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Zanettin, Giulia (2018) Effects of vineyard management on functional biodiversity. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (italian or english)

Italian vineyards are large-scale monocultures characterized by high pesticide pressure and removal of ecologically valuable structures. In the resulting highly disturbed and simplified systems, the insurgence of non-native species outbreaks can easier occur. In this framework, the preservation of semi-natural habitats and the adoption of more sustainable vineyard management practices are of particular importance in vineyard agro-ecosystems. In this thesis, the influence of vineyard management and landscape complexity on leafhopper species was investigated. Results shown that investigated factors can affect the leafhopper population densities and their natural control, and therefore they should be considered when pest control strategies are planned on a large scale.
Moreover, some habitat manipulation practices, such as the management of spontaneous groundcover and the use of green manure, could be useful strategies to increase and/or enhance beneficial arthropods by providing fundamental sources for the survival and reproduction of natural enemies. The presence of non-mowed spontaneous grass in vineyards inter-rows favoured the abundance of natural enemies but also of grapevine leafhoppers, especially in organic. In particular, non-mowed vegetation could make harder the control of Scaphoideus titanus populations in organic vineyards, and its adoption should be carefully evaluated when the leafhopper occurs in the vineyards. Allowing the green manure to flowering for a prolonged period instead of mowing it early, as traditionally done by the growers, can favour a higher presence and abundance of beneficial arthropods while not influenced phytophagous densities. The timing of mowing must be accurate programmed to avoid the dispersal on leafhopper vectors.
Investigations on the phenology of E. vulnerata suggest that the non-native pest can develop three generations per years in the new invaded area, and the presence of rural buildings and alternative hosts at vineyard margins favoured it overwintering and spreading into the vineyards. The impact of natural enemies on pest populations appeared to be limited to egg parasitism by Hymenoptera Mymaridae. A new approach aimed at promoting the impact of egg parasitoids and predators requires to be developed. In this context, the effectiveness of two generalist predators in controlling the leafhopper populations were tested both in laboratory and field conditions. Promising results obtained in laboratory trials suggested to release predators in vineyard, but their release did not give satisfactory results, except in only one trial in which the release of Orius majusculus significantly reduced the leafhopper numbers, suggesting to implement release techniques, densities and timing to improve the impact of anthocorids on grape leafhoppers.
The design of modern viticultural systems should integrate management practices with lower environmental impact with ecological compensation measures to increase and enhance biodiversity in the vineyard agro-ecosystems. Habitat management practices can contribute to enhance biodiversity but in extremely simplified context, the only presence of temporary vegetation appears not enough to create a more pest-stable agro-ecosystem. Since the deployment of pesticides can favouring the insurgence of pest outbreaks and limited the successful implementation of biological control, more sustainable biological control strategies should be implemented to control pest population densities, such as for E. vulnerata in vineyards of North-eastern Italy.

Abstract (a different language)

I vigneti italiani sono spesso monocolture su larga scala caratterizzate da un elevato impiego di agrofarmaci e dalla riduzione delle infrastrutture ecologiche. In questi agro-ecosistemi altamente disturbati e semplificati, l'insorgenza di specie non autoctone può verificarsi più facilmente. In questo contesto, la conservazione degli habitat semi-naturali e l'adozione di pratiche di gestione più sostenibili risultano di particolare importanza. Nel presente lavoro, è stata valutata l'influenza delle pratiche di gestione del vigneto e della complessità del paesaggio sulla presenza di tre diverse specie di cicaline. I risultati hanno dimostrato che i fattori investigati possono influenzare le densità di popolazione di tali fitofagi, nonché il loro controllo naturale. Di essi si dovrebbe pertanto tenere considerazione nella pianificazione di strategie di controllo su larga scala. Inoltre, è stato valutato l’effetto sulla presenza sia di fitofagi che artropodi utili di alcune pratiche di manipolazione dell’habitat, come la gestione della vegetazione spontanea presente nell’interfilare e la pratica del sovescio, in quanto tali pratiche possono rivelarsi utili strategie per favorire la presenza di nemici naturali. La presenza di vegetazione non sfalciata ha favorito l'abbondanza di nemici naturali ma anche di alcuni fitofagi, soprattutto in vigneti a conduzione biologica. L’adozione di questa pratica dovrebbe essere attentamente valutata quando la presenza di Scaphoideus titanus è accertata nel vigneto, in quanto la presenza di vegetazione non falciata può rendere più difficile il controllo delle popolazioni della cicalina, specialmente nei vigneti biologici. Consentire alle specie vegetali presenti nel miscuglio da sovescio di fiorire per un periodo più prolungato rispetto a quanto tradizionalmente adottato dai viticoltori, può favorire una maggiore presenza e abbondanza di artropodi utili. L’epoca di sfalcio dovrebbe tuttavia essere programmata con precisione per evitare l’eventuale dispersione di fitofagi sulla vite.
Le indagini sulla fenologia di Erasmoneura vulnerata suggeriscono che tale specie alloctona può compiere tre generazioni annuali nell’areale in introduzione. Inoltre, la presenza di edifici rurali e di ospiti alternativi in prossimità dei vigneti può favorirne lo svernamento e la dispersione. L'impatto dei nemici naturali sulle popolazioni della cicalina sembra attualmente riguardare unicamente la parassitizzazione delle uova. In questo contesto, l’adozione di un nuovo approccio volto a promuovere l'impatto dei parassitoidi oofagi e dei predatori risulta di fondamentale importanza. A tale scopo, è stata valutata l'efficacia di due predatori generalisti nel controllo della cicalina. I risultati promettenti ottenuti in laboratorio hanno suggerito il rilascio dei predatori anche in un vigneto altamente infestato. Tuttavia, solo in una prova il rilascio dell’antocoride Orius majusculus ha significativamente ridotto la densità della cicalina, suggerendo di implementare tecniche di rilascio, densità e tempi al fine di migliorare l'impatto di tale predatore nel controllo del fitofago.
La progettazione di moderni sistemi viticoli dovrebbe integrare pratiche di gestione a minore impatto ambientale con misure di compensazione ecologica atte ad aumentare e migliorare la biodiversità all’interno degli agro-ecosistemi viticoli. Le pratiche di gestione dell'habitat possono contribuire a tale scopo, ma in un contesto estremamente semplificato, la sola presenza di vegetazione temporanea sembrerebbe non bastare a creare un ecosistema più stabile. Poiché l’impiego di pesticidi può favorire esplosioni demografiche di fitofagi e limitare l'attuazione di strategie di controllo biologico, è necessario individuare strategie più sostenibili al fine di contenere l’impatto dei fitofagi, come osservato per E. vulnerata nei vigneti dell'Italia nord-orientale.

EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Duso, Carlo
Supervisor:Pozzebon, Alberto
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 31 > Corsi 31 > SCIENZE DELLE PRODUZIONI VEGETALI
Data di deposito della tesi:02 September 2019
Anno di Pubblicazione:01 October 2018
Key Words:leafhopper, groundcover, Erasmoneura vulnerata, biological control
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/11 Entomologia generale e applicata
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e Ambiente
Codice ID:12025
Depositato il:05 Nov 2019 17:23
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