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Giardina, Agata (2018) Atmospheric plasma chemistry for environmental and biological applications. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (italiano o inglese)

My Ph.D. activity developed along four lines of research dealing with non-thermal plasma (NTP) induced chemical processes for water remediation and biomedical applications.
Specifically, I studied the effectiveness of atmospheric air plasma treatment in decomposing emerging organic contaminants (EOCs). The experimental setup used was a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor, a prototype developed in collaboration with the Department of Industrial Engineering of the University of Padova. Among EOCs, I chose six different contaminants, notably sulfamethoxazole, a veterinary antibiotic, triclosan, an antibacterial agent, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluorinated organic contaminant, and the herbicides irgarol, metolachlor and mesotrione. Kinetics of their removal by plasma, intermediates of oxidation, possible degradation pathways and conversion to CO2 were evaluated. The achievement of more than 93% of conversion was observed for all the contaminants used at the initial concentration of 5 μM, except for PFOA (42%).
An important advancement in my research involved the assessment of residual toxicity of plasma treated water samples. For this purpose, in collaboration with Prof. Giovanni Libralato (University of Naples), we tested the efficiency of plasma treatment in producing water free from ecotoxicological effects due to potentially toxic by-product residues. We tested one of the pollutants mentioned above, sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), an antibiotic listed among the most important emerging organic contaminants. A battery of acute and chronic toxicological test were employed: Daphnia magna, Raphidocaeilis Subcapitata and Vibrio Fischeri. It was found that toxicity of SMZ 5×10-4 M is minimized (V.fischeri) or reduced to zero (D. magna, R. Subcapitata) after 4 h of plasma treatment.
To improve the efficiency of our DBD reactor, we tested the effect of addition of a photocatalyst, TiO2. We compared the kinetics of degradation of Irgarol in photocatalytic plasma process with those obtained when TiO2 was not included. The results obtained suggest that the effect of photoactivation by titanium dioxide in our reactor was negligible under the conditions employed.
Possible reciprocal effects of different organic pollutants dissolved in water subjected to plasma induced advanced oxidation in our dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor were then evaluated. As case study for this investigation, I chose the herbicides S-metolachlor and mesotrione, which are commonly applied in mixture. Results revealed that metolachlor does not affect mesotrione kinetics and viceversa when they are in solution, in 1:1 ratio.
A new reactor was developed in our lab, in collaboration with Dr. Bosi from the Department of Industrial Engineering (University of Padova) with improved design and features with respect to the existing DBD reactor. The new reactor, operating in streamer discharge regime, was exhaustively characterized in collaboration with Dr. Gabriele Neretti (University of Bologna) and Dr. Barbara Zaniol (Consorzio RFX), and tested on phenol and metolachlor.
Finally, during a four-month stage at the University of Bochum (Germany) I had the opportunity to work on a project dealing with plasma applications in the biomedical field under the supervision of Profs. Julia Bandow and Jan Benedikt. In particular, the effects of two plasma sources were tested in vitro on glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and E. coli. The results obtained for the enzyme suggest the importance of oxidation of the thiol group of the active site in plasma mode of action. The same approach was applied to assess the effect of ionic components of plasma by a new source developed by Prof. Benedikt (University of Bochum). The study of inactivation of the enzyme via plasma, with and without ions, showed a synergic effect between radicals and ions.

Abstract (seconda lingua)

La Tesi riporta e discute i risultati ottenuti nell’applicazione di plasmi non termici per il trattamento ossidativo di inquinanti modello e ulteriori risultati relativi all’utilizzo del plasma in campo biomedico.
L’apparato sperimentale impiegato è stato progettato e realizzato in collaborazione con il Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e produce una scarica a barriera di dielettrico (reattore DBD). Il sistema era già in uso nel periodo antecedente l’inizio della mia attività di dottorato. Le specie reattive che si generano a causa della scarica elettrica nell’aria umida sovrastante la fase liquida entrano in contatto con essa e possono reagire con l’inquinante organico in soluzione. Le specie reattive possono essere distinte in primarie, cioè generate direttamente dalla scarica per reazione del gas con gli elettroni energetici formando radicali, ioni e specie eccitate altamente reattive ed instabili, e secondarie prodotte per reazione delle stesse specie con le molecole del gas oppure con l’umidità presente.
Il primo passo è stato quello di applicare tali scariche elettriche per il trattamento di diverse categorie di inquinanti emergenti allo scopo di valutare le potenziali applicazioni di questa tecnologia in relazione alle proprietà chimico fisiche degli inquinanti trattati. Sono stati selezionati i seguenti contaminanti organici persistenti: il sulfametossazolo, un antibiotico veterinario, il triclosan, un antibatterico, l’acido perfluoroacetico e tre erbicidi, l’irgarol, il metolachlor ed il mesotrione. Per tutti i composti in esame ho ottenuto profili esponenziali di degradazione in funzione del tempo di trattamento, da cui sono state ricavate le costanti cinetiche di pseudo-primo ordine. L’analisi HPLC-MS ha consentito l’identificazione degli intermedi e prodotti di degradazione, compatibili con possibili reazioni dovute all’azione dell’ozono e dei radicali ∙OH. Sono stati proposti inoltre i meccanismi di degradazione dei composti organici trattati.
Lo scopo finale nell’uso di processi di degradazione avanzata è la completa conversione della componente organica a CO2. In seguito al trattamento al plasma, sono state riscontrate percentuali di mineralizzazione pari o maggiori al 93% per tutti gli inquinanti considerati, usati in concentrazione pari a 5 μM, fatta eccezione per l’acido perfluoroottanoico per cui la percentuale di mineralizzazione è stata considerevolmente più bassa (42%).
Lo studio dei processi di degradazione al plasma è inoltre servito in alcuni casi da punto di partenza per ulteriori approfondimenti. È questo il caso dell’irgarol, in cui si è cercato di implementare l’effetto del plasma aggiungendo un fotocatalizzatore ampiamente utilizzato, TiO2. Non sono stati riscontrati tuttavia miglioramenti nell’effetto della scarica su tale inquinante indicando un trascurabile effetto fotocatalitico nelle condizioni sperimentali adottate. Un ulteriore avanzamento nelle ricerche in questo ambito è consistito nell’applicazione della scarica DBD su una miscela di inquinanti, il metolachlor e il mesotrione, solitamente utilizzati in combinazione in diverse formulazioni agricole. Gli studi cinetici effettuati hanno evidenziato che i due composti non si influenzano reciprocamente quando subiscono il trattamento al plasma in soluzioni miste in cui sono presenti in rapporto molare 1:1.
Un importante parametro nella valutazione di una tecnica di depurazione consiste nell’analisi ecotossicologica del campione acquoso dopo il trattamento. A tale scopo, in collaborazione con il Prof. Giovanni Libralato del Dipartimento di Biologia dell’Università di Napoli, sono stati effettuati test tossicologici su campioni contenenti sulfametossazolo (SMZ), prima e dopo il trattamento nel reattore DBD. Allo scopo è stata utilizzata una batteria di test acuti e cronici per Vibrio Fischeri, Daphnia magna e Raphidocaelis subcapitata. I dati ottenuti a partire da una soluzione di SMZ 5·10-4 M hanno mostrato un elevato livello di tossicità della soluzione iniziale e la riduzione (V.fischeri) o l’azzeramento di tali effetti (D.magna e R.subcapitata) a seguito del trattamento nel reattore al plasma.
Un nuovo reattore è stato inoltre ideato e realizzato in collaborazione con il Dr. Franco Bosi, del Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale dell’Università di Padova. La sorgente di plasma utilizza una scarica di tipo streamer ed è stata realizzata allo scopo di favorire un migliore trasporto delle specie reattive prodotte dalla scarica e ottimizzare la loro interazione con la soluzione da trattare. Il reattore è stato quindi caratterizzato in collaborazione con il Dr. Gabriele Neretti (Università di Bologna) e la Dr.ssa Barbara Zaniol (Consorzio RFX, Padova) e collaudato nel trattamento di due inquinanti organici, il fenolo ed il metolachlor.
Infine nel corso di un periodo di quattro mesi di attività di ricerca presso il laboratorio della Prof.ssa Bandow dell’Università di Bochum (Germania) ho avuto modo di approfondire alcuni aspetti legati alle applicazioni del plasma atmosferico in campo biomedico. In particolare ho partecipato a studi sugli effetti di due diverse sorgenti al plasma su un enzima, gliceraldeide-3-fosfato deidrogenasi, in vitro e sul batterio E. coli. Il sito di attacco principale è risultato essere il sito attivo cisteina con conseguente ossidazione del gruppo -SH. Lo stesso approccio è stato applicato, in collaborazione con il Prof. Benedikt per lo studio degli effetti del plasma, in assenza e in presenza delle specie ioniche. I risultati ottenuti hanno evidenziato un effetto sinergico dovuto alla copresenza di specie neutre e ioniche.

Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Paradisi, Cristina
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 30 > Corsi 30 > SCIENZE MOLECOLARI
Data di deposito della tesi:19 Febbraio 2018
Anno di Pubblicazione:19 Febbraio 2018
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):non thermal plasma, plasma non termico, environmental field, biological applications, applicazioni, ambito biologico, ambiente
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 03 - Scienze chimiche > CHIM/06 Chimica organica
Area 03 - Scienze chimiche > CHIM/12 Chimica dell'ambiente e dei beni culturali
Area 03 - Scienze chimiche > CHIM/01 Chimica analitica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche
Codice ID:11161
Depositato il:26 Ott 2018 08:26
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"7. Dirany A, Aaron SE, Oturan N, Sirés I, Oturan M, Aaron J. Study of the toxicity of sulfamethoxazole and its degradation products in water by a bioluminescence method during application of the electro-fenton treatment. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry. 2011;400(2):353-360." Cerca con Google

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"10. Marotta E, Ceriani E, Shapoval V, Schiorlin M, Ceretta C, Rea M, Paradisi C. Characterization of plasma-induced phenol advanced oxidation process in a DBD reactor. Eur Phys J Appl Phys. 2012; 55(1):13811" Cerca con Google

"11. Schiorlin M, Marotta E, Kim H, Paradisi C, Ogata A. Determination of atomic oxygen in atmospheric plasma from oxygen isotope exchange. Plasma Processes and Polymers. 2011;8(9):859-866." Cerca con Google

"12. Marotta E, Ceriani E, Schiorlin M, Ceretta C, Paradisi C. Comparison of the rates of phenol advanced oxidation in deionized and tap water within a dielectric barrier discharge reactor. Water Res. 2012;46(19):6239-6246." Cerca con Google

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"17. Krishna S, Ceriani E, Marotta E, Giardina A, Špatenka P, Paradisi C. Products and mechanism of verapamil removal in water by air non-thermal plasma treatment. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2016;292(Supplement C):35-41. " Cerca con Google

"18. Marotta E, Callea A, Ren X, Rea M, Paradisi C. DC corona electric discharges for air pollution control, 2-ionic intermediates and mechanisms of hydrocarbon processing. Plasma Processes and Polymers. 2008;5(2):146-154." Cerca con Google

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"32. Zazo J A, Casas J A, Mohedano A F, Gilarranz M A, ROdriguez J J. Chemical pathway and kinetics of phenol oxidation by fenton's reagent. - Environ Sci Technol. 2005;39 (23):9295-9302 " Cerca con Google

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"1. Lapworth DJ, Baran N, Stuart ME, Ward RS. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater: A review of sources, fate and occurrence. Environmental Pollution. 2012;163(Supplement C):287-303" Cerca con Google

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"12. Laane R, Vethaak AD, Gandrass J, et al. Chemical contaminants in the wadden sea: Sources, transport, fate and effects. J Sea Res. 2013;82:10-53" Cerca con Google

"13. Sakkas VA, Konstantinou IK, Albanis TA. Photochemical fate of organic booster biocides in the aquatic environment. In: Antifouling paint biocides. Springer; 2006:171-200" Cerca con Google

"14. Luft A, Wagner M, Ternes TA. Transformation of biocides irgarol and terbutryn in the biological wastewater treatment. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;48(1):244-254" Cerca con Google

"15. Dupraz V, Coquill N, Mnard D, Sussarellu R, Haugarreau L, Stachowski-Haberkorn S. Microalgal sensitivity varies between a diuron-resistant strain and two wild strains when exposed to diuron and irgarol, alone and in mixtures. Chemosphere. 2016;151:241-252" Cerca con Google

"16. Sjollema SB, MartnezGarca G, van der Geest, Harm G, et al. Hazard and risk of herbicides for ma-rine microalgae. Environmental Pollution. 2014;187:106-111" Cerca con Google

"17. Mai H, Morin B, Pardon P, Gonzalez P, Budzinski H, Cachot J. Environmental concentrations of irgarol, diuron and S-metolachlor induce deleterious effects on gametes and embryos of the pacific oyster, crassostrea gigas. Mar Environ Res. 2013;89:1-8" Cerca con Google

"18. Oturan MA, Aaron J. Advanced oxidation processes in water/wastewater treatment: Principles and applications. A review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol. 2014;44(23):2577-2641" Cerca con Google

"19. Magureanu M, Mandache NB, Parvulescu VI. Degradation of pharmaceutical compounds in water by non-thermal plasma treatment. Water Res. 2015;81:124-136." Cerca con Google

"20. Reddy PMK, Mahammadunnisa S, Subrahmanyam C. Catalytic non-thermal plasma reactor for mineralization of endosulfan in aqueous medium: A green approach for the treatment of pesticide contaminated water. Chem Eng J. 2014;238:157-163." Cerca con Google

"21. Konstantinou IK, Sakellarides TM, Sakkas VA, Albanis TA. Photocatalytic degradation of select-ed s-triazine herbicides and organophosphorus insecticides over aqueous TiO2 suspensions. Environ Sci Technol. 2001;35(2):398-405" Cerca con Google

"22. Fridman G, Brooks AD, Balasubramanian M, et al. Comparison of direct and indirect effects of non?thermal atmospheric?pressure plasma on bacteria. Plasma Processes and Polymers. 2007;4(4):370-375" Cerca con Google

"23. Hurum DC, Agrios AG, Gray KA, Rajh T, Thurnauer MC. Explaining the enhanced photocatalytic activity of degussa P25 mixed-phase TiO2 using EPR. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2003;107(19):4545-4549" Cerca con Google

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"25. Marotta E, Ceriani E, Shapoval V, et al. Characterization of plasma-induced phenol advanced oxi-dation process in a DBD reactor. Eur.Phys.J.Appl.Phys. 2011;55(1)" Cerca con Google

"26. Sakkas VA, Lambropoulou DA, Albanis TA. Photochemical degradation study of irgarol 1051 in natural waters: Influence of humic and fulvic substances on the reaction. J Photochem Photobiol A. 2002;147(2):135-141." Cerca con Google

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"28. Lam K, Lam MH, Lam PK, et al. Identification and characterization of a new degradation product of irgarol-1051 in mercuric chloride-catalyzed hydrolysis reaction and in coastal waters. Marine Pol-lution Bulletin. 2004;49(4):361-367" Cerca con Google

"29. Peñela GA, Ferrer I, Barceló D. Identification of new photodegradation byproducts of the antifoul-ing agent irgarol in seawater samples. Int J Environ Anal Chem. 2000;78(1):25-40." Cerca con Google

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"5. Bethsass J, Colangelo A. European Union Bans Atrazine, While the United States Negotiates Continued Use. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2006; 12(3): 260" Cerca con Google

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"11. Joly P, Besse-Hoggan P, Bonnemoy F, Batisson I, Bohatier J, Mallet C. Impact of Maize Formulated Herbicides Mesotrione and S-Metolachlor, Applied Alone and in Mixture, on Soil Microbial Communities. ISRN Ecology. 2012; 2012: 9" Cerca con Google

"12. Mendes KF, Reis MRd, Inoue MH, Pimpinato RF, Tornisielo VL. Sorption and desorption of mesotrione alone and mixed with S-metolachlor+terbuthylazine in Brazilian soils. Geoderma. 2016; 280:22-28" Cerca con Google

"13. Oturan MA, Aaron J. Advanced Oxidation Processes in Water/Wastewater Treatment: Principles and Applications. A Review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 2014; 44(23):2577-2641" Cerca con Google

"14. Bruggeman PJ, Kushner MJ, Locke BR, Gardeniers JGE, Graham WG, Graves DB, Hofman-Caris RCHM, Maric D, Reid JP, Ceriani E, Fernandez Rivas D, Foster JE, Garrick SC, Gorbanev Y, Hamaguchi S, Iza F, Jablonowski H, Klimova E, Kolb J, Krcma F, Lukes P, Machala Z, Marinov I, Mariotti D, Mededovic Thagard S, Minakata D, Neyts EC, Pawlat J, Lj Petrovic Z, Pflieger R, Reuter S, Schram DC, Schröter S, Shiraiwa M, Tarabová B, Tsai PA, Verlet JRR, von Woedtke T, Wilson KR, Yasui K, Zvereva G. Plasma-liquid interactions: a review and roadmap. Plasma Sources Sci Technol 2016; 25(5) [053002]" Cerca con Google

"15. Locke BR, Sato M, Sunka P, Hoffmann MR, Chang J. Electrohydraulic Discharge and Nonthermal Plasma for Water Treatment. Ind Eng Chem Res 2006; 45(3):882-905" Cerca con Google

"16. Magureanu M, Mandache NB, Parvulescu VI. Degradation of pharmaceutical compounds in water by non-thermal plasma treatment. Water Research 2015; 81:124-136" Cerca con Google

"17. Krishna S, Maslani A, Izdebski T, Horakova M, Klementova S, Spatenka P. Degradation of Verapamil hydrochloride in water by gliding arc discharge. Chemosphere 2016; 152:47-54" Cerca con Google

"18. Cadorin BM, Tralli VD, Ceriani E, Benetoli, Luís Otávio de Brito, Marotta E, Ceretta C, Debacher NA, Paradisi C. Treatment of methyl orange by nitrogen non-thermal plasma in a corona reactor: The role of reactive nitrogen species. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2015; 300:754-764" Cerca con Google

"19. Misra NN, Pankaj SK, Walsh T, O'Regan F, Bourke P, Cullen PJ. In-package nonthermal plasma degradation of pesticides on fresh produce. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2014; 271:33-40" Cerca con Google

"20. Ballesteros Martín MM, Sánchez Pérez JA, Casas López JL, Oller I, Malato Rodríguez S. Degradation of a four-pesticide mixture by combined photo-Fenton and biological oxidation. Water Research 2009; 43:653-660" Cerca con Google

"21. Marotta E, Schiorlin M, Ren X, Rea M, Paradisi C. Advanced oxidation process for degradation of aqueous phenol in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor. Plasma Processes Polym. 2011; 8:867-875" Cerca con Google

"22. Marotta E, Ceriani E, Schiorlin M, Ceretta C, Paradisi C. Comparison of the rates of phenol advanced oxidation in deionized and tap water within a dielectric barrier discharge reactor. Water Research 2012; 46(19):6239-6246" Cerca con Google

"23. Marotta E, Ceriani E, Shapoval V, Schiorlin M, Ceretta C, Rea M, Paradisi C. Characterization of plasma-induced phenol advanced oxidation process in a DBD reactor. Eur Phys J Appl Phys. 2012; 55(1):13811" Cerca con Google

"24. Slater RC, Douglas-Hamilton DH. Electron?beam?initiated destruction of low concentrations of vinyl chloride in carrier gases. J Appl Phys. 1981; 52(9):5820" Cerca con Google

"25. Madureira J, Ceriani E, Pinhão N, Marotta E, Melo R, Cabo Verde S, Paradisi C, Margaça FMA. Oxidation of clofibric acid in aqueous solution using a non-thermal plasma discharge or gamma radiation. Chemosphere 2016; 187:395-403 " Cerca con Google

"26. Staehelin J, Hoigne J. Decomposition of ozone in water in the presence of organic solutes acting as promoters and inhibitors of radical chain reactions. Environ Sci Technol. 1985; 9(12) :1206-1213" Cerca con Google

"27. Huang H, Liu G, Lv W, Yao K, Kang Y, Li F, Lin L. Ozone-Oxidation Products of Ibuprofen and Toxicity Analysis in Simulated Drinking Water. J Drug Metab Toxicol. 2015; 6:181 " Cerca con Google

"28. Hübner U, von Gunten U, Jekel M. Evaluation of the persistence of transformation products from ozonation of trace organic compounds - A critical review. Water Research. 2015; 68:150-170" Cerca con Google

"29. Zazo JA, Casas JA, Mohedano AF, Gilarranz MA, Rodríguez JJ. Chemical Pathway and Kinetics of Phenol Oxidation by Fenton's Reagent. Environ Sci Technol 2005; 39(23) :9295-9302" Cerca con Google

"30. Ter Halle A, Richard C. Simulated Solar Light Irradiation of Mesotrione in Natural Waters. Environ Sci Technol. 2006; 40:3842" Cerca con Google

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"33. Murati M, Oturan N, Aaron J, Dirany A, Tassin B, Zdravkovski Z, Oturan MA. Degradation and mineralization of sulcotrione and mesotrione in aqueous medium by the electro-Fenton process: a kinetic study. Environ Sci Poll Res. 2012; 19(5):1563-1573" Cerca con Google

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"19. Latch DE, Packer JL, Stender BL, VanOverbeke J, Arnold WA, McNeill K. Aqueous photochemistry of triclosan: Formation of 2, 4?dichlorophenol, 2, 8?dichlorodibenzo?p?dioxin, and oligomerization products. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 2005;24(3):517-525." Cerca con Google

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Chapter 7.1 Cerca con Google

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"4. Kubinova S, Zaviskova K, Uherkova L, et al. Non-thermal air plasma promotes the healing of acute skin wounds in rats. Scientific Reports. 2017;7:45183" Cerca con Google

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"7. Park JH, Kumar N, Park DH, et al. A comparative study for the inactivation of multidrug resistance bacteria using dielectric barrier discharge and nano-second pulsed plasma. Scientific reports. 2015;5(1):13849" Cerca con Google

"8. Brehmer F, Haenssle HA, Daeschlein G, et al. Alleviation of chronic venous leg ulcers with a hand-held dielectric barrier discharge plasma generator (PlasmaDerm(®) VU-2010): Results of a monocentric, two-armed, open, prospective, randomized and controlled trial (NCT01415622). Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV. 2015;29(1):148" Cerca con Google

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"13. Vandamme M, Robert E, Lerondel S, et al. ROS implication in a new antitumor strategy based on non-thermal plasma. International Journal of Cancer. 2012;130(9):2185-2194" Cerca con Google

"14. Fridman G, Brooks AD, Balasubramanian M, et al. Comparison of direct and indirect effects of non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma on bacteria. Plasma Processes and Polymers. 2007;4(4):370-375" Cerca con Google

"15. Lin A, Chernets N, Han J, et al. Non?Equilibrium dielectric barrier discharge treatment of mesenchymal stem cells: Charges and reactive oxygen species play the major role in cell death. Plasma Processes and Polymers. 2015;12(10):1117-1127" Cerca con Google

"16. Seidler NW. GAPDH: Biological properties and diversity. Vol 985. Springer Netherlands; 2013" Cerca con Google

"17. Stapelmann K., Lackmann J., Buerger I., Bandow J.E. and Awakowicz P. A H2 very high frequency capacitively coupled plasma inactivates glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapDH) more efficiently than UV photons and heat. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 2014;47:085402" Cerca con Google

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"19. Kartaschew, Baldus S, Mischo M, Bründermann E, Awakowicz P, Havenith M. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma and bacteria: Understanding the mode of action using vibrational microspectroscopy. J Phys D. 2016;49(37):374003" Cerca con Google

20. Bibinov N., Rajasekaran P., Mertmann P., Wandke D., Viöl W. and Awakowicz P.,. Biomedical engineering (trends in materials). New York: InTech, 2011):123-50. Cerca con Google

"21. Rajasekaran P, Mertmann P, Bibinov N, Wandke D, Viöl W, Awakowicz P. Filamentary and homogeneous modes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air: Investigation through plasma characterization and simulation of surface irradiation. Plasma Processes and Polymers. 2010;7(8):665-675" Cerca con Google

"22. Ellerweg D, Benedikt J, von Keudell A, Knake N, Schulz-von der Gathen V. Characterization of the effluent of a he/O2 microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet by quantitative molecular beam mass spectrometry. New Journal of Physics. 2010;12:013021" Cerca con Google

"23. Schneider S, Lackmann J, Narberhaus F, Bandow JE, Denis B, Benedikt J. Separation of VUV/UV photons and reactive particles in the effluent of a he/O2 atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. 2011;44(29):295201" Cerca con Google

"24. Vijay Sharma John H McNeill. Parallel effects of ?-adrenoceptor blockade on cardiac function and fatty acid oxidation in the diabetic heart: Confronting the maze. World J Cardiol. 2011;3(9):281-302" Cerca con Google

"25. Douat CC, Hübner SS, Engeln RR, Benedikt JJ. Production of nitric/nitrous oxide by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Plasma Sources Science and Technology. 2016;25(2):025027. " Cerca con Google

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"31. Bekeschus S, Lin A, Fridman A, Wende K, Weltmann K, Miller V. A comparison of floating-electrode DBD and kINPen jet: Plasma parameters to achieve similar growth reduction in colon cancer cells under standardized conditions. Plasma Chem Plasma Process. 2018;38(1):1-12. " Cerca con Google

"32. Peralta P, Bronowska A K, Morgan B, et al. A proton relay enhances H2O2 sensitivity of GAPDH to facilitate metabolic adaptation. Nature chemical biology. 2015;11(2):156-163" Cerca con Google

Chapter 7.2 Cerca con Google

"1. Lackmann JW, Baldus S, Steinborn E, et al. A dielectric barrier discharge terminally inactivates RNase A by oxidizing sulfur-containing amino acids and breaking structural disulfide bonds. J Phys D. 2015;48(49):494003. " Cerca con Google

"2. Karczewski C. Bachelor thesis; 2017" Cerca con Google

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"4. Dobrynin D, Fridman G, Friedman G, Fridman A. Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue. New Journal of Physics. 2009;11(11):115020." Cerca con Google

"5. Fridman G, Brooks AD, Balasubramanian M, et al. Comparison of direct and indirect effects of non? thermal atmospheric? pressure plasma on bacteria. Plasma Processes and Polymers. 2007;4(4):370-375. " Cerca con Google

6. M.Hefny M, Große Kreul S. Private communication Cerca con Google

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