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Candini, Valentina (2018) Metacognition, mental disorders and aggressive behaviour: a longitudinal study. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (italian or english)

Metacognitive functions play a key role in understanding which elements might lead a person with severe mental disorder to commit violent acts against others. Indeed, understanding internal states such as thoughts, emotions, desires, fears and goals, both their own and those of others and differentiating between them, is needed in order to guide behaviour towards the resolution of interpersonal conflict. This is a fundamental aspect of affronting the risk of committing aggressive acts.
The aims of the study were the following: (a) to investigate the differences between patients with a poor metacognitive functioning and patients with a good metacognitive functioning in relation to history of violence; (b) to explore the differences between patients with a poor metacognitive functioning and patients with a good metacognitive functioning in relation to other important aspects potentially involved in aggressive behaviour such as personality traits, anger, impulsiveness, hostility and emotion recognition; (c) to investigate the differences between patients with a poor metacognitive functioning and patients with a good metacognitive functioning in relation to aggressive behaviour displayed by patients during the one year follow-up; (d) to analyse the predictors of aggressive behaviour and evaluate if the metacognitive functions associated with other investigated aspects are related to aggressive behaviour during the one-year follow-up.
The sample included 180 patients: 56% outpatients and 44% inpatients, the majority were male (75%) with a mean age of 44 (+9,8) years and half of them had a history of violence. The sample was split into two groups: Poor Metacognition (PM) group and Good Metacognition (GM) group, according to MAI evaluation scores.
The PM patients reported a history of violence more frequently than GM patients (considering MAI total score), and in particular patients with poor monitoring, differentiating and decentering. Furthermore, PM patients showed less ability in emotion recognition and more frequently paranoid and narcissistic personality traits compared to GM patients. Concerning hostility, impulsivity and anger, no significant differences were found, except for ‘Negativism’ (i.e., BDHI subscale) that was higher in PM patients. During the 1-year follow-up, no differences between the PM group and the GM group in aggressive behaviours (verbal, against objects, self-aggression, against people) were found. The strongest predictors of aggressive behavoiur were: Borderline and Passive-Aggressive personality traits, history of violence, anger and hostility. The metacognitive functions alone did not predict aggressive behaviour, but metacognitive functions interacted with hostility manifested through direct and indirect aggression (two BDHI subscales) and with angry reaction through aggressive behaviour (one STAXI-2 subscale) in predicting aggressive behaviour. Indeed, these aspects predicted aggressive behaviour only in PM patients and not in GM patients.
This study leads to important conclusions: (a) certain aspects closely related with violence (e.g., hostility, anger) are predictive of aggressive behaviour only in patients with poor metacognition, thus good metacognition is a protective factors; (b) poor metacognition is associated with history of violence, which in turn increases the risk of committing aggressive behaviour. For this reason and considering that research in this field is still very limited, further studies are needed to deepen the role of metacognitive functions in relation to aggressive behaviour and to investigate whether psychotherapy focused on metacognitive functions is effective to prevent and/or reduce interpersonal violence.

Abstract (a different language)

Le funzioni metacognitive svolgono un ruolo chiave nella comprensione di quali elementi potrebbero indurre una persona con gravi disturbi mentali a commettere atti violenti contro altre persone. Risulta, infatti, essenziale comprendere gli stati interni quali pensieri, emozioni, desideri, paure e obiettivi, sia propri che altrui, ed essere capaci di differenziarli tra loro, per poter guidare il proprio comportamento verso la risoluzione dei conflitti interpersonali. Per tale ragione, questo aspetto diviene fondamentale nell'affrontare il tema del rischio di violenza, cercando di comprendere ciò che discrimina persone con disturbi mentali che commettono agiti aggressivi e pazienti con gli stessi disturbi che non commettono tali atti.
Gli obiettivi dello studio erano i seguenti: (a) indagare le differenze tra pazienti con uno scarso funzionamento metacognitivo e pazienti con un buon funzionamento metacognitivo in relazione alla storia di violenza; (b) esplorare le differenze tra pazienti con uno scarso funzionamento metacognitivo e pazienti con un buon funzionamento metacognitivo in relazione ad altri importanti aspetti potenzialmente coinvolti in comportamenti aggressivi come i tratti della personalità, la rabbia, l'impulsività, l'ostilità e il riconoscimento delle emozioni; (c) investigare le differenze tra pazienti con uno scarso funzionamento metacognitivo e pazienti con un buon funzionamento metacognitivo in relazione al comportamento aggressivo manifestato durante l’anno di follow-up; (d) analizzare i fattori predittivi del comportamento aggressivo e valutare se le funzioni metacognitive associate ad altri aspetti indagati sono correlate al comportamento aggressivo agito durante il follow-up.
Il campione è costituito da 180 pazienti: 56% ambulatoriali e 44% residenziali, la maggior parte erano maschi (75%) con un'età media di 44 anni (+9,8) e metà di essi aveva una storia di violenza. Il campione è stato diviso in due gruppi: il gruppo Scarsa Metacognizione (PM) e il gruppo Buona Metacognizione (GM), in base ai punteggi ottenuti nella valutazione dell’intervista metacognitiva (MAI).
I pazienti con scarsa metacognizione hanno riportato più frequentemente una storia di violenza rispetto ai pazienti con buona metacognizione (considerando il punteggio totale MAI), e in particolare i pazienti con scarsa metacognizione nelle specifiche funzioni di monitoraggio, differenziazione e decentramento. Inoltre, i pazienti con scarsa metacognizione presentavano meno abilità nel riconoscimento delle emozioni e più frequentemente tratti di personalità paranoidi e narcisistici rispetto ai pazienti con buona metacognizione. Per quanto concerne l'ostilità, l'impulsività e la rabbia, non sono state riscontrate differenze significative tra i due gruppi, ad eccezione del "Negativismo" (sottoscala del BDHI), che era più alto nei pazienti con scarsa metacognizione. Anche nel caso dei comportamenti aggressivi (verbali, contro oggetti, auto-aggressivi, contro le persone) manifestati durante l’anno di follow-up, non sono emerse differenze significative tra i due gruppi. I dati rivelano che i predittori del comportamento aggressivo sono i seguenti: tratti di personalità borderline e passivo-aggressivi, storia di violenza, rabbia e ostilità. Le funzioni metacognitive da sole non predivano il comportamento aggressivo, ma esse interagivano con le seguenti dimensioni in tale predizione: l'ostilità manifestata attraverso aggressioni dirette e indirette (due sottoscale del BDHI) e le reazioni rabbiose agite tramite il comportamento aggressivo (una sottoscala della STAXI-2). Infatti, questi aspetti emergevano come predittori dei comportamenti aggressivi solo nei pazienti con scarsa metacognizione e al contrario, non risultavano più predittori nei pazienti con buona metacognizione.
Questo studio porta a importanti riflessioni: (a) alcuni aspetti strettamente correlati alla violenza (ad esempio, ostilità, rabbia) sono predittivi di comportamenti aggressivi solo in pazienti con scarsa metacognizione, facendo risutare la buona metacognizione come fattore protettivo; (b) la scarsa metacognizione è associata alla storia di violenza, la quale a sua volta aumenta il rischio di commettere comportamenti aggressivi. Per tale ragione e considerando che la ricerca in questo campo è ancora molto limitata, sono necessari ulteriori studi al fine di approfondire il ruolo delle funzioni metacognitive in relazione al comportamento aggressivo, e per indagare se la psicoterapia orientata al miglioramento delle funzioni metacognitive può rivelarsi efficace nel prevenire e/o ridurre la violenza interpersonale .

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EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Ghisi, Marta
Supervisor:de Girolamo, Giovanni
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 30 > Corsi 30 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:13 June 2018
Anno di Pubblicazione:13 June 2018
Key Words:Metacognizione/Metacognition, Violenza/Violence, Disturbi mentali/Mental disorders
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/08 Psicologia clinica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:11251
Depositato il:07 Nov 2019 12:00
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