492-499 Cerca con Google

Viki, G.T., Abrams, D., & Hutchison, P. (2003). The “true” romantic: Benevolent Sexism and Paternalistic Chivalry. Sex Roles, 49(9), 533-537. doi:10.1023/A:1025888824749 Cerca con Google

Viki, G. T., Winchester, L., Titshall, L., Chisango, T., Pina, A., & Russell, R. (2006). Beyond secondary emotions: The infrahumanization of outgroups using human-related and animal-related words. Social Cognition, 24, 753–775 Cerca con Google

Visser, B. A., Sultani, F., Choma, B. L., & Pozzebon, J. A. (2014). Enjoyment of sexualization: is it different for men?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44, 495–504. doi:10.1111/jasp.12241 Cerca con Google

Ward, M. (2002). Does television exposure affect emerging adults’ attitudes and assumptions about sexual relationships? Correlational and experimental confirmation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(1), 1–15 Cerca con Google

Wasti, S. A., & Cortina, L. M. (2002). Coping in context: Sociocultural determinants of responses to sexual harrassment. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 83(2), 394-405. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.83.2.394 Cerca con Google

Weller, S. (1992). Why is date rape so hard to prove? Health, 6, 62-65 Cerca con Google

Wiener, R. L., Gervais, S. J., Allen, J., & Marquez, A. (2013). Eye of the beholder: Effects of perspective and sexual objectification on harassment judgments. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 19(2), 206. doi: 10.1037/a0028497 Cerca con Google

Willness, C. R., Steel, P., & Lee, K. (2007). A meta‐analysis of the antecedents and consequences of workplace sexual harassment. Personnel Psychology, 60(1), 127-162. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2007.00067.x Cerca con Google

World Economic Forum (2016). The Global Gender Gap Index (2016). Report of the World Economic Forum. Retrieved from: http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/the-global-gender-gap-report-2016/ Vai! Cerca con Google

Zanardo, L. (2010). Il corpo delle donne [The body of women]. Milano, Italy: Feltrinelli Cerca con Google

Zimmerman, A., & Dahlberg, J. (2008). The sexual objectification of women in advertising: A contemporary cultural perspective. Journal of Advertising Research, 48(1), 71-79. doi: 10.2501/S0021849908080094 Cerca con Google

Zotos Y., & Tsichla E. (2014). Female portrayals in advertising past research, new directions. International Journal of Strategic Innovative Marketing, 1, 9-26. doi: 10.15556/IJSIM.01.01.002 Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record