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Gobbi, Valentina (2019) Ottimizzazione della filiera produttiva del fungo coltivato. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (italian or english)

L’aumento del fabbisogno alimentare, ha comportato l’adozione di un’agricoltura indirizzata di tipo intensivo, causando un impoverimento della sostanza organica nel terreno e diminuzione della sua fertilità. Tra le soluzioni in grado di contenere la perdita di sostanza organica nel suolo, ci sono le concimazioni organiche. L’apporto avviene principalmente con l’utilizzo di deiezioni zootecniche ma negli ultimi anni vi è una crescente disponibilità di altre fonti, quali il compost spento di fungaia.
Il compost spento di fungaia (SMS dall’acronimo Spent Mushroom Substrate) è uno scarto risultante dalla fungicoltura, ovvero la produzione di funghi coltivati. La presente sperimentazione ha previsto la caratterizzazione di SMS e dimostrarne la potenzialità ad essere impiegato come matrice organica in orticoltura, attività caratterizzata da intense successioni colturali e frequenti lavorazioni. Il suo utilizzo come fertilizzante/ammendante è stato testato in una successione colturale che ha previsto il confronto tra 3 tipi di SMS e il susseguirsi di 8 specie orticole, alcune delle quali sensibili all’accumulo di nitrati.
Inoltre, questa sperimentazione ha previsto la caratterizzazione di A. bisporus e successivamente l’utilizzo di prodotti per la gestione dell’imbrunimento e mantenimento delle caratteristiche qualitative dello champignon nel post raccolta.
Dalle analisi eseguite sulle tipologie di SMS, non sono emerse significative differenze dei principali parametri presi in considerazione. SMS risulta dotato di buoni contenuti nutrizionali, soprattutto i contenuti di sostanza organica e azoto, i cui valori restano stabili anche dopo 12 mesi di stoccaggio in cumulo scoperto. Risulta ben dotato anche di fosforo e potassio, i quali però sono soggetti a perdite dovute all’azione dilavante delle piogge.
Il contenuto di sali risulta elevato se comparato con un comune letame. Questo problema può essere facilmente gestito se la quantità utilizzata in campo non eccede le reali esigenze colturali. Inoltre, risulta sicuro dal punto di vista della tossicità causata dalla presenza di metalli pesanti, rispettando i limiti stabiliti dal D. Lgs. 75/2010.
Le rese ottenute spesso non hanno rilevato differenze statistiche con la tesi completamente minerale, suggerendo che l’utilizzo di questa matrice può offrire produzioni assolutamente comparabili a quelle ottenibili con una comune fertilizzazione chimica, offrendo al contempo i vantaggi della concimazione organica. Da quanto emerso da questa sperimentazione, le colture a ciclo breve si avvantaggiano di una fertilizzazione mista organica/minerale. Nella valutazione della qualità delle produzioni ottenute, SMS ha dimostrato essere una matrice sicura: la concentrazione di nitrati risulta sotto ai limiti imposti dalla legislazione.
Dai risultati emersi durante la prova di caratterizzazione di A. bisporus, si può affermare che il mantenimento della catena del freddo contribuisce al ritardamento della senescenza. A. bisporus affettato è stata la referenza che, riguardo la senescenza, ha risentito maggiormente del periodo di conservazione. Alla luce di quanto emerso, la successiva prova di gestione dell’imbrunimento è stata effettuata solo sul prodotto affettato, utilizzando 3 prodotti ad azione conservante. Il colore risulta il parametro più importante per il consumatore e il trattamento con EDTA sembra avere agito nel mantenimento della luminosità, mantenendo al contempo bassi livelli di acidità titolabile. Per gli altri parametri considerati non sono state rilevate differenze significative.

Abstract (a different language)

The increase in food requirements has led to the adoption of an intensive agriculture, causing organic matter pauperization in soil and a decrease of its fertility. Organic fertilization is among the solutions able to contain the loss of soil organic matter. As organic fertilizer, animal manure is the most utilized, but, in recent years, there is an increasing availability of other sources, such as the spent mushroom substrate.
The spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is a waste resulting from the fungiculture, activity that produce cultivated mushrooms. The present experimentation provided the characterization of SMS and the use of SMS as organic matrix in horticulture, an activity characterized by intense cultivations and frequent processing. The strip plot experimental design compared 4 fertilization treatments and 3 SMS types in a cultivation of 8 horticultural species, some of which are sensitive to the accumulation of nitrates.
Moreover, this experimentation provided the characterization of A. bisporus and then the use of different compound to manage the browning effect and to maintain the qualitative characteristics of the champignons in the post-harvest.
From the analyses performed on the type of SMS, no significant differences emerged regarding the main parameters taken into consideration. SMS is endowed with good nutritional contents, especially regarding the contents of organic matter and nitrogen, whose values remain unchanged even after 12 months of uncovered heap. SMS is also well equipped with phosphorus and potassium content, which, however, are subject to losses due to the washout of the rains.
The salt content is high when compared to a common manure. This problem can be easily managed if the quantity used in the field does not exceed the cultivation needs. Moreover, it is safe from the point of view of toxicity caused by the presence of heavy metals, respecting the limits established by Italian D.lgs. 75/2010.
If compared with mineral fertilization, yields obtained from SMS fertilization often did not report statistical differences, suggesting that the use of these two N sources can be comparable. Also, the use of SMS fertilization matrix offers the advantages of organic fertilization. Short cycle crops preferred mixed fertilization, because organic substrate usually require long time for mineralization. From the results of our experimentation, organic fertilization is more effective for long cycle crops. Moreover, assessing the quality of the obtained products, SMS has proved to be a safe matrix, in fact, the concentration of nitrates is below the limits imposed by the Italian legislation.
From the results emerged during the characterization test of A. bisporus, it is possible to assert that the maintenance of the cold chain contributes to the senescence retardation. Sliced A. bisporus was the reference that was most affected, about senescence, by the period of conservation and was thus considered for the subsequent tests. the test of the browning effect on sliced mushrooms was carried out testing three different compound. Color, which is the most important parameter for the consumer, results less deteriorate with EDTA treatment that seems to have a good effect to maintain the brightness and low titratable acidity levels.

EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Sambo, Paolo
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 31 > Corsi 31 > SCIENZE DELLE PRODUZIONI VEGETALI
Data di deposito della tesi:22 May 2019
Anno di Pubblicazione:22 May 2019
Key Words:sostanza organica, orticoltura, substrato spento di fungaia, spent mushroom substrate, rotazione orticola
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/04 Orticoltura e floricoltura
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e Ambiente
Codice ID:11949
Depositato il:06 Nov 2019 10:56
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