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Sbardelotto De Bona, Gicele (2018) STUDY OF THE CONTENT OF STILBENES ON GRAPE CANES WASTE. USE OF FOOD BY-PRODUCTS AS NATURAL PESTICIDES ON GRAPEVINE. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Grapes (genus Vitis) are an important fruit crop from economic and cultural point of view in many countries of Europe, Asia and America. Currently, countries as France, Spain and Italy produce on average 7% of the fresh grape and 90% of the wine grape. At the same time, chemical pesticides are a ubiquitous element in agriculture and are among the most widely used chemicals in the world. In addition, grape canes represent a large source of waste derived from the viticulture industry, with an estimated volume of 1−3 t/ha/year. Likewise, the seafood processing industry produces a large quantity of by-products and discards (heads, tails, skins, scales, viscera, backbones, and shells). Yet, these food wastes may often contain several usable substances of high value including grape cane extract and chitosan that may have important environment, agriculture and health benefits. Considering this important topic, this work proposes the use of by-products from grape cane waste (stilbene extract) and the fishing industry (chitosan), as substitutes of pesticides on grapevine against Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, the effect of different processes of storage and different pruning time on the stilbene accumulation on Pinot noir canes was investigated. Considering the effect of different processes of storage and different pruning time on the stilbene accumulation on Pinot noir canes, stilbene extract could be easily obtained collecting canes on the pruning time in December and storing them for 12 weeks at room temperature to reach the highest accumulation of stilbenes. Moreover, we analyzed the effect of the stilbene accumulation on grape canes of seven autochthonous grape varieties from Veneto region. The cultivars Verdiso and Incrocio Manzoni 13.0.25 showed the highest accumulation of stilbenes when harvested in October and stored for twelve weeks at room temperature, highlighting the importance of the cultivar on stilbene accumulation. Chitosan is a highly investigated biopolymer with well-known antimicrobial properties, that are largely influenced by the molecular weight, the degree of acetylation as well as the derivatization and preparation methods used. The biological activity of a commercial chitosan soluble in acid solution, obtained from shrimp shell waste, with a molecular weight of 173 kDa and a degree of acetylation of 17% was investigate. Exogenous application of stilbene extract or chitosan demonstrated to protect grapevine against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Stilbene extract (SE) demonstrated to induce satisfactory protection toward Botrytis cinerea on grapevine plants, thus being a promising natural fungicide. SE possessed a direct antifungal activity inferred by the inhibitory effect Grapes (genus Vitis) are an important fruit crop from economic and cultural point of view in many countries of Europe, Asia and America. Currently, countries as France, Spain and Italy produce on average 7% of the fresh grape and 90% of the wine grape. At the same time, chemical pesticides are a ubiquitous element in agriculture and are among the most widely used chemicals in the world. In addition, grape canes represent a large source of waste derived from the viticulture industry, with an estimated volume of 1−3 t/ha/year. Likewise, the seafood processing industry produces a large quantity of by-products and discards (heads, tails, skins, scales, viscera, backbones, and shells). Yet, these food wastes may often contain several usable substances of high value including grape cane extract and chitosan that may have important environment, agriculture and health benefits. Considering this important topic, this work proposes the use of by-products from grape cane waste (stilbene extract) and the fishing industry (chitosan), as substitutes of pesticides on grapevine against Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, the effect of different processes of storage and different pruning time on the stilbene accumulation on Pinot noir canes was investigated. Considering the effect of different processes of storage and different pruning time on the stilbene accumulation on Pinot noir canes, stilbene extract could be easily obtained collecting canes on the pruning time in December and storing them for 12 weeks at room temperature to reach the highest accumulation of stilbenes. Moreover, we analyzed the effect of the stilbene accumulation on grape canes of seven autochthonous grape varieties from Veneto region. The cultivars Verdiso and Incrocio Manzoni 13.0.25 showed the highest accumulation of stilbenes when harvested in October and stored for twelve weeks at room temperature, highlighting the importance of the cultivar on stilbene accumulation. Chitosan is a highly investigated biopolymer with well-known antimicrobial properties, that are largely influenced by the molecular weight, the degree of acetylation as well as the derivatization and preparation methods used. The biological activity of a commercial chitosan soluble in acid solution, obtained from shrimp shell waste, with a molecular weight of 173 kDa and a degree of acetylation of 17% was investigate. Exogenous application of stilbene extract or chitosan demonstrated to protect grapevine against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Stilbene extract (SE) demonstrated to induce satisfactory protection toward Botrytis cinerea on grapevine plants, thus being a promising natural fungicide. SE possessed a direct antifungal activity inferred by the inhibitory effect Grapes (genus Vitis) are an important fruit crop from economic and cultural point of view in many countries of Europe, Asia and America. Currently, countries as France, Spain and Italy produce on average 7% of the fresh grape and 90% of the wine grape. At the same time, chemical pesticides are a ubiquitous element in agriculture and are among the most widely used chemicals in the world. In addition, grape canes represent a large source of waste derived from the viticulture industry, with an estimated volume of 1−3 t/ha/year. Likewise, the seafood processing industry produces a large quantity of by-products and discards (heads, tails, skins, scales, viscera, backbones, and shells). Yet, these food wastes may often contain several usable substances of high value including grape cane extract and chitosan that may have important environment, agriculture and health benefits. Considering this important topic, this work proposes the use of by-products from grape cane waste (stilbene extract) and the fishing industry (chitosan), as substitutes of pesticides on grapevine against Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, the effect of different processes of storage and different pruning time on the stilbene accumulation on Pinot noir canes was investigated. Considering the effect of different processes of storage and different pruning time on the stilbene accumulation on Pinot noir canes, stilbene extract could be easily obtained collecting canes on the pruning time in December and storing them for 12 weeks at room temperature to reach the highest accumulation of stilbenes. Moreover, we analyzed the effect of the stilbene accumulation on grape canes of seven autochthonous grape varieties from Veneto region. The cultivars Verdiso and Incrocio Manzoni 13.0.25 showed the highest accumulation of stilbenes when harvested in October and stored for twelve weeks at room temperature, highlighting the importance of the cultivar on stilbene accumulation. Chitosan is a highly investigated biopolymer with well-known antimicrobial properties, that are largely influenced by the molecular weight, the degree of acetylation as well as the derivatization and preparation methods used. The biological activity of a commercial chitosan soluble in acid solution, obtained from shrimp shell waste, with a molecular weight of 173 kDa and a degree of acetylation of 17% was investigate. Exogenous application of stilbene extract or chitosan demonstrated to protect grapevine against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Stilbene extract (SE) demonstrated to induce satisfactory protection toward Botrytis cinerea on grapevine plants, thus being a promising natural fungicide. SE possessed a direct antifungal activity inferred by the inhibitory effect of the mycelium growth observed on nutrient agar medium and through the reduction of the necrotic lesions caused by B. cinerea on grapevine leaves. Furthermore, it was verified that the acquired protection derived also from an induction of some grapevine defense mechanisms. After its perception, SE induced specific defense events, such as the activation of MAPKs and a higher expression of a gene encoding a glutathione-S-transferase (GST1) and some PR genes, but negatively regulated new stilbene production. This result suggests the activation of an immune-ready state on SE-treated plants. Besides, thanks to direct fungistatic activity and filmogenic properties chitosan (173/17) conferred a good level of protection for grapevine leaves against B. cinerea. Moreover, it induced grapevine defense response with some delay. From three days from the treatment there was an induction of the JA/ET-mediated response and a repression of the SA-mediated signaling, and a transient accumulation of trans-resveratrol. The finding demonstrated that these food byproducts derived from the practice of viticulture and from the fishing industry, respectively, could be an alternative for the development of novel natural fungicides.


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EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Vincenzi, Simone
Supervisor:Bertazzon , Nadia and Angelini, Elisa
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 31 > Corsi 31 > LAND, ENVIRONMENT, RESOURCES, HEALTH (LERH)
Data di deposito della tesi:29 January 2019
Anno di Pubblicazione:23 November 2018
Key Words:Grape canes waste, chitosan, stilbenes, natural pesticides, grapevine
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/15 Scienze e tecnologie alimentari
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali
Centri > Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca Viticola Enologica (CIRVE)
Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e Ambiente
Codice ID:11730
Depositato il:15 Nov 2019 14:41
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