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Andrighetto, Nicola (2018) Impacts and interaction of political and economic driving forces in the international timber trade. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (italiano o inglese)

The direction of the development of the international forest market and the trade of timber products is largely determined by factors external to the traditional boundaries of the forestry sector. External factors can include international economic changes, environmental and energy policies implemented by international or national institutions, technological advancements and the response of civil society and public authorities to the most critical environmental changes, like deforestation, forest degradation and illegal behaviour of the actors in the supply chain (FAO, 1998)
More precisely, changes in international economic situations, such as the 2008 economic crisis, and the growth of emerging economies, are having diverging and sometimes opposite effects on the demand for timber products in specific countries and are modifying the composition of the types of timber products consumed (ITTO, 2013). At the same time, specific laws enforced by developed countries to fight the illegal timber trade, such as the implementation of the FLEGT Action Plan in Europe and the amendment of the Lacey Act in the USA, can favour changes in the trade behaviour of timber importers in Western countries (Pepke, 2015). Just like developed countries, which have traditionally been significant importers of roundwood, producing and exporting countries have also been implementing restrictions on exports in order to ensure the correct forest management over the past few years. These have included measures such as quantitative restrictions (quotas) and export taxes. Furthermore, the choice to assign economic incentives to wood used for energy has been an important driving factor in leading to a sharp growth in imports of woody biomass for energy purposes (Berndes et al., 2003). In this period characterized by profound structural changes and increased competition with emerging economies, forest-based industries in traditional markets have begun to respond to these challenges by developing new and innovative products, such as new building materials, biodegradable plastics and bio-fuels (Hurmekoski and Hetemäki, 2013).
The main goal of the PhD thesis research is to connect these driving forces that have recently been affecting the international timber sector with the recent different trade patterns. We analyse this topic with a mixed, qualitative-quantitative, approach. In the first part, the research will describe and extensively analyse with mainly a qualitative approach the driving forces that have recently been characterizing the global timber market. In the second part, the thesis aims to assess the real level of enforcement of the main initiative implemented by the EU (the FLEGT Action Plan) to fight against the import of illegal timber. The third part will be based mainly on a quantitative approach, therefore we will present the methodology used to collect data on the timber trade and to improve their quality, while the following part of the thesis will be dedicated to the presentation of the results and the related discussion.
The research has demonstrated how the 2008 economic crisis hit log imports to Western countries accelerating the growth process of emerging countries like China and India on the international log market. The main reasons behind these trends were the collapse of log demand in the EU-28 and the USA during the crisis, as well as the introduction of tariff measures in important producing countries and the rising demand for timber products in emerging economies. These economic driving forces are doubtless factors that have tended to lessen the impact of measures intended to fight against the trade of illegal timber. In fact, although some of the trade patterns that emerged in the period between 2005 and 2014 can be attributed to the enforcement of EU Regulation (EU) No. 995/2010, the present research has demonstrated how these trade patterns seem to have been mainly motivated by factors unrelated to the introduction of the EUTR.

Abstract (seconda lingua)

L'evoluzione del settore forestale internazionale e il commercio dei prodotti legnosi, sono da sempre profondamente condizionati da fattori esterni al settore. Tra questi, è possibile ricordare i mutamenti del contesto economico internazionale, le politiche energetiche a livello nazionale ed internazionale, l'innovazione tecnologica e la risposta della società civile e delle istituzioni pubbliche a fenomeni, quali la deforestazione e il degrado delle foreste, in particolare nei paesi tropicali (FAO, 1998).
I grossi cambiamenti del contesto economico, infatti, come la crisi del 2008 e la rapida crescita delle economie emergenti, hanno avuto grossi impatti sulla domanda internazionale di prodotti in legno e hanno portato ad un vero e proprio stravolgimento dei tradizionali schemi del commercio internazionale dei prodotti in legno (ITTO, 2013). Allo stesso tempo, le leggi volute ed attuate dai paesi sviluppati per contrastare il fenomeno del taglio illegale di legname, come il piano d'azione FLEGT in Europa e il "Lacey Act" negli Stati Uniti, hanno condizionato le tradizionali scelte commerciali degli importatori di legname nei paesi occidentali (Pepke, 2015). Tuttavia, proprio come i paesi sviluppati, che rappresentano tradizionalmente i principali importatori di legname, negli ultimi venti anni, anche importanti paesi produttori, a loro volta, hanno applicato restrizioni sulle esportazioni, al fine di garantire la corretta gestione delle proprie foreste. Inoltre, è necessario considerare che, negli ultimi venti anni, grazie alla spinta di specifiche politiche energetiche, la domanda di biomassa legnosa per fini energetici, nei paesi sviluppati è notevolmente cresciuta (Berndes et al., 2003). In questo contesto caratterizzato da profondi cambiamenti strutturali e da una maggiore concorrenza con le economie emergenti, le industrie del settore forestale dei paesi occidentali, negli ultimi anni, sono state costrette a sviluppare prodotti e processi innovativi per rispondere a queste sfide (Hurmekoski e Hetemäki, 2013).
Questa tesi mira principalmente a connettere le forze, di natura economica, politica e tecnologica, che recentemente hanno condizionato il mercato del legname internazionale con le recenti evoluzioni del commercio internazionale.
La ricerca è stata sviluppata con un approccio misto, tra qualitativo e quantitativo. Nella prima parte, la ricerca descriverà e analizza in modo approfondito i principali elementi che, negli ultimi, hanno influenzato il commercio mondiale di legname. Nella seconda parte, la tesi mira a valutare il reale livello di attuazione della principale iniziativa attuata dall'Unione Europea, il piano d'azione FLEGT, per combattere l'importazione di legname illegale. La terza parte della tesi, invece, sarà basata principalmente su un approccio quantitativo, pertanto verrà presentata, in primo luogo, la metodologia utilizzata per raccogliere e migliorare la qualità dei dati sul commercio del legname, mentre la parte successiva della tesi sarà dedicata alla presentazione dei risultati e alla relativa discussione
La ricerca ha dimostrato come la crisi economica del 2008 ha colpito in maniera considerevole le importazioni nei paesi occidentali, andando ad accelerare il processo di crescita nel mercato internazionale di legname grezzo di paesi emergenti come Cina e ed India. Le ragioni principali di queste tendenze sono state il crollo, durante la crisi, della domanda di legname tondo negli Stati Uniti e in EU-28, l'introduzione di restrizioni alle esportazioni in importanti paesi produttori, nonchè la repentina crescita della domanda interna nelle economie emergenti. Le recenti evoluzioni del contesto economico internazionale sono, senza dubbio, importanti fattori che hanno ridotto gli impatti reali delle misure destinate a combattere il commercio di legname illegale. Infatti, anche se alcuni dei recenti trend del commercio, emersi nel periodo compreso tra il 2005 e il 2014 possono in maniera intuitiva essere attribuiti all'applicazione del regolamento EUTR, la presente ricerca ha dimostrato come questi sembrano essere stati principalmente motivati da fattori non correlati all'introduzione di tale regolamento. 

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Pettenella, Davide
Correlatore:Masiero, Mauro
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 30 > Corsi 30 > TERRITORIO, AMBIENTE, RISORSE E SALUTE
Data di deposito della tesi:11 Gennaio 2018
Anno di Pubblicazione:11 Gennaio 2018
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Timber market, Timber Trade, illegal logging, Reg. 995/2010, Flegt Action Plan.
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/01 Economia ed estimo rurale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali
Codice ID:10680
Depositato il:08 Nov 2018 10:03
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