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Gobbo, Stefano (2018) Postural Balance, Muscle Strength and History of Falls in Kidney Transplant Recipients.
Equilibrio posturale, forza muscolare e storia di cadute nei pazienti nefrotrapiantati.
[Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (italian or english)

Background. Although post-transplantation improvement in quality of life can lead to increased levels of physical activity, the amount achieved still remain lower than those measured in general health population. Moreover, the prevalence of sarcopenia and frailty is also higher among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and seems to occur at a younger age compared to the general population. In particular, postural instability has been identified as one of the main factors that can lead to adverse outcomes such as falls in the elderly; so, it is plausible to speculate that people living with a renal transplant may thus also be at increased risk for falling. Additionally, muscle atrophy, commonly reported in KTRs, has consistently been associated with impaired postural control and increased risk for falling. Finally, the side effects of immunosuppressive therapy, that include central neurologic disorders (tremors) and peripheral neuropathy may also hinder the postural control of KTRs. Starting from these assumptions, the overall aim of this project is to characterized KTRs from the functional point of view. Specifically, the project was set up in three steps: compare the static balance control in KTRs with healthy adults, explore the falls’ risk profile of KTRs population, and finally involve patients in an adapted and personalized training program. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first protocol investigating static balance control in KTRs and the effects of an exercise program on this skill.
Material and Methods. For the three aims were recruited three different samples. The first was composed by 19 KTRs and 19 healthy adults (HA), with same mean height, weight and age, which are the three determinants of static balance. In this protocol were assessed static balance in three different conditions: open eyes (EO), closed eyes (EC) and dual-task (DT). The second sample for the second project aim was composed by 59 KTRs divided in two groups, the first with 20 KTRs with history of falls in the previous year, and the second with 39 non-fallers. For this study were assessed fall efficacy scale (FES), static balance in the same three conditions of the first protocol, upper and lower limb strength respectively with handgrip strength test and isometric and isokinetic tests for knee and ankle muscles. For the third aim project were recruited 31 KTRs. They were involved in an adapted and personalized training program (10 sessions, 1 hour per session, 2 per week) to improve quality of life, strength and balance. Before and after training period patients’ physical function was evaluated using field tests included in the Senior Fitness Test.
Results. The first experiment confirmed that KTRs are generally sedentary, and the differences between KTRs and HA in postural sway in all conditions (EO, EC and DT) reveal that KTRs had higher postural sway scores than HA. Regarding the second study, 20 out of the 59 investigation participants (33.9%) reported at least one fall in the previous year. Our findings, on falling behavior, suggest that the prevalence of falls in KTRs patients is 1.6 to 4.3 times greater than in age-matched healthy people, which is indicative of an increased risk of falling. Moreover, the muscle strength analysis highlighted an overall trend of poorer upper and lower limb strength in fallers compared to non-fallers. Regarding the last part of the project, despite the little number of training sessions and the training period, improvements in all field tests were statistically significant.
Conclusions. Results corroborated the hypothesis that adapted physical activity should be prescribed as preventive therapy in KTRs, because despite the improvements in quality of life derived from the transplantation the risk of falls still remain high and strength level still remain low, increasing the risk of fracture, and accidental falls which may worsen quality of life and the health burden of these patients.

Abstract (a different language)

Presupposti. Sebbene la qualità della vita può migliorare dopo il trapianto di rene, i livelli di attività fisica raggiunti da tali pazienti rimangono ancora inferiori rispetto a quelli della popolazione generale. Inoltre, la prevalenza di sarcopenia e fragilità è alta nei pazienti nefrotrapiantati e sembra insorgere in età più giovane rispetto alla popolazione generale. In particolare, l'instabilità posturale è stata identificata come uno dei principali fattori che possono portare a esiti avversi come le cadute negli anziani; quindi, è plausibile ipotizzare che i pazienti nefrotrapiantati possano anche presentare un maggior rischio di caduta. Per di più, l'atrofia muscolare comunemente riscontrata nei nefrotapiantati, è stata associata ad un controllo posturale alterato e ad un aumento del rischio di caduta. Infine, gli effetti collaterali della terapia immunosoppressiva, che includono disturbi neurologici, come tremori e neuropatia periferica, possono anche inficiare il controllo posturale in tali pazienti. Partendo da questi presupposti, l'obiettivo generale di questo progetto è quello di caratterizzare i pazienti nefrotrapiantati dal punto di vista funzionale. Nello specifico, il progetto è stato impostato in tre fasi: confrontare l’equilibrio statico dei pazienti nefrotrapiantati con adulti sani, esplorare la prevalenza delle cadute nella popolazione nefrotrapiantata e infine coinvolgere tali pazienti in un programma di allenamento personalizzato e adattato. Al meglio delle nostre conoscenze, questo è il primo protocollo che studia il controllo posturale nella popolazione nefrotrapiantata e gli effetti di un programma di esercizio su tale abilità.
Materiali e metodi. Per i tre obiettivi sono stati reclutati tre diversi campioni. Il primo era composto da 19 nefrotapiantati (KTRs) e 19 adulti sani (HA), di pari statura, peso ed età media, che sono i tre determinanti dell’equilibrio statico. In questo protocollo è stato valutato l’equilibrio statico in tre diverse condizioni: occhi aperti (EO), occhi chiusi (CE) e doppio compito (DT). Il secondo campione per il secondo obiettivo del progetto, era composto da 59 nefrotapiantati suddivisi in due gruppi, il primo costituito da 20 nefrotrapiantati con una storia di cadute nell'anno precedente la valutazione e il secondo composto da 39 pazienti senza storia di cadute. In questa fase è stata valutata: la paura di cadere tramite questionario (FES), l’equilibrio statico nelle stesse tre condizioni del primo protocollo, la forza degli arti superiori e inferiori rispettivamente con handgrip strength test e test isometrici e isocinetici per i muscoli estensori e flessori del ginocchio e della caviglia. Infine, per il terzo obiettivo sono stati reclutati 31 nefrotapiantati. Tali soggetti sono stati coinvolti in un programma di allenamento personalizzato e adattato (10 sessioni da un ora, 2 volte alla settimana) volto a migliorare la qualità della vita, la forza e l'equilibrio. Prima e dopo il periodo di allenamento, la capacità fisica dei pazienti è stata valutata utilizzando alcuni test campo inclusi nella batteria del Six Senior Fitness Test.
Risultati. Il primo protocollo sperimentale ha confermato che i nefrotapiantati sono generalmente sedentari. Inoltre, le differenze tra nefrotapiantati e adulti sani nelle oscillazioni posturali in tutte le condizioni (EO, EC e DT) hanno rivelato che i nefrotapiantati presentano oscillazioni posturali maggiori rispetto i soggetti sani. Per quanto riguarda il secondo studio, 20 pazienti su 59 partecipanti allo studio (33.9%) hanno riportato almeno una caduta nell'anno precedente. Tale dato, suggerisce che la prevalenza delle cadute nei pazienti nefrotapiantati è da 1.6 a 4.3 volte maggiore rispetto a quella delle persone sane di pari età, il che è indicativo di un alto rischio di caduta. Inoltre, l'analisi della forza muscolare ha evidenziato una tendenza generale di scarsa forza degli arti superiori e inferiori nei soggetti caduti rispetto ai non caduti. Per quanto riguarda l'ultima parte del progetto, nonostante il numero limitato di sessioni di allenamento, i miglioramenti in tutti i test da campo sono stati statisticamente significativi.
Conclusioni. I risultati hanno confermato che l'attività fisica adattata dovrebbe essere prescritta come terapia preventiva nei soggetti sottoposti a trapianto renale e che in tali pazienti, nonostante il miglioramento nella qualità della vita derivato dal trapianto, il rischio di cadute rimane elevato e i livelli di forza rimangono scarsi.

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EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Ermolao, Andrea
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 31 > Corsi 31 > SCIENZE CLINICHE E SPERIMENTALI
Data di deposito della tesi:16 November 2018
Anno di Pubblicazione:16 November 2018
Key Words:Nefrotrapiantati, Esercizio, Equilibrio /Kidney transplant recipients, Exercise, Postural Balance
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/09 Medicina interna
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Medicina
Codice ID:11335
Depositato il:06 Nov 2019 10:57
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