Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Marchiori, Erica (2018) Parasitic infections in sea turtles and cetaceans in Mediterranean Sea waters, with a focus on the Adriatic Sea. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]PDF Document
Thesis not accessible until 01 June 2020 for intellectual property related reasons.
Visibile to: nobody

4Mb

Abstract (italian or english)

Parasitic infections contribute to natural mortality in population of free ranging sea turtles and cetaceans worldwide. Notwithstanding all host-dependant factors influencing the outcomes of parasitic infections, some parasites, spanning from protozoan to helminthic taxa, have a high pathogenic potential and can cause fatal disease in these animals. Sea turtles blood flukes (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) are a main factor in mortality of populations of green and loggerhead turtles in Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. In order to explore presence and pathology of spirorchiidiasis in the Mediterranean area, data from 168 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along North Western Adriatic coast were collected during a six-years period. Parasitological study and pathological findings revealed the presence of eggs and adult flukes of Hapalotrema mistroides and Neospirorchis – Neogen 11, with prevalence of 15.5% and 6.0% respectively. Mild lesions were observed, including multifocal granulomatous enteritis and chronic focal vasculitis of the major vessels. Egg emboli were found widespread in the tissues, mostly attributable to H. mistroides. Sequencing of rDNA markers (28S and ITS-2) and phylogenetic analyses revealed the identity of the Mediterranean isolates with Floridian specimens. Genetic analysis on the hosts led to the conclusion that the life cycles of both genera can be entirely supported by the Mediterranean ecosystem. To estimate the infection intensity, a new rapid method was set up. Correlation between spleen egg burden and fecal egg output was studied by means of statistical tests applied to splenic tissue and fecal material, revealing the absence of correlation and the unreliability of fecal burden to assess severity of the disease in vivo. Gastrointestinal helminth community of loggerheads was also studied, revealing a species diversity typical of demersal stage turtles and similar to that observed in other neritic areas of the Mediterranean.
As for cetaceans, crassicaudosis is considered one of most severe helminthic infections in these animals. Nevertheless, knowledge on the epidemiology of Crassicauda species is scarce, due to constraints of sampling free-ranging wild host species and to the difficulty of obtaining entire specimens suitable for morphologic studies. Presence and pathology of Crassicauda boopis were investigated in fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) stranded along Italian coasts. Severe lesions linked to the presence of adult nematodes in circulatory system and kidneys were detected in five rorquals (5/7), associated with renal function impairment and arteritis of the mesenteric vessels linked to spirurid larvae migrans. Morphological studies enabled the identification of the adult nematodes as C. boopis. Sequencing of molecular barcode regions was performed on adult and larval nematodes from the whales; additionally, specimens of Crassicauda spp. isolated from toothed whales were morphologically and molecularly studied. A multigene analysis made on the barcode regions of rDNA and on the mtDNA revealed the ITS-2 spacer to be the most efficient marker in species differentiation inside the genus Crassicauda. This analysis opened new insights on the identity of the isolated larvae migrans and on the life cycles of these poorly known nematodes. Furthermore, during the parasitological examination, immature elements of the genus Pennella were recovered from one fin whale and described from a morphological point of view for the first time. Preliminary molecular data were obtained, with the aim of clarifying the taxonomy of the genus Pennella. The coccidian Toxoplasma gondii was detected in the tissues of one rorqual as well, likely associated with a chronic infection.
In conclusion, these parasitological surveys highlighted the importance of a continue monitoring of the health of these endangered species avoiding underestimating the potential impact of parasitic diseases in natural mortality.

Abstract (a different language)

Le infestazioni parassitarie contribuiscono alla mortalità naturale in popolazioni di tartarughe marine e cetacei in tutto il mondo. A prescindere dai diversi fattori dipendenti dall’ospite che possono influenzare l’esito di tali infestazioni, alcuni parassiti, dai protozoi agli elminti, possiedono un alto potenziale patogeno, tale da essere causa primaria di morte. Infestazioni da Trematodi Digenei del sistema cardiocircolatorio (Digenea:Spirorchiidae) sono un’ importante causa di morbidità in popolazioni di tartarughe marine degli oceani Pacifico e Atlantico. Per indagare la presenza e la patologia di questa infestazione nel Mediterraneo, sono stati raccolti dati da 168 tartarughe Caretta caretta spiaggiate lungo la costa adriatica nord occidentale in un periodo di sei anni. L’approccio parassitologico, sia tradizionale che molecolare, e lo studio anatomopatologico hanno rivelato la presenza di uova e adulti di Hapalotrema mistroides e Neospirorchis – Neogen 11 con prevalenze di 15.5% e 6.0% rispettivamente. Sono state riscontrate lesioni lievi, tra cui enterite granulomatosa multifocale e vasculite cronica focale a carico dei grossi vasi. Il sequenziamento dei markers genomici (28S e ITS-2) e l’analisi filogenetica hanno permesso di verificare l’identità dei nostri campioni con quelli isolati in Florida. Analisi genetiche effettuate sugli ospiti hanno portato a concludere che il ciclo vitale di questi parassiti può completarsi all’interno del Mediterraneo. Un nuovo metodo rapido per la quantificazione dell’intensità di infestazione è stato quindi messo a punto. È stata studiata la correlazione tra l’emissione di uova nelle feci e la presenza di uova nei tessuti attraverso l’applicazione di test statistici, che hanno rivelato l’inattendibilità del valore della carica di uova fecali al fine di stimare la gravità dell’infestazione in vivo. Per quanto riguarda i cetacei, la crassicaudosi è una delle più gravi elmintiasi in questi animali ma ciononostante i dati sull’epidemiologia di Crassicauda spp. sono ancora scarsi, a causa delle limitazioni poste dal campionare queste specie ospite e alla difficoltà di ottenere campioni parassitologici integri. La presenza e la patologia della crassicaudosi sono state studiate in balenottere comuni (Balaenoptera physalus) spiaggiate lungo le coste italiane. Gravi lesioni collegate alla presenza di nematodi adulti nel sistema circolatorio e nei reni sono state trovate in cinque animali (5/7), in presenza di insufficienza renale in un caso e arterite dei vasi mesenterici associata alla presenza di larvae migrans di nematodi spiruridi. Gli studi morfologici, comparati con le descrizioni in letteratura, hanno permesso di identificare i parassiti adulti come Crassicauda boopis. Sono state sequenziate le regioni di barcoding sui parassiti adulti e sulle larve e, parallelamente, altri individui di Crassicauda spp., isolati da odontoceti, sono stati studiati morfologicamente e molecolarmente. Un’analisi multigenica sulle regioni barcode ha rivelato che il segmento ITS-2 si è rivelato il più efficiente nella distinzione di specie all’interno del genere Crassicauda. Questa analisi apre nuove questioni riguardo l’identità delle larve migrans e il ciclo vitale di questi nematodi. Durante l’esame parassitologico, elementi immaturi di Pennella spp. sono stati isolati da una balenottera e descritti morfologicamente per la prima volta. Dati molecolari preliminari sono stati ottenuti al fine di chiarire la tassonomia del genere Pennella. Toxoplasma gondii è stato isolato da un altro esemplare, associato a infezione cronica.
I dati parassitologici raccolti hanno rivelato l’importanza di un continuo monitoraggio della salute di queste specie che tenga in considerazione il potenziale effetto delle parassitosi sulla mortalità naturale.

EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Marcer , Federica
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 31 > Corsi 31 > SCIENZE VETERINARIE
Data di deposito della tesi:30 November 2018
Anno di Pubblicazione:30 November 2018
Key Words:Parasites Cetaceans Sea turtles Mediterranean Sea
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > VET/06 Parassitologia e malattie parassitarie degli animali
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Medicina Animale, Produzioni e Salute
Codice ID:11583
Depositato il:06 Nov 2019 14:06
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

• Abaunza P., Arroyo N.L., Preciado I., 2001. A contribution to the knowledge on the morphometry and the anatomical characters of Pennella balaenopterae (Copepoda,Siphonostomatoida, Pennellidae), with special reference to the buccal complex. Crustaceana 74:193–210 Cerca con Google

• Abollo E., Lopez A., Gestal C., Benavente P., Pascual S., 1998a. Long-term recording of gastric ulcers in cetaceans stranded on the Galician (NW Spain) coast. Dis Aquat Org 32:71-73 Cerca con Google

• Abollo E., López A., Gestal C., Benavente P., Pascul S., 1998b. Macroparasites in cetaceans on the northwestern Spanish Atlantic coast. Dis Aquat Org 32:227–231 Cerca con Google

• Aguilar A., Borrell A., 1994. Abnormally high polychlorinated biphenyl levels in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) affected by the 1990–1992 Mediterranean epizootic. Sci Total Environ 154:237–247 Cerca con Google

• Aguirre A.A., Balazs G.H., Spraker T.R., Gross T.S., 1995. Adrenal and hematological responses to stress in juvenile green turtles Chelonia mydas with and without fibropapilomas. Physiol Zool 68:831-854 Cerca con Google

• Aguirre A.A., Spraker T.R., Balazs G.H., Zimmermann B., 1998. Spirorchidiasis and fibropapillomatosis in green turtles from the Hawaiian Islands. J Wildl Dis 34:91-98 Cerca con Google

• Ajzenberg D., Bãnuls A.L.,Su C., Dumètre A., Demar M., Carme B., Dardé M.L., 2004. Genetic diversity, clonality and sexuality in Toxoplasma gondii. Int J Parasitol 34:1185–1196 Cerca con Google

• Ajzenberg D., Collinet F., Mercier A., Vignoles P., Dardé M.L., 2010. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates with 15 Microsatellite Markers in a Single Multiplex PCR Assay. J Clin Microbiol 48:4641-4645 Cerca con Google

• Aksoy U., Marangi M., Papini R., Ozkoc S., Delibas S.B., Giangaspero A., 2014. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Cyclospora cayetanensis in Mytilus galloprovincialis from Izmir province coast (Turkey) by Real Time PCR/High-Resolution Melting analysis (HRM). Food Microbiol 44:128-135 Cerca con Google

• Anderson R.C., 2000. Nematode parasites of vertebrates: their development and transmission. Second edition, CAB International Cerca con Google

• Arbelo M., Espinosa de los Monteros A., Herráez P., Andrada M., Herráez P., Andrada M., Sierra E., Rodríguez F., Jepson P.D., Fernández A., 2013. Pathology and causes of death of stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands (1999–2005). Dis Aquat Org 103:87−99 Cerca con Google

• Arkush K.D., Millel M.A., Leutenegger C.M., Gardner I.A., Packham A.E., Heckeroth A.R., Tenter A.M., Barr B.C., Conrad P.A., 2003. Molecular and bioassay-based detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocyst uptake by mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Int J Parasitol 33:1087-1097 Cerca con Google

• Arroyo N.L., Abaunza P., Preciado I., 2002. First naupliar stage of Pennella balaenopterae Koren and Danielssen, 1877 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoidea, Pennellidae). Sarsia 87:333-337 Cerca con Google

• Aznar F., Fognani P., Balbuena J., Pietrobelli M., Raga J.A., 2006. Distribution of Pholeter gastrophilus (Digenea) within the stomach of four odontocete species: the role of the diet and digestive physiology of hosts. Parasitol 133:369-380 Cerca con Google

• Aznar F.J., Badillo F.J., Raga J.A., 1998. Gastrointestinal helminths of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from the Western Mediterranean: constraints on community structure. J Parasitol 84:474-479 Cerca con Google

• Aznar F.J., Perdiguero D., Pérez del Olmo A., Repullés A., Agustí C., Raga J.A., 2005. Changes in epizoic crustacean infestations during cetacean die-offs: the mass mortality of Mediterranean striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba revisited. Dis Aquat Org 67:239-247 Cerca con Google

Cerca con Google

• Badillo F.J., 2007. Epizoitos y parasitos de la Tortuga boba (Caretta caretta) en el Mediterraneo Occidental. PhD Thesis, Universitat de Valencia, Valencia, Spain Cerca con Google

• Baker J.R., Martin A.R., 1992. Causes of mortality and parasites and incidental lesions in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from British waters. Vet Rec 130:554-558 Cerca con Google

• Baylis H.A., 1916. On Crassicauda crassicauda (Crepl.) [Nematoda] and its hosts. Annals and Mag Nat Hist 17:144–148 Cerca con Google

• Baylis H.A., 1920. Observations on the genus Crassicauda. Ann Mag Nat Hist 5:410-419 Cerca con Google

• Baylis H.A., 1922. Note on the Habitat and Structure of Crassicauda [Nematoda]. Parasitology 14:01 Cerca con Google

• Bennett P.M., Jepson P.D., Law R.J., Jones B.R., Kujken T., Baker J.R., Rogan E., Kirkwood J.K., 2001. Exposure to heavy metals and infectious disease mortality in harbour porpoises from England and Wales. Environ Pollut 112:33-40 Cerca con Google

• Berry G.N., Cannon L.R.G., 1981. The life history of Sulcascaris sulcata (Nematoda: Ascaridioidea), a parasite of marine molluscs and turtles. Int J for Parasitol 11:43-54 Cerca con Google

• Bossi P., Bricaire F., 2004. Severe acute disseminated toxoplasmosis. Lancet 364:579 Cerca con Google

• Bowater R.O., Norton J., Johnson S., Hill B., O’Donoghue P., Prior H., 2003. Toxoplasmosis in Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphins (Sousa chinensis), from Queensland. Aust Vet J 81:627-632 Cerca con Google

• Cabezòn O., Resendes A.R., Domingo M., Raga J.A., Agustí C., Alegre F., Mons J.L., Dubey J.P., Almería S., 2004. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild dolphins from the Spanish Mediterranean coast. J Parasitol 90:643-644 Cerca con Google

• Casale P., Laurent L., De Metrio G., 2004. Incidental capture of marine turtles by the Italian trawl fishery in the North Adriatic Sea. Biol Cons 119:287-295 Cerca con Google

• Casale P., Margaritoulis D., 2010. Sea Turtles in the Mediterranean: Distribution, Threats and Conservation Priorities. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. Cerca con Google

• Casale P., Simone G., 2017. Seasonal residency of loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta tracked from the gulf of Manfredonia, South Adriatic. Medit Mar Sci 18:4-10 Cerca con Google

• Chabaud A.G., 1962. Description de Crassicauda anthonyi n. sp. nématode parasite renal de Mesoplodon mirus True. Bull Mus Nat Hist Nat 34:397-403 Cerca con Google

• Chapman P.A., Cribb T.H., Blair D., Traub R.J., Kyaw-Tanner M.T., Flint M., Mills P.C., 2015. Molecular analysis of the genera Hapalotrema Looss , 1899 and Learedius Price , 1934 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) reveals potential cryptic species , with comments on the validity of the genus Learedius. Syst Parasitol 90:67–79 Cerca con Google

• Chapman P.A., Owen H., Flint M., Soares Magalhães R.J., Traub R.J., Cribb T.H., Kyaw-Tanner M.T., Mills P.C., 2017. Molecular epidemiology and pathology of spirorchiid infection in Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas). Int J Parasitol Parasite Wild 6:39-47 Cerca con Google

• Chapman P.A., Traub R.J., Kyaw-Tanner M.T., Owen H., Flint M., Cribb T.H., Mills P.C., 2016. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the identification of spirorchiid ova in tissues from the Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas. PLoSONE11(8): e0162114.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0162114 Cerca con Google

• Chilton N.B., 2004. The use of nuclear ribosomal DNA markers for the identification of bursate nematodes (order Strongylida) and for the diagnosis of infections. Anim Health Res Rev 5:171–187 Cerca con Google

• Clusa M., Carreras C., Pascual M., Gaughran S.J., Piovano S., Giacoma C., Fernandéz G., Levy Y., Tomàs J., Raga J.A., Maffucci F., Hchscheid S., Aguilar A., Cardona L., 2013. Fine-scale distribution of juvenile Atlantic and Mediterranean loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biol 161:509-519 Cerca con Google

• Clusa M., Carreras C., Pascual M., Gaughran S.J., Piovano S., Giacoma C., Fernández G., Levy Y., Tomás J., Raga J.A., Maffucci F., Hochscheid S.,·Aguilar A., Cardona L., 2014. Fine-scale distribution of juvenile Atlantic and Mediterranean loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biol 161:509-519 Cerca con Google

• Cockrill W.L., 1960. Pathology of Cetacea. British Vet J 116:1-28 Cerca con Google

• Conrad P.A., Miller M.A., Kreuder C., James E.R., Mazet J., Dabritz H., Jessup D.A., Gulland F., Grigg M.E., 2005. Transmission of Toxoplasma: Clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment. Int J Parasitol 35:1155-1168 Cerca con Google

• Costa J.M., Cabaret O., Moukoury S., Bretagne S., 2011. Genotyping of the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii using High Resolution Melting analysis of the repeated B1 gene. J Microbiol Methods 86:357-363 Cerca con Google

• Cowan D.F., Walker W.A., Brownell R.J., 1986. Research on dolphins. In: Bryden MM, Harrlson R (eds) Clarendon Press, Oxford, p 3-23 Cerca con Google

• Cribb T.H., Crespo-Picazo J.L., Cutmore S.C., Stacy B.A., Chapman P.A., Garcìa-Pàrraga D., 2017. Elucidation of the first definitively identified life cycle for a marine turtle blood fluke (Trematoda: Spirorchidae) enables informed control. Int J Parasitol 47:61-67 Cerca con Google

• Cruickshank J.J., Haines D.M., Palmer N.C., St. Aubin D.J., 1990. Cysts of a Toxoplasma-like organism in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin. Can Vet J 31:213-215 Cerca con Google

• Dailey M., Walsh M., Odell D., Campbell T., 1991. Evidence of prenatal infection in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with the lungworm Halocercus lagenonhynchi (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae). J Wildl Dis 27:164-165 Cerca con Google

• Dailey M.D., 1985. Diseases of Mammalia: Cetacea. In: Diseases of Marine Mammals, Kinne O (ed,), Biologische Anstald Helgoland, Hamburg pp. 805-847 Cerca con Google

• Dailey M.D., 2001. Parasitic Disease. In: CRC Handbook of Marine Mammals Medicine: Health, Disease and Rehabilitation. Dierauf L.A., Gulland F.M.D. (eds) Second Edition, CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, Florida Cerca con Google

• Dailey M.D., Fast M.L., Balazs G.H., 1992. A survey of the Trematoda (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) Parasitic in Green Turtles, Chelonia mydas (L.) from Hawaii. Bull Southern California Acad Sci 91:84-91 Cerca con Google

• Dailey M.D., Morris R., 1995. Relationship of parasites (Trematoda: Spirorchidae) and their eggs to the occurence of fibropapillomas in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52:84-89 Cerca con Google

• Dailey M.D., Perrin W.F., 1973. Helminth parasites of porpoises of the genus Stenella in the eastern tropical Pacific, with descriptions of two new species: Mastigonema stenellae gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Spiruroidea) and Zalophotrema pacificum sp. n. (Trematoda: Digenea). Fish Bull 71:455-471 Cerca con Google

• Dardè M.L., 2004. Genetic analysis of the diversity in Toxoplasma gondii. Ann ISS 40:57-63 Cerca con Google

• Dardè M.L., 2008. Toxoplasma gondii, “new” genotypes and virulence. Parasites 15:366-371 Cerca con Google

• Degollada E., André M., Arbelo M., Fernández A., 2002. Incidence, pathology and involvement of Nasitrema species in odontocete strandings in the Canary Islands. Vet Rec 150:81-82 Cerca con Google

• Delyamure S.L., 1955. Helminthofauna of marine mammals 8ecology and phylogeny). Izv. Akad. Nauk. S. S. S. R., Moskwa, 1955, 517 p. (Translated by Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, 1968, 522 p. Cerca con Google

• Di Guardo G., Agrimi U., Morelli L., Cardeti G., Terracciano G., Kennedy S., 1995b. Post mortem investigations on cetaceans found stranded on the coasts of Italy between 1990 and 1993. Vet Rec 136:539-442 Cerca con Google

• Di Guardo G., Corradi A., Agrimi U., Zizzo M., Morelli L., Perillo A., Kramer L., Cabassi E., Kennedy S., 1995a. Neuropathological lesions in cetaceans found stranded from 1991 to 1993 on the coasts of Italy. Eur. J Vet Pathol 2: 47-51 Cerca con Google

• Di Guardo G., Di Cesare A., Otranto D., Casalone C., Iulini B., Mignone W., Tittarelli C., Meloni S., Castagna G., Forster F., Kennedy S., Traversa D., 2011. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in meningo-encephalitis affected striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Italy. Vet Parasitol 183: 31-36 Cerca con Google

• Di Guardo G., Proietto U., Di Francesco C.E., Marsilio F., Zaccaroni A., Scaravelli D., Mignone W., Garibaldi F., Kennedy S., Forster F., Iulini B., Bozzetta E., Casalone C., 2010. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in Striped Dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded along the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy. Vet Pathol 47:245-253 Cerca con Google

• Díaz-Delgado J., Fernández A., Xuriach A., Sierra E., Bernaldo de Quirós Y., Mompeo B., Pérez L., Andrada M., Marigo J., Catão-Dias J. L., Groch K. R., Edwards J. F., Arbelo M., 2016. Verminous arteritis due to Crassicauda sp. in Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius Cavirostris). Vet Pathol 53:1233–1240 Cerca con Google

• Dollfus R.P. ,1966. Hélminthofaune de Kogia breviceps (Blainville, 1838), cétace odontocète, récoltés du Dr R. Duguy. Annal Soc Sci Nat Charente-Marit 4:3–6 Cerca con Google

• Domingo M, Visa J, Pumarola M, Marco AJ, Ferrer K, Rabanal R and Kennedy S (1992). Pathologic and immunocytochemical studies of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Vet Pathol 29: 1–10 Cerca con Google

• Domingo M., Visa J., Pumarola M., Marco A.J., Ferrer L., Rabanal R., Kennedy S.,1992. Pathological and immunocytochemical studies of Morbillivirus infection in striped dolphiins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Vet Pathol 29:1-10 Cerca con Google

• Dubey J.P., Fair P.A., Sundar N., Velmurugan G., Kwok O.C., McFee W.E., Majumdar D., Su C., 2008. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). J Parasitol 94:821-823 Cerca con Google

• Dubey J.P., Mergi J., Gehring E., Sundar N., Velmurugan G.V., Kwok O.C.H., Grigg M.E., Su C., Martineau D., 2009. Toxoplasmosis in captive Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus). J Parasitol 95:82-85 Cerca con Google

• Dubey J.P., Morales J.A., Sundar N., Velmurugan G.V., González-Barrientos C.R., HernándezMora G., Su C., 2007. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Costa Rica. J Parasitol 93:710-711 Cerca con Google

• Dubey J.P., Zarnke R., Thomas N.J., Wong S.K., Van Bonn W., Briggs M., Davis J.W., Ewing R., Mense M., Kwok O.C., Romand S., Thulliez P., 2003. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals. Vet Parasitol 116:275-96 Cerca con Google

• Dyer W.G., Williams E.H., Bunkley-Williams L., Moore D., 1995. Some digeneans (Trematoda) of the Atlantic Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricate imbricate (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from Puerto Rico. J Helminthol Soc Wash 62:13-17 Cerca con Google

Cerca con Google

• Fauquier D. A. , Kinsel M. J., Dailey M.D., Sutton G.E., Stolen M.K., Wells R.S., Gulland F.M.D., 2009. Prevalence and pathology of lungworm infection in bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from southwest Florida. Dis Aquat Org 88:85-90 Cerca con Google

• Fichi G., Manfredi M.T., Gazzonis A.L., Mazzariol S., CEntelleghe C., C., Carratori, S. ; Di Guardo, G., Fischetti, R., Terracciano, G. 2013. Stenurus globicephalae Baylis et Daubney, 1925 (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae) e Crassicauda grampicola (Nematoda: Spirurida) in due Grampus griseus (G. Cuvier, 1812) spiaggiati sulla costa toscana. XV Congresso Nazionale S.I.Di.L.V., Monreale (PA), Italia, 23-25 ottobre Cerca con Google

• Fiscus C.H., Baines G.A., Wilke F., 1962. Pelagic fur seal investigations, Alaska waters. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services, Special Scientific Report on Fish 475:1-59 Cerca con Google

• Flint J., Flint M., Limpus C.J., Mills P.C., 2015. Trends in Marine Turtle Strandings along the East Queensland, Australia Coast, between 1996 and 2013, J Marine Biol Article ID 848923 Cerca con Google

• Flint M., Morton J.M., Limpus C.J., Patterson-Kane J.C., Murray P.J., Mills P.C., 2009. Development and application of biochemical and haematological reference intervals to identify unhealthy green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Vet J 185:299-304. Cerca con Google

• Flint M., Patterson-Kane J.C., Limpus C.J., Mills P.C., 2010. Health surveillance of stranded Green Turtles in Southern Queensland, Australia (2006–2009): an epidemiological analysis of causes of disease and mortality. Ecohealth 7:135–45 Cerca con Google

• Flint M., Patterson-Kane J.C., Limpus C.J., Work T.M., Blair D., Mills P.C., 2009. Postmortem Diagnostic Investigation of Disease in Free-Ranging Marine Turtle Populations: A Review of Common Pathologic Findings and Protocols. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:733–759 Cerca con Google

• Flower W.H., 1882. On the cranium of a new species of Hyperoodon from the Australian Seas. Proc Zool Soc London 50:391-396 Cerca con Google

• Fognani P., 2005. Parasites in cetaceans from the NW Mediterranean with particolar reference to ecology and pathology of Pholeter gastrophilus (Kossack, 1910). Tesi di dottorato, Università degli Studi di Padova, Italia. Cerca con Google

• Forman D., West N., Francis J., Guy E., 2009. The sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in British marine mammals. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104:296-298 Cerca con Google

• Fortuna C.M., Holcer D., Mackelworth P. (eds.), 2015. Conservation of cetaceans and sea turtles in the Adriatic Sea: status of species and potential conservation measures. Report produced under WP7 of the NETCET project, IPA Adriatic Cross-border Cooperation Programme. 135 pp Cerca con Google

• Fraija- Fernández N., Hernández-Hortelano A., Ahuir-Baraja A.E., Raga J.A., Aznar F.J., 2018. Taxonomic status and epidemiology of the mesoparasitic copepod Pennella balaenoptera in cetaceans from the western Mediterranean. Dis Aquat Org 128:249-258 Cerca con Google

• Fraija-Fernández N., Fernández M., Raga J.A., Aznar F.J., 2016. Helminth diversity of cetaceans: an update. In: Advances in marine biology. Volume 1. Adam Kovács A., Patrik N. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. pp. 29–100 Cerca con Google

• Gazzonis A.L., Merella P., 2012. Principali macroparassiti ed epiobionti dei cetacei: note biologiche. In: Cringoli G. (ed) Mappe parassitologiche 16, Cetacei dei mari italiani. Series Editor, Italy Cerca con Google

• George R.H., 1997. Health problems and disease of sea turtles. In: Lutz P.L., Musick J.A. (eds), The biology of sea turtles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 363-385 Cerca con Google

• Geraci J.R. and St. Aubin D., 1978. Effects of parasites on marine mammals. Int J for Parasitol 17:407-414 Cerca con Google

• Geraci J.R., Dailey M.D., St. Aubin D.J., 1978. Parasitic mastitis in the Atlantic white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus acutus, as a probable factor in herd productivity. J Fish Res Board Can 35:1350-1355 Cerca con Google

• Gibson D. I., 1973. Some blue whale Nematodes. Parasitol 67:7-8 Cerca con Google

• Glazebrook J.S., Campbell R.S., Blair D., 1989. Studies on cardiovascular fluke (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) infections in sea turtles from the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. J Comp Pathol 101:231–50 Cerca con Google

• Glazebrook J.S., Campbell R.S.F., 1990. A survey of diseases of marine turtles in northern Australia. I. Farmed turtles. Dis Aquat Org 9:83-95 Cerca con Google

• Gohar N., 1934. Liste des trematodes parasites et de leurs hotes vertebres signales dans la Vallee du Nil. AnnIs Parasit. hum. comp 12:322-331 Cerca con Google

• Gohar N., 1935. Liste des trematodes parasites et de leurs hotes vertebres signales dans la Vallee du Nil. (Suite et fin.). AnnIs Parasit. hum. comp 13:80-90 Cerca con Google

• Goodchild C., Kirk D., 1960. The Life History of Spirorchis elegans Stunkard, 1923 (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae) from the Painted Turtle. J Parasitol 46:219-229 Cerca con Google

• Gordon A.N., Kelly W.R., Cribb T.H., 1998. Lesions caused by cardiovascular flukes (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) in stranded green turtles (Chelonia mydas). J Vet Pathol 35:21-30 Cerca con Google

• Gračan R., Bursic M., Mladineo I., Kucinic M., Lazar B., Lackovic G., 2012. Gastrointestinal helminth community of loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta in the Adriatic Sea. Dis Aquat Org 99:227–236 Cerca con Google

• Graczyk T.K., Aguirre A.A., Balazs G.H., 1995. Detection by ELISA of circulating anti-blood fluke (Carettacola, Hapalotrema, and Learedius) immunoglobulins in Hawaiian Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas). J Parasitol 81:416–421 Cerca con Google

• Greiner E.C., Forrester D.J., Jacobson E.R., 1980. Helminths of mariculture-reared green turtles (Chelonia mydas mydas) from Grand Cayman, British West Indies. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 47:142-144 Cerca con Google

• Greiner, E.C., 2013. Parasites of marine turtles. In: Wyne Ken, J., Lohmann, K.J., Lutz, J.A. (Eds.). The biology of sea turtles. Volume 3. USA: CRC Press, pp. 427– 446. Cerca con Google

• Grigg M.E., Bonnefoy S., Hehl A.B,. Suzuki Y., Boothroyd J.C., 2001. Success and virulence in Toxoplasma gondii as the result of sexual recombination between two distinct ancestries. Science 294:161-165 Cerca con Google

• Gubanov N.M., 1951. A giant nematode from the placenta of cetaceans Placentonema gigantissima n.g., n.sp. Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR 77:1123-1125 Cerca con Google

Cerca con Google

• Hall A.J., Hugunin K., Deaville R., Law R.J., Allchin C.R., Jepson P.D., 2006. The risk of infection from polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): a case-control approach. Environ Health Perspect 114:704-711 Cerca con Google

• Hamilton J.E., 1914. Reports of the Belmullet whaling station. Rep British Assoc adv Sci Pp 125-162 Cerca con Google

• Hamilton J.E., 1915. Reports of the Belmullet whaling station. Rep British Assoc adv Sci Pp 124-146 Cerca con Google

• Herbst L.H., Fibropapillomatosis in sea turtles. Ann Rev Fish Dis 4:389-425 Cerca con Google

• Hill D.E., Chirukandot S., Dubey J.P. 2005. Biology and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in man and animals. Anim Health Res Rev 6:41-61 Cerca con Google

• Hill D.E., Chirukandot S., Dubey J.P., 2005. Biology and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in man and animals. Anim Health Res Rev 6:41-61 Cerca con Google

• Hoeppli R., Hsű H.F., 1929. Parasitische nematodaen aus Vögel und einem Tümmler. Beihefte zum Archiv fürSchiffs-und Tropen Hyg 33:24-34 Cerca con Google

• Hogans W.E., 1987. Morphological variation in Pennella balaenopterae and P. filose (Copepoda: Pennellidae) with a review of the genus Pennella Oken, 1816 parasitic on Cetacea. Bull Mar Sci 40:442-453 Cerca con Google

• Holliman R., Fisher J., 1968. Life Cycle and Pathology of Spirorchis scripta Stunkard, 1923 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) in Chrysemys picta picta. J Parasitol 54:310-318 Cerca con Google

• Inskeep W., Gardiner C.H., Harris R.K., Dubey J.P., Goldston R.T., 1990. Toxoplasmosis in Atlantic Bottle-Nosed Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). J Wildl Dis 26:377-382 Cerca con Google

• Jabbar A., Beveridge I., Bryant M.S., 2014. MOrphological and molecular observations on the status of Crassicauda magna, a parasite of the subcutaneous tissues of the pigmy sperm whale, with a re-evalaution of the systematic relationships of the genus Crassicauda. Parasitol Res 114:835-841 Cerca con Google

• Jaber J.R., Perez J., Arbelo M., Andrada M., Hidalgo M., Gomez-Villamandos J.C., Van De Ingh T., Fernández A., 2004. Hepatic lesions in Cetaceans stranded in the Canary Islands. Vet Pathol 41:147-153 Cerca con Google

• Jaber J.R., Pérez J., Arbelo M., Zafra R., Fernández A., 2006. Pathological and immunohistochemical study of gastrointestinal lesions in dolphins stranded in the Canary Islands. Vet Rec 159:410-414 Cerca con Google

• Jacobson E.R., Homer B.L., Stacy B.A., Greiner E.C., Szabo N.J., Chrisman C.L., Origgi F., Coberley S.,Foley A.M., Landsberg J.H., Flewelling L., Ewing R.Y., Moretti R., Schaf S., Rose C., Mader D.R., Harman G.R., Manire C.A., Metee N.S., Mizisin A.P., Shelton G.D., 2006. Neurological disease in loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta. Dis Aquat Org 70:139-154 Cerca con Google

• Jardine J.E., Dubey J.P., 2002. Congenital toxoplasmosis in an Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops aduncus). J Parasitol 88:197-199 Cerca con Google

• Jepson P.D., Bennett P,M., Deaville R., Allchin C.R., Baker J.R., Law R.J., 2005. Relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls and health status in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded in the United Kingdom. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:238–248 Cerca con Google

• Jepson P.D., Bennett P.M., Deaville R., Allchin C.R., Baker J.R., Law R.J., 2005. Relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls and health status in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded in the United Kingdom. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:238-248 Cerca con Google

• Johnston T.H., Mawson P.M., 1939. Internal parasites of the pygmy sperm whale. Rec S Aust Mus 6:263–274 Cerca con Google

• Johnston T.H., Mawson P.M., 1941. Nematodes from Australian marine mammals. Rec South Australian Mus 6:429-434 Cerca con Google

• Jones J.L., Dubey J.P., 2010. Waterborne toxoplasmosis - Recent developments. Exp Parasitol 124:10-25 Cerca con Google

• Keenan-Bateman T.F., McLellan W.A., Costidis A.M., Harms C.A., Mark Gay D., Rotstein D.S., Rommel S.A., Potter C.W., Pabst D.A., 2018. Habitat use pattern of the giant parasitic nematode Crassicauda magna within the pigmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps. Dis Aqaut Org 127:163-175 Cerca con Google

• Kikuchi S., Kazuno Y., Kiryu M., Nakajima M., 1995. Morphology of Crassicauda giliakiana (Nematoda; Spirurida) from a Cuvier’s beaked whale Ziphius carvirostris. Kisechugaku Zasshi 43:228–237 Cerca con Google

• Kirkwood J. K., Bennet P. M., Jepson P. D., Kuiken T., Simpson V. R., Baker J. R., 1997. Entanglement in fishing gear and other causes of death in cetaceans stranded on the coasts of England and Wales. Vet Rec 141:94-98 Cerca con Google

• Kreuder C., Miller M.A., Jessup D.A., Lowenstine L.J., Harris M.D., Ames J.A., Carpenter T.E., Conrad P.A., Mazet J.A.K., 2003. Patterns of mortality in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from 1998–2001. J Wildl Dis 39:495–509 Cerca con Google

• Lambertsen R.H., 1985. Taxonomy and distribution of Crassicauda species (Nematoda: Spirurida) infecting the kidney of the common fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnè, 1758). J Parasitol 7:485-488 Cerca con Google

• Lambertsen R.H., 1986. Disease of common fin whale (Balaenopera physalus): crassicaudosis of the urinary system. J Mammals Res 67:356-366 Cerca con Google

• Lambertsen R.H., 1992. Crassicaudosis: a parasitic disease threatening the health and population recovery of large baleen whales. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 11:1131-1141 Cerca con Google

• Lambertsen RH., 1997. Natural disease problems of the sperm whale. Biologie 67:105-112 Cerca con Google

• Lazar B., Margaritoulis D., Tvrtković N., 2004. Tag recoveries of the loggerhead Caretta caretta in the Eastern Adriatic Sea: implications for conservation. J Mar Biol Ass UK 84:475-480 Cerca con Google

• Lempereur L., Delobelle M., Doom M., Healters J., Levy E., Losson B., Jauniaux T., 2017. Crassicauda boopis in a fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) ship-struck in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. Parasitol Open 3:1-6 Cerca con Google

• Lindsay D.S., Collins M.V., Mitchell S.M., Wetch C.N., Rosypal A.C., Flick G.J., Zajac A.M., Lindquist A., Dubey J.P., 2004. Survival of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). J Parasitol 90:1054-1057 Cerca con Google

• Lindsay D.S., Dubey J.P., 2009. Long-term survival of Toxoplasma gondii sporulated oocysts in seawater. J Parasitol 95:1019-1020 Cerca con Google

• Lindsay D.S., Phelps K.K., Smith S.A., Flick G., Sumner S.S., Dubey J.P.,2001. Removal of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from sea water by eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). J Eukaryot Microbiol 197S-198S Cerca con Google

• Liu Q., Wang Z.D.., Huang S.Y., Zhu X.Q., 2015. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii. Par Vect 8:292 Cerca con Google

• Looss A., 1899. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Trematoden Fauna Aegyptens, Zugleich Versuch einer natürlichen Gliederung des Genus Distomum Retzius. Zool Jb-r Abt Syst 12:521–784 Cerca con Google

• Lòpez-Neyra C.R., 1958. Sobre unos vermes paràsitos obtenidos en el Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier (Cetaceo; Denticeto) varado en Almeria, en especial de Crassicauda giliakiana Spiruroidea: Tetrameridae). Rev Ibèr Parasitol 18:13-18 Cerca con Google

Cerca con Google

• Manfredi MT, Piccolo G., Meotti C., 1998. Parasites of Italian Sea turtles. II. Loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta [Linnaeus, 1758]). Parassitologia 40:305-308. Cerca con Google

• Marcer F., Tessarin C., Zanardello C., Mazzariol S., Negrisolo E., Danesi P., Pietrobelli M., 2010. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) stranded along the Italian Adriatic coastlines. Parassitologia 52:356 Cerca con Google

• Marcogliese D.J., 2005. Parasites of the superorganism: Are they indicators of ecosystem health? Int J for Parasitol 35:705-716 Cerca con Google

• Margaritoulis D., Argano R., Baran I., Bentivegna F., Bradai M.N., Caminas J.A., Casale P., De Metrio G., Demetropoulos A., Gerosa G., Godley B.J., Haddoud D.A., Houghton J., Laurent L., Lazar, B., 2003. Loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean Sea: present knowledge and conservation perspectives. In: Bolten A.B., Witherington B.E. (eds). Loggerhead Sea Turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. pp 175–198 Cerca con Google

• Margolis L., Pike G.C., 1955. Some helminths parasites of Canadian Pacific whales. J Fish Res Bd Canada 12:97-120 Cerca con Google

• Massie G.N., Ware M.W., Villegas E.N., Black M.W., 2010. Uptake and transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by migratory, filterfeeding fish. Vet Parasitol 169:296-303 Cerca con Google

• Mattiucci S., Abaunza P., Damiano S., Garcia A., Santos M.N., Nascetti G., 2007. Distribution of Anisakis larvae identified by genetic markers and their use for stock characterization of demersal and pelagic fish from European waters: an update. J Helminthol 81:117-127 Cerca con Google

• Mazzariol S., Di Guardo G., Petrella A., Marsili L., Fossi M.C., Leonzio C., Zizzo N., Vizzini S., Gaspari S., Pavan G., Podestà M., Garibaldi F., Ferrante M., Copat C., Traversa D., Marcer F., Airoldi S., Frantzis A., De Beraldo Quiros Y., Cozzi B., Fernandez A., 2011. Sometimes Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus) Cannot Find their Way Back to the High Seas: A Multidisciplinary Study on a Mass Stranding. PLoS ONE 6(5): e19417. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019417 Cerca con Google

• Mazzariol S., Marcer F., Mignone W., Serracca L., Goria M., Marsili L., Di Guardo G., Casalone C., 2012. Dolphin Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii coinfection in a Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus). BMC Vet Res 7:8-20 Cerca con Google

• McColl, K.A., Obendorf D.L.. 1982. Helminth parasites and associated pathology in stranded Fraser`s dolphins, Lagenodelphis hosei (Fraser, 1956). Aquat Mamm 9:30–34 Cerca con Google

• Measures L.M., 2001. Lungworms of marine mammals. In: Samuel W.M., Pybus M.J., Kocan A.A. (eds), Parasitic Diseases of Wild Animals, 2nd ed., Iowa State University Press, Ames, pp. 279-300 Cerca con Google

• Meteee, Nancy, 2014. Parasites. Marine turtle Trauma Reponse Procedures: a veterinary guide. Widecast Technical Report No. 16. Accessed online (20/09/2018) Cerca con Google

• Migaki G., Sawa T.R., Dubey J.P., 1990. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris). Vet Pathol 27:463-464 Cerca con Google

• Mignucci-Giannoni A., Hoberg E.P., Siegel-Causey D., Williams E.H., 1998. Metazoan parasites and other symbionts of cetaceans in the Caribbean. J Parasitol 84:939–946 Cerca con Google

• Miller M.A., Gardner I.A., Packham A.E., Mazet J.K., Hanni K.D., Jessup D.A., Estes J., Jameson R., Dodd E., Barr B.C., Lowenstine L.J., Gulland F.M., Conrad P.A., 2002. Evaluation of an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for demonstration of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris). J Parasitol 88:594-599 Cerca con Google

• Miller M.A., Grigg M.E., Kreuder C., James E.R., Melli A.C., Crosbie P.R., Jessup D.A., Boothroyd J.C., Brownstein D., Conrad P.A, 2004. An unusual genotype of Toxoplasma gondii is common in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and is a cause of mortality. Int J Parasitol 34:275-84 Cerca con Google

• Monticelli F.S., 1896. Di un ematozoo della Thalassochelys caretta Linn.Int Mschr Anat Physiol 13:141–172 Cerca con Google

• Morimitsu T., Kawano H., Torihara K., Kato E., Koono M. 1992 Histopathology of eight cranial nerve of mass stranded dolphins at Goto Islands, Japan. J Wildl Dis 28:656-658 Cerca con Google

• Morimitsu T., Nagai T., Minoru I., Ishii A., Koono M., 1986. Parasitogenic Octavus Neuropathy as a Cause of mass stranding of Odontoceti. J Parasitol 72:469-472 Cerca con Google

• Moser M., Rhinehart H., 1993. The lungworm, Halocercus spp. (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae) in Cetaceans from California. J Wildl Dis 29:507-508 Cerca con Google

• Neiland K.A., Rice D.W., Holden B.L., 1970. Helminths of marine mammals. The genus Nasitrema, air sinus flukes of delphinid cetacea. J Parasitol 56:305-316 Cerca con Google

• Orós J., Torrent A., Calabuig P., Déniz S., 2005. Diseases and causes of mortality among sea turtles stranded in the Canary Islands, Spain (1998-2001). Dis Aquat Org 63:13-24 Cerca con Google

• Orós J., Montesdeoca N., Camacho M., Arencibia A., Calabuig P., 2016. Causes of stranding and mortality and final disposition of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) admitted to a wildlife rehabilitation center in Gran Canaria Island (Spain) (1998-2014): a long term retrospective study. PLoSONE11(2):e0149398.doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0149398 Cerca con Google

• O’Shea T.J., Homer B.L., Greiner E.C., Layton A.W., 1991. Nasitrema sp.- associated Encephalitis in a Striped Dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) Stranded in the Gulf of Mexico. J Wildl Dis 27(4):706-709 Cerca con Google

• Perrin W.F., Powers J.E., 1980. Role of a nematode in natural mortality of spotted dolphins. J Wildl Manag 44:960-963 Cerca con Google

• Piccolo G., Manfredi M. T., Milanesi M., (1998). Crassicauda infection in cetaceans from the coast of Italy. Parassitologia, 40:135 Cerca con Google

• Piccolo G., Manfredi M.T., 2001. New reports on parasites of marine turtles stranded along the Italian coast. In: Margaritoulis D., Demetropoulos A. (eds), Proc 1st Mediterranean Conference Marine Turtles. Barcelona Convention – Bern Convention – Bonn Convention (CMS), Nicosia, Cyprus, pp 207-211 Cerca con Google

• Pieper L.H., 1953. The life history and germ cell cycle of Spirorchis artericola (Ward, 1921). J Parasitol 39:310-325 Cerca con Google

• Pietrobelli M., 2003. Toxoplasmosi. In: Parassitologia urbana. Città, animali e salute pubblica. Puccini V., Tarsitano E. (eds). Il Sole 24 ore, Edagricole, Bologna: 49-57 Cerca con Google

• Platt T.R., 2002. Family Spirorchiidae Stunkard, 1921. In: Gibson D.I., Jones A., Bray R.A. (eds.) Keys to the Trematoda. Volume 2. London, UK: CABI Publishing, pp. 453-467 Cerca con Google

• Polinski M., Hamilton D. B., Nowak B., Bridle A., 2013. SYBR, TaqMan, or both: highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of Cardicola blood fluke species in southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii). Mol Biochem Parasitol 191:7–15 Cerca con Google

• Pretti C., Mancianti F., Nardoni S., Ariti G., Monni G., Di Bello D., Marsili S., Papini R., 2010. Détection de Toxoplasma gondii chez les dauphins échoués sur la côte de la Toscane, Italie. Rev Med Vet 161:428-431 Cerca con Google

• Raga J.A., 1987. Redescription de Crassicauda grampicola Johnston et Mawson, 1941, (Nematoda: Spirurida), parasite de Grampus griseus (Cuvier, 1812) (Cetacea: delphinidae). Vie Milieu 37:215-219 Cerca con Google

• Raga J.A., Aznar F.J., Balbuena J.A., Fernández M., 2008. Parasites. In: Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, Second Edition, Perrin W.F., Wursing B., Thewissen H.G:M. (eds). Academic Press, San Diego. Pp 821-830 Cerca con Google

• Raga J.A., Balbuena J.A., 1990. A new species of the genus Crassicauda Leiper et Atkinson, 1914 (Nematoda:Spiruroidea) from the penis of Globicephala melas (Traill,1809) (Cetacea:Globicephalidae) in the western Mediterranean Sea. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 65:255–261 Cerca con Google

• Raga J.A., Casinos A., Filella S., Raduna A., 1982. Notes on Cetaceans of the Iberian coasts. V. Crassicauda grampicola Jhonston and Mawson, 1941, (Nematoda) cause of injuries in the pterygoids of some specimens of Grampus griseus. Säugetierk Mitt 30:315-318 Cerca con Google

• Raga, J.A., Balbuena, J.A., Aznar, J. and Fernández, M., 1997. The impact of parasites on marine mammals: A review. Parassitologia 39:293–296 Cerca con Google

• Raidal S.R., Ohara M., Hobbs R.P., Prince R., 1998. Gram negative bacterial infections and cardiovascular parasitism in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Aus Vet J 76:415-417 Cerca con Google

• Rawson P.D., MacNamee R., Frick M.G., Williams K.L., 2003. Phylogeography of the coronulid barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria, from the loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta. Marine Ecol 12:2697-2706 Cerca con Google

• Resendes A.R., Almerìa S., Dubey J.P., Obòn E., Juan-Sallés C., Degollada E., Alegre F., Cabezòn O., Pont S., Domingo M., 2002. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a Mediterranean Pregnant Risso’s Dolphin (Grampus griseus) with transplacental fetal infection. J Parasitol 88:1029-1032 Cerca con Google

• Rigdway S.H., Dailey M.D., 1972. Cerebral and cerebellar involvement of trematode parasites in dolphins and their possible role in stranding. J Wild Dis 8: 33-43 Cerca con Google

• Santoro M., Badillo J.F., Mattiucci S., Nascetti G., Bentivegna F., Insacco G., Travaglini A., Paoletti M., Kinsella J.M., Tomás J., Raga J.A., Aznar F.J., 2010a. Helminth communities of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Central and Western Mediterranean Sea: The importance of host's ontogeny. Parasitol Int 9:367–375 Cerca con Google

• Santoro M., Di Nocera F., Iaccarino D., Lawton S.P., Cerrone A., degli Uberti B., D’Amore M., Affuso A. Hochscheid S., Maffuci F., Galiero G., 2017. Pathology and molecular analysis of Hapalotrema mistroides (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) infecting a Mediterranean loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta. Dis Aquat Org 124: 101-108 Cerca con Google

• Santoro M., Mattiucci S., 2008. Sea turtle parasites. In. Wehrtmann I.S., Cortés J. (eds), Marine Biodiversity in Costa Rica, Central America. Netherlands, Springer, pp 507-519 Cerca con Google

• Santoro M., Mattiucci S., Paoletti M., Liotta A., Degli Uberti B., Galiero G., Nascetti G., 2010b. Molecular identification and pathology of Anisakis pegrefii (Nematoda: Anisakidae)infeciton in the Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta). Vet Parasitol 174:65-71 Cerca con Google

• Santoro M., Morales J.A., 2007b. Some digenetic trematodes of the olive ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines, Cheloniidae) in Costa Rica. Helminthologia 44:25-28 Cerca con Google

• Santoro M., Morales J.A., Rodríguez-Ortíz B., 2007a. Spirorchiidiasis (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) and lesions associated with parasites in Caribbean green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Vet Rec 161:482–486 Cerca con Google

• Scaravelli D., Gustinelli A., Marcer F., Fioravanti M. L., Trentini M., 2006. Parasites of Italian cetaceans: bibliographic data and recent findings. Parassitologia 48:295 Cerca con Google

• Schulman F.Y., Lipscomb T.P., Moffett D., Krafft A.E., Lichy J.H., Tsai M.M., Taubenberger J.K., Kennedy S., 1997. Histologic, immunohistological, and polymerase chain reaction studies of bottlenose dolphins from the 1987-1988 United States Atlantic coast epizootic. Vet Pathol 34:288-295 Cerca con Google

• Sey O., 1977. Examination of helminth parasites of marine turtles caught along the Egyptian coast. Acta Zool Acad Sci Hung 23:387394 Cerca con Google

• Shaffer H.B., Meylan P., McKnight M.L., 1997. Tests of turtle phylogeny: molecular, morphological and paleontological approaches. Syst Biol 46:235-268 Cerca con Google

• Shamblin B.M., Bolten A.B., Abreu-Grobois F.A., Bjorndal K.A., Cardona L., Carreras C., Clusa M., Monzòn-Arguelo C., Nairn C.J., Nielsen J.T., Ronel N., Soares L.S., Stewart K.R., Vilaça S.T., Tűrkozan O.,Yilmaz C.,Dutton P.H., 2014. Geographic patterns of genetic variation in a broadly distributed marine vertebrate: New insights into loggerhead turtle stock structure from expanded mitochondrial DNA sequences. PLoS ONE 9(1). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085956. eCollection 2014 Cerca con Google

• Siebert U., Joiris C., Holsbeek L., Benke H., Failing K., Frese K., Petzinger E., 1999. Potential relation between mercury concentrations and necropsy findings in cetaceans from German waters of the North and Baltic Seas. Mar Pollut Bull 38:285-295 Cerca con Google

• Sierra E., Arbelo M., Méndez M., Andrada P., Herraéz P., Fernandez A., 2008. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in three stranded Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) in Canary Islands. 22nd Conference of the European Cetacean Society, the Netherlands:201-202 Cerca con Google

• Skrjabin A.S., 1959: New helminth species from marine mammals in the Pacific Ocean and Far-east Sea. Izvestiya Krimskovo Pedagogicheskogo Instituta M. V. Frunze 34:99-118 (in Russian) Cerca con Google

• Skrjabin A.S., 1966. A new Crassicauda (Crassicauda delamureana n. sp.) a parasite of the sei whale. Problemy Parazitologii, Kraevaya Parazitologiya i Prirodnaya Ochagovost Transmissivnikh Boleznei. Akademia Nauk Ukranskoi SSSR pp 100–107 [in Russian] Cerca con Google

• Skrjabin A.S., 1969: A new nematode, Crassicauda costata sp. n., a parasite of the southern whale. Parazitologiya (Lening.) 3:258-264 (in Russian) Cerca con Google

• Skrjabin A.S., 1973. New data in the study of the species Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Spirurida). Biol Nauki (Mosc.) 16:7-12 (in Russian) Cerca con Google

• Skrjabin K.L., Andreewa N.K., 1934. Un nouveau Nématode: Crassicauda giliakiana n. sp. trouvé dans les reins de Delphinapterus leucas. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 12,15-28 Cerca con Google

• Snyder S.D. Phylogeny and paraphyly among tetrapod blood flukes (Digenea: Schistosomatidae and Spirorchiidae). Int J Parasitol 34:1385–1392 Cerca con Google

• Spaul E. A., 1926. Crassicauda bennetti sp. n., a new nematode parasite from the bottle-nosed whale (Hyperoodon). Ann Mag Nat Hist 17:581-585 Cerca con Google

• Stacy B.A., Chapman P.A., Foley A.M., Greiner E.C., Herbst L.H., Bolten A.B., Klein P.A., Manire C.A., Jacobson E.R., 2017. Evidence of Diversity, Site, and Host Specificity of Sea Turtle Blood Flukes (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea: “Spirorchiidae”): A Molecular Prospecting Study. J Parasitol 103:756-767 Cerca con Google

• Stacy B.A., Foley A.M., Greiner E., Herbst L.H., Bolten A., Klein P., Manire C.A., Jacobson E.R., 2010a. Spirorchiidiasis in stranded loggerhead Caretta caretta and green turtles Chelonia mydas in Florida (USA): host pathology and significance. Dis Aquat Org 89:237–259 Cerca con Google

• Stacy B.A., Frankovich T., Greiner E., Alleman A.R., Herbst L.H., Klein P., Bolten A., McIntosh A., Jacobson E.R., 2010b. Detection of spirorchiid Trematodes in gastropods tissues by polymerase chain reaction: preliminary identification of an intermediate host of Learedius learedi. J Parasitol 96:752-757 Cerca con Google

• Stamper M.A., Harms C., Epperly S.P., Braun-McNeill J., Avens L., Stoskopf M.K., 2005. Relationship between barnacle epibiotic load and hematologic parameters in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), a comparison between migratory and residential animals in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. J Zoo Wildl Med 36:635–641 Cerca con Google

• Su C., Khan A., Zhou P., Majumdar D., Ajzenberg D., Dardé M.L., Zhu X.Q., Ajioka J.W., Rosenthal B.M., Dubey J.P., Sibley L.D., 2012. Globally diverse Toxoplasma gondii isolates comprise six major clades originating from a small number of distinct ancestral lineages. Proc Natl Acad Sci USa 109:5844-5849 Cerca con Google

• Sundar N., Cole R.A., Thomas N.J., Majumdar D., Dubey J.P., Su C., 2008. Genetic diversity among sea otter isolates of Toxoplasma gondii. Vet Parasitol 151:125-132 Cerca con Google

• Tajima Y., Maeda K., Yamadai T.K., 2014. Pathological findings and probable causes of the death of Stejneger’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) stranded in Japan from 1999 and 2011. J Vet Med Sci 77:45–51 Cerca con Google

• Tenter A.M., Heckeroth A.R., Weiss L.M., 2000. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. Int J Parasitol 30:1217-1258 Cerca con Google

• Traversa D., Giangaspero A., Iorio R., Otranto D., Paoletti B., Gasser R.B., 2004. Semi-nested PCR for the specific detection of Habronema microstoma or Habronema muscae DNA in horse faeces. Parasitol 129:733-739 Cerca con Google

• Traversa D., Otranto D., 2006. A new approach for the diagnosis of myiasis of animals: the example of horse nasal myiasis. Vet Parasitol 141:186-190 Cerca con Google

• Troncone A., Zizzo N., Colella G., Perillo A., Manfredi M. T., 1994. Parassitosi dei delfini: incidenza di infestazioni parassitarie in delfini spiaggiati. O&DV 15:39-44 Cerca con Google

• Valente A.L., Delgado C., Moreira C., Ferreira S., Dellinger T., Pinheiro de Carvalho M.A.A., Costa G., 2008. Helminth component community of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, from Madeira Archipelago, Portugal. J Parasitol 95:249-252 Cerca con Google

• Van Bressem M.F, Van Waerebeek K., Montes D., Kennedy S., Reyes J.C., Garcia-Godos A.I., Oonton-Silva K., Alfaro-Shigueto J., 2006. Diseases, lesions and malformations in the long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis) from the Southeast Pacific. Dis Aquat Org 68:149-165 Cerca con Google

• Van Bressem M.F., Raga J.A., Di Guardo G., Jepson P.D., Duignan P.J., Siebert U., Barrett T., Santos M.C., Moreno I.B., Siciliano S., Aguilar A., Van Waerebeek K., 2009. Emerging infectious diseases in cetaceans worldwide and the possible role of the environmental stressors. Dis Aquat Org 86:143-157 Cerca con Google

• Van Bressem M.F., Raga J.A., Di Guardo G., Jepson P.D., Duignan P.J., Siebert U., Barrett T., Santos M.C., Moreno I.B., Siciliano S., Aguilar A., Van Waerebeek K., 2009. Emerging infectious diseases in cetaceans worldwide and the possible role of the environmental stressors. Dis Aquat Org 86:143-157 Cerca con Google

• Vecchione A., 1994. Pennella parasite in Stenella coeruleoalba. Italian marine ecosystem of the coast of Latium. Seminario Internazionale di Studi di Ecosistema Marino 96-98 Cerca con Google

• Vecchione A., Aznar F.J., 2014. The mesoparasitic copepod Pennella balaenopterae and its significance as a visible indicator of health status in dolphins (Delphinidae): a review. J Mar Anim Ecol 7:4-11 Cerca con Google

• Wall L.D., 1941. Spirorochis parvus (Stunkard) its life history and its development of excretory system (Trematoda: Spirorchidae). Trans Am Microscop Soc 60:221-260 Cerca con Google

• Werneck M.R., Gallo B.M.G., Silva R.J., 2008. Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) infecting a Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1758) from Brazil. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 60:663-666 Cerca con Google

• Wolke R.E., Brooks D.R., George A., 1982. Spirorchidiasis in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta): pathology. J Wildl Dis 18:175-185 Cerca con Google

• Woodward J.C., Zam S.G., Caldwell D.K., Caldwell M.C., 1969. Some Parasitic Diseases of Dolphins. Path Vet 6:257-272 Cerca con Google

• Work T.M., Balazs G.H., Schumacher J.L., Marie A., 2005. Epizootiology of spirorchiid infection in green turtles (Chelonia mydas), in Hawaii. J Parasitol 91:871-87 Cerca con Google

• Young PC, Lowe D., 1969. Larval nematodes from fish of the subfamily Anisakinae and gastrointestinal lesions in mammals. J Comp Path 79:301-313 Cerca con Google

• Zucca P., Di Guardo G., Francese M., Scaravelli D., Genov T., Mazzatenta A., 2005. Causes of stranding in four Risso’s Dolphins (Grampus griseus) found beached along the North Adriatic Sea coast. Vet Res Commun 29:261-264 Cerca con Google

• Zucca P., Di Guardo G., Pozzi-Mucelli R., Scaravelli D., Francese M., 2004. Use of computer tomography for imaging of Crassicauda grampicola in a Risso’s Dolphin (Grampus griseus). J Zoo Wildl Med 35:391–394 Cerca con Google

Cerca con Google

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record