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Marceta, Tihana (2018) Assessing the impacts of seawater acidification and emerging contaminants on different life stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (english)

Ocean acidification, originated by rising atmospheric CO2 levels, represents one of the most important future threats in marine coastal areas. Several studies have provided data about the effects of low pH on single life stages in marine invertebrate species. Presently, there is an increasing effort to produce knowledge about responses from the entire life cycle of the organisms and across generations as well. This approach has the advantage of highlighting potential phenotypic plasticity and producing more realistic data at population level.
Taking this into consideration, adult sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus were acclimated under reduced pH during gametogenesis. Physiological and biochemical parameters were evaluated in males and females separately and transgenerational effects were investigated analyzing offspring performances under different pH values.
Among future threats for coastal marine areas, the presence of pharmaceutical compounds is of great concern. The most used pharmaceuticals are commonly detected in the aquatic environment. These compounds are biologically active molecules which may interact also with non target organisms and their presence in marine coastal environment is expected to increase. Considering that in the wild, organisms are exposed to mixtures of various chemicals, for long time, it is important to investigate chronic effects of mixtures of these compounds at environmentally relevant concentrations. In order to focalize on more realistic chemical risk assessment methods which consider combined effects of the most common stressors in future marine environment, combined effects of low pH and the mixture of four pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, caffeine, diclofenac, and propranolol) at environmentally relevant concentration s were investigated in P. lividus larvae, through short-term and long-term experiments.
Furthermore, different pH values could increase or decrease bioavailability of pharmaceuticals when dissolved in aqueous medium, depending on chemical characteristics of the compounds.
Consequently, some chemical pollutants are expected to increase their toxicity under future decreases of pH, even if their concentration in the environment remains the same. Variations of percentage of lipophilic and more toxic form, in dissolved compounds can be calculated by Hendersen-Hesselbalch equation. LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) values for eighth pharmaceuticals belonging to different therapeutic classes [clofibric acid (lipid-lowering), caffeine (metabolic stimulator and adjuvant), diclofenac, ibuprofen (anti-inflammatory drugs) and propranolol (β-blocker), sulfadiazine, trimethoprim (antibiotics) and triclosan (antibacterial agent)] were evaluated at control and future predicted low pH values, in order to detect if synergic or antagonistic effects observed could be explained by bioavailability variations calculated.

Abstract (italian)

L’acidificazione degli oceani, dovuta ad una crescente concentrazione di anidride carbonica in atmosfera, rappresenta una delle più importanti minacce per le aree marine costiere. Diversi studi hanno fornito dati riguardanti gli effetti del basso pH su singoli stadi vitali in specie di invertebrati marini. Attualmente c’è un crescente sforzo nel approfondire la conoscenza riguardo alle risposte sia a livello dell’intero ciclo vitale degli organismi sia a livello di generazioni successive. Questo approccio presenta il vantaggio di evidenziare l’eventuale presenza di plasticità fenotipica e di produrre dati più realistici al livello di popolazione.
Considerato questo, ricci di mare adulti, della specie Paracentrotus lividus, sono stati acclimatati a pH ridotto durante la gametogenesi. Sono stati analizzati parametri fisiologici e biochimici in maschi e femmine separatamente e sono stati studiati gli effetti transgenerazionali analizzando le performance di gameti e larve a diversi valori di pH.
Tra le future minacce per le aree marine costiere, è crescente l’attenzione verso la presenza di composti farmaceutici. I farmaci più utilizzati sono comunemente riscontrati in ambiente acquatico. Questi composti sono molecole biologicamente attive che possono agire anche negli organismi non bersaglio ed è previsto che la loro concentrazione in ambienti costieri aumenti. In natura gli organismi possono essere esposti per lungo tempo a complesse miscele di vari composti chimici ed è importante valutare gli effetti cronici che queste sostanze possono causare anche alle concentrazioni relativamente basse, come quelle riscontrate in ambiente. Al fine di adottare metodi di valutazione del rischio chimico più realistici e che prendano in considerazione gli effetti combinati tra i più comuni futuri stressogeni in ambiente marino, attraverso esperimenti a breve e a lungo termine su larve di P. lividus, sono stati valutati gli effetti di basso pH e della miscela di quattro farmaci (acido clofibrioc, caffeina, diclofenac e propranololo) alle concentrazioni ambientali.
A seconda delle caratteristiche chimiche dei farmaci, quando disciolti, il pH della soluzione acquosa può far aumentare o diminuire la loro biodisponibilità. Di conseguenza, per alcuni contaminanti chimici, è atteso un aumento di tossicità in seguito al futuro abbassamento del pH, anche se la loro concentrazione in ambiente dovesse rimanere la stessa. Le variazioni della percentuale della forma lipofilica (considerata più tossica) disciolta può essere calcolata con l’uso dell’equazione di Hendersen-Hesselbalch. Per otto farmaci, appartenenti a differenti classi terapeutice (acido clofibrico, ipolipemizzante; caffeina, stimolante metabolico e coadiuvante; diclofenac e ibuprofene, antiinfiammatori non steroidei, propranololo, betabloccante; sulfadiazina e trimetoprim, antibiotici; triclosan, antibatterico) sono state calcolate le LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) a pH di controllo e a pH previsto per la fine del 2100, con lo scopo di valutare se effetti sinergici o antagonisti osservati tra i due stressogeni, possono essere spiegati dalla variazione di biodisponibilità calcolata.

EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Marin, Maria Gabriella
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 30 > Corsi 30 > BIOSCIENZE
Data di deposito della tesi:16 January 2018
Anno di Pubblicazione:15 January 2018
Key Words:Sea urchin, seawater acidification, pharmaceuticals, larvae, sperm
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 05 - Scienze biologiche > BIO/07 Ecologia
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Biologia
Codice ID:11026
Depositato il:31 Oct 2018 09:54
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