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Giongo, Lara (2019) Texture and other fruit quality parameters profiling for sweet cherry and berries breeding. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (italian or english)

Il miglioramento per la qualità del frutto dei piccoli frutti, in particolare per tratti altamente soggettivi quali la tessitura della polpa, metaboliti secondari ed aroma è allo stato dell’arte ancora una sfida. Sinora, il miglioramento genetico per texture ed aroma ha sfruttato molto poco metodologie assistite, la MAS per esempio, ed è invece molto dipeso da scelte soggettive dei breeders, in particolare in fasi di selezione molto precoci.
L’obiettivo di questa ricerca è stato quello di sviluppare metodologie validate per le diverse classi di piccoli frutti e ciliegia, che possano oggettivare un tratto complesso e commercialmente molto importante quale la tessitura.
Per le diverse specie esaminate si è applicato un piano sperimentale molto simile. Il primo obiettivo è stato riuscire a capire il grado di variabilità presente nei rispettivi germoplasmi a disposizione, validando, in un ampio numero di cultivars, i parametri descrittivi della tessitura specie-specifici.
Il secondo obiettivo è stato capire quali modifiche la tessitura subisce in due momenti chiave della filiera produttiva e di consumo: al momento della raccolta e dopo conservazione. Per quest’ultimo aspetto si sono scelte le condizioni standard di postraccolta (2°C e umidità relativa tra 85-95% in assenza di atmosfera controllata per sei settimane per mirtillo, 8 giorni per fragola, 3 e 7 giorni per lampone e 7-14 giorni per ciliegio) per comprendere la dinamica della tessitura ed altri tratti correlati con la qualità.
L’analisi delle componenti principali (PCA) sulle diverse proprietà meccaniche, ha così permesso di ottenere una chiara separazione delle varietà di mirtillo (Vaccinium) valutate, sia in fase di sviluppo del frutto, a maturazione ed in postraccolta. L’effetto dello stadio valutato e le differenze tra genotipi sono risultati significativamente diversi per i parametri che contribuiscono a definire il profilo di tessitura della specie e di altri tratti qualitativi.
Lo sviluppo di queste metodologie è strettamente connesso con l’anatomia del frutto: tra i frutti considerati, il lampone, ad esempio, presenta, tra tutte, l’anatomia più complessa, essendo un aggregato di drupeole. In questo caso si è quindi scelto un approccio di analisi di tessitura tramite penetrazione ed in parallelo di compressione. Lo studio ha rivelato un’alta variabilità della tessitura all’interno del pool di 29 varietà di lampone valutate. Anche in questo caso, i pattern di profili di tessitura sono risultati essere significativamente dipendenti sia dal genotipo sia dal momento di analisi (maturazione e/o post-raccolta). Le due metodologie utilizzate hanno inoltre permesso di ottenere profili complementari di decomposizione della texture e i 22 parametri meccanici e morfologici utilizzati hanno permesso di individuare relazioni significative tra tratti che contribuiscono alla qualità del frutto.
Per fragola, i profili di tessitura sono stati determinati su un doppio ciclo di produzione, per 87 diversi genotipi, includendo nel disegno sperimentale sia varietà unifere sia rifiorenti, al momento della raccolta ed in post-raccolta. Anche in questo caso si sono rilevate differenze significative dei profili di tessitura in fase di maturazione del frutto e dopo conservazione, dimostrando anche per questa coltura un grande potenziale nell’utilizzo di queste metodologie per comprendere meglio le diverse componenti di qualità del frutto nei diversi momenti di consumo.
La tessitura della ciliegia (Prunus avium L.) è stata valutata in un germoplasma di 36 cultivars. Oltre a differenze al momento della raccolta ed in post-.raccolta, in ciliegio si sono valutati gli effetti sui diversi profili in relazione all’anno di valutazione e dal diverso portinnesto, testato su innesti di due cultivars commerciali (Kordia e Regina).
Per le diverse specie sono stati sviluppati, sulla base dei parametri di tessitura scelti, specifici Indici di Conservazione, che hanno permesso un ulteriore identificazione dell’attitudine di ciascuna varietà alla conservazione.
La validazione dei profili di tessitura e la loro associazione ad altri tratti relativi alla qualità del frutto nei piccoli frutti ed in ciliegio così ottenute mettono definitivamente in risalto che questi tratti sono ancora molto poco sfruttati nel miglioramento genetico, e che c’è quindi un ampio spazio di utilizzo dei parametri come biomarcatori. Il loro utilizzo consente non solo di accelerare i processi di selezione varietale per questi tratti specifici attraverso un’appropriata identificazione, ma possono anche essere validi strumenti nell’intera industria produttiva, quale ausilio nella cernita del prodotto o nella segmentazione di mercato in base a specifiche caratteristiche di tessitura.

Abstract (a different language)

Breeding for berries quality, and in particular for highly subjective goals like texture, secondary metabolites and flavour is challenging. Moreover, breeding both for texture and aroma has occurred mainly without assisted methodologies but mostly by subjective chance, in particular in early selection phases.
The aim of this work was to obtain high-throughput quality profiles of different berries with regard to a complex and commercially important quality trait like texture.
For the different crops, a similar experimental design was applied. The first aim of the different experiments was to unravel the widest variability for the different traits of interest to determine fruit quality within the respective germplasm. The second aim was to proof the differences present at the two cardinal time-points for the production and commercial pipeline: at harvest and after storage. More precisely storage conditions were: 2°C and relative humidity of 85-95% for six weeks at normal atmosphere conditions for blueberry, 8 days for strawberry, 3 and 7 for raspberry and 7-14 days for cherry, in order to monitor the dynamics of the different quality traits for each genotype.
Principal component analysis based on fruit textural proprieties, allowed for blueberry a distinct separation of the 46 Vaccinium cultivars evaluated, revealed a clear separation of the four harvest ripening stages. As expected, storage also highlighted textural differences among cultivars that were magnified compared to ripening. The effect of ripening stage and genetic differences on the blueberry texture profiles and other fruit quality related traits were significantly high.
The development of the texture raspberry methodology is highly related to fruit anatomy, which is more complex in raspberry than in the other berries. A parallel approach of penetration and compression on a double bite cycle measurements was thus chosen. A high variation was explained among 29 raspberry cultivars tested in this study. Differences among genotypes were observed at all ripening stages, showing a significant cultivar dependent pattern at harvest and after storage. The two methodologies allowed to complimentary profile raspberry texture and a clear relationship among 22 texture mechanical parameters and morphological quality traits was elucidated.
For strawberry, the texture profiling was done on a double cycle production for different genotypes, both including in the experimental setting junebearing and everbearing. 87 genotypes were profiled at harvest and post-harvest.
The strawberry texture variation in the genetic pool analysed was explained by changes of different parameters. The development of the fruit was also investigated for texture, morphological and metabolic traits. The results demonstrated the potential of using species specific methodologies towards the comprehensive study of strawberry fruit quality attributes during harvest and storage.
The texture trait of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) was investigated on 36 cultivars. Changes in texture were investigated at harvest, after storage and the effect of the year and the rootstock were evaluated. Significant genotypic variation is present in the genepool for texture. The identification of a storage index specifically designed for cherry, based on the texture parameters developed, allows clustering at maturity and after storage the most suitable genotypes for storage attitude or postharvest use.
The texture variability ascertained and association with other quality-related traits in the three berries and in cherry with this research shows that it is underexploited for its use in breeding, thus giving room for future improvements, increasing the chance not only to accelerate progress in selection processes for these novel traits through an appropriate identification and use of them as biomarkers but also allowing a much more focused and assisted process throughout the all industry chain, as for sorting and product segmentation.

EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Sambo, Paolo
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 31 > Corsi 31 > SCIENZE DELLE PRODUZIONI VEGETALI
Data di deposito della tesi:02 June 2019
Anno di Pubblicazione:02 June 2019
Key Words:berries, cherry, texture, plant breeding, fruit quality, postharvest
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/07 Genetica agraria
Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/03 Arboricoltura generale e coltivazioni arboree
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e Ambiente
Codice ID:11962
Depositato il:06 Nov 2019 10:51
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