Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Bergamini, Pietro (2019) New Insights on the Inner Mass Distribution of Massive Galaxy Clusters from a Combination of Strong Lensing and Galaxy Kinematics. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]
Preview
PDF Document
20Mb

Abstract (italian or english)

Galaxy clusters are important astrophysical laboratories to study the nature of Dark Matter (DM), whose physical properties are still unknown. In particular, a detailed investigation of the mass distribution of cluster halos, by dissecting the DM and baryonic components, can provide stringent tests on the Cold Dark Matter paradigm of structure formation. Over the last decade, strong gravitational lensing has become one of the most powerful techniques to study the total mass distribution in the Universe, particularly on galaxy and cluster scale.
In this context, dedicated large imaging surveys with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based spectroscopic campaigns on sizeable samples of massive galaxy clusters have stimulated a new generation of high-precision strong lensing models, via the identification of a large number of multiple images and cluster members.

In this thesis, we extend beyond the state of the art these recent cluster lens models, incorporating the stellar kinematics of a significant fraction of cluster galaxies, measured with the MUSE integral field spectrograph on the VLT. This study focuses on three massive clusters MACS J1206.2-0847, MACS J0416.1-2403, and Abell S1063 at z~0.4 with HST imaging and VLT spectroscopy data of unprecedented quality.
Specifically, we measured the stellar velocity dispersion of 40-60 member galaxies per cluster with MUSE, covering 4-5 magnitudes down to m_{F160W}~21.5. The robustness and accuracy of the velocity dispersion measurements were tested with extensive spectral simulations. We determined the normalization and slope of the galaxy Faber-Jackson relation in each cluster, and include this prior information in the cluster lens models. We find that using this novel technique, the inherent degeneracy between different mass components and possible systematics on model parameters are strongly reduced and the mass density profiles of cluster galaxies are now robustly constrained. Once re-normalized to the same absolute luminosity, our kinematic lens models predict consistent masses and sizes of sub-halos as a function of galaxy velocity dispersions. Moreover, extending previous findings, we derive consistent sub-halo mass and velocity dispersion functions for the three clusters.

By comparing the observed sub-halo mass distribution from our cluster lens models with the predictions of high-resolution N-body and hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, we find a lack of compact sub-structures in the corresponding inner regions of simulated clusters, whereas the sub-halo mass functions are found in good agreement. We still do not understand whether the origin of these differences has to be ascribed to numerical or resolution effects in the simulations, or to some physical aspect missing in the Cold Dark Matter framework.

An additional method to investigate the mass distribution of cluster sub-halos is to exploit galaxy scale strong lensing systems (GSSLS), in which a single cluster member produces highly magnified multiple images on kpc scale around lens galaxies. We show how strong lensing modeling of GSSLS in the cluster field, in combination with spatially resolved stellar kinematics of the lens galaxies, can further constrain the structure and sizes of cluster sub-halos.

Finally, in an effort to include in our lens models the measured internal galaxy velocity dispersions and the observed scatter of the Faber-Jackson relation, we developed and made public a python module which expands the capabilities of common lens modeling tools.

The methodologies of high-precision lens modeling developed in this thesis will find important applications in large area surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the Euclid satellite, when large numbers of cosmic lenses will be discovered. Applications include the exploitation of lensing clusters as powerful cosmic telescopes to investigate galaxies in the early Universe and cluster cosmography with gravitational time delay techniques.


Statistiche Download
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Rosati, Piero
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 32 > Corsi 32 > ASTRONOMIA
Data di deposito della tesi:27 November 2019
Anno di Pubblicazione:November 2019
Key Words:Galaxies clusters, Gravitational lensing, Cosmology, Dark Matter, Galaxies kinematics and dynamics
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 02 - Scienze fisiche > FIS/05 Astronomia e astrofisica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia "Galileo Galilei"
Codice ID:12108
Depositato il:02 Feb 2021 10:53
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

Agnello, A., Evans, N. W., & Romanowsky, A. J. 2014, MNRAS, 442, 3284 Cerca con Google

An, J. H. & Evans, N. W. 2011, MNRAS, 413, 1744 Cerca con Google

Auger, M. W., Treu, T., Bolton, A. S., et al. 2010, ApJ, 724, 511 Cerca con Google

Bacon, R., Accardo, M., Adjali, L., et al. 2012, The Messenger, 147, 4 Cerca con Google

Balestra, I., Mercurio, A., Sartoris, B., et al. 2016, ApJS, 224, 33 Cerca con Google

Barnabè, M., Czoske, O., Koopmans, L. V. E., et al. 2009, MNRAS, 399, 21 Cerca con Google

Bartelmann, M. & Schneider, P. 2001, Phys. Rep., 340, 291 Cerca con Google

Beckwith, S. V. W., Stiavelli, M., Koekemoer, A. M., et al. 2006, AJ, 132, 1729 Cerca con Google

Bender, R., Burstein, D., & Faber, S. M. 1992, ApJ, 399, 462 Cerca con Google

Benìıtez, N. 2011, BPZ: Bayesian Photometric Redshift Code Cerca con Google

Bergamini, P., Rosati, P., Mercurio, A., et al. 2019, arXiv e-prints, arXiv:1905.13236 Cerca con Google

Binney, J. & Mamon, G. A. 1982, MNRAS, 200, 361 Cerca con Google

Birrer, S. & Treu, T. 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 2172 Cerca con Google

Biviano, A., Rosati, P., Balestra, I., et al. 2013, A&A, 558, A1 Cerca con Google

Blumenthal, G. R., Faber, S. M., Primack, J. R., & Rees, M. J. 1984, Nature, 311, 517 Cerca con Google

Blumenthal, G. R., Pagels, H., & Primack, J. R. 1982, Nature, 299, 37 Cerca con Google

Bolton, A. S., Burles, S., Koopmans, L. V. E., Treu, T., & Moustakas, L. A. 2006, ApJ, 638, 703 Cerca con Google

Bolton, A. S., Treu, T., Koopmans, L. V. E., et al. 2008, ApJ, 684, 248 Cerca con Google

Bonafede, A., Dolag, K., Stasyszyn, F., Murante, G., & Borgani, S. 2011, MNRAS, 418, 2234 Cerca con Google

Bonamigo, M., Grillo, C., Ettori, S., et al. 2018, ApJ, 864, 98 Cerca con Google

Bond, J. R., Szalay, A. S., & Turner, M. S. 1982, Physical Review Letters, 48, 1636 Cerca con Google

Borgani, S. & Kravtsov, A. 2011, Advanced Science Letters, 4, 204 Cerca con Google

Bouwens, R. J., Bradley, L., Zitrin, A., et al. 2014, ApJ, 795, 126 Cerca con Google

Brainerd, T. G., Blandford, R. D., & Smail, I. 1996, ApJ, 466, 623 Cerca con Google

Brammer, G. B., van Dokkum, P. G., & Coppi, P. 2008, ApJ, 686, 1503 Cerca con Google

Bruzual, G. & Charlot, S. 2003, MNRAS, 344, 1000 Cerca con Google

Calzetti, D., Armus, L., Bohlin, R. C., et al. 2000, ApJ, 533, 682 Cerca con Google

Caminha, G. B., Grillo, C., Rosati, P., et al. 2016, A&A, 587, A80 Cerca con Google

Caminha, G. B., Grillo, C., Rosati, P., et al. 2017a, A&A, 600, A90 Cerca con Google

Caminha, G. B., Grillo, C., Rosati, P., et al. 2017b, A&A, 607, A93 Cerca con Google

Caminha, G. B., Rosati, P., Grillo, C., et al. 2019, arXiv e-prints, arXiv:1903.05103 Cerca con Google

Cappellari, M. 2017, MNRAS, 466, 798 Cerca con Google

Cappellari, M. & Emsellem, E. 2004, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 116, 138 Cerca con Google

Cappellari, M., Emsellem, E., Krajnovi ́c, D., et al. 2011, MNRAS, 413, 813 Carroll, S. M. 1997, arXiv e-prints, gr Cerca con Google

Cerny, C., Sharon, K., Andrade-Santos, F., et al. 2018, ApJ, 859, 159 Cerca con Google

Chabrier, G. 2003, PASP, 115, 763 Cerca con Google

Chua, K. T. E., Pillepich, A., Rodriguez-Gomez, V., et al. 2017, MNRAS, 472, 4343 Cerca con Google

Coe, D., Salmon, B., Bradac, M., et al. 2019, arXiv e-prints [[arXiv]1903.02002] Cerca con Google

Coe, D., Zitrin, A., Carrasco, M., et al. 2013, ApJ, 762, 32 Cerca con Google

Connor, T., Donahue, M., Kelson, D. D., et al. 2017, ApJ, 848, 37 Cerca con Google

Czoske, O., Barnab`e, M., Koopmans, L. V. E., Treu, T., & Bolton, A. S. 2008, MNRAS, 384, 987 Cerca con Google

De Lucia, G., Kauffmann, G., Springel, V., et al. 2004, MNRAS, 348, 333 Cerca con Google

Despali, G. & Vegetti, S. 2017, MNRAS, 469, 1997 Cerca con Google

Diemand, J. & Moore, B. 2011, Advanced Science Letters, 4, 297 Cerca con Google

Djorgovski, S. & Davis, M. 1987, ApJ, 313, 59 Cerca con Google

Dressler, A. 1980, ApJ, 236, 351 Cerca con Google

Dressler, A. 1984, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 22, 185 Cerca con Google

Dressler, A., Lynden-Bell, D., Burstein, D., et al. 1987, ApJ, 313, 42 Cerca con Google

Eichner, T., Seitz, S., Suyu, S. H., et al. 2013, ApJ, 774, 124 Cerca con Google

Elbaz, D., Arnaud, M., & Boehringer, H. 1995, A&A, 293, 337 Cerca con Google

Elìasdòttir, A'., Limousin, M., Richard, J., et al. 2007, ArXiv e-prints [[arXiv]0710.5636] Cerca con Google

Ettori, S., Donnarumma, A., Pointecouteau, E., et al. 2013, Space Sci. Rev., 177, 119 Cerca con Google

Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration, Akiyama, K., Alberdi, A., et al. 2019, ApJ, 875, L1 Cerca con Google

Faber, S. M., Dressler, A., Davies, R. L., et al. 1987, in Nearly Normal Galaxies. From the Planck Time to the Present, ed. S. M. Faber, 175–183 Cerca con Google

Faber, S. M. & Jackson, R. E. 1976, ApJ, 204, 668 Cerca con Google

Fabjan, D., Borgani, S., Tornatore, L., et al. 2010, MNRAS, 401, 1670 Cerca con Google

Falco, E. E., Gorenstein, M. V., & Shapiro, I. I. 1985, ApJ, 289, L1 Cerca con Google

Fernàndez Lorenzo, M., Cepa, J., Bongiovanni, A., et al. 2011, A&A, 526, A72 Cerca con Google

Focardi, P. & Malavasi, N. 2012, ApJ, 756, 117 Cerca con Google

Foreman-Mackey, D., Hogg, D. W., Lang, D., & Goodman, J. 2013, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 125, 306 Cerca con Google

Gavazzi, R., Treu, T., Rhodes, J. D., et al. 2007, ApJ, 667, 176 Cerca con Google

Gehrels, N. 1986, ApJ, 303, 336 Cerca con Google

Genel, S., Vogelsberger, M., Springel, V., et al. 2014, MNRAS, 445, 175 Cerca con Google

Giocoli, C., Meneghetti, M., Bartelmann, M., Moscardini, L., & Boldrin, M. 2012a, MNRAS, 421, 3343 Cerca con Google

Giocoli, C., Meneghetti, M., Ettori, S., & Moscardini, L. 2012b, MNRAS, 426, 1558 Cerca con Google

Giocoli, C., Tormen, G., Sheth, R. K., & van den Bosch, F. C. 2010a, MNRAS, 404, 502 Cerca con Google

Giocoli, C., Tormen, G., Sheth, R. K., & van den Bosch, F. C. 2010b, MNRAS, 404, 502 Cerca con Google

Girardi, M., Mercurio, A., Balestra, I., et al. 2015, A&A, 579, A4 Cerca con Google

Gobat, R., Rosati, P., Strazzullo, V., et al. 2008, A&A, 488, 853 Cerca con Google

Gòmez, P. L., Valkonen, L. E., Romer, A. K., et al. 2012, AJ, 144, 79 Cerca con Google

Goodman, J. & Weare, J. 2010, Communications in Applied Mathematics and Computational Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, p. 65-80, 2010, 5, 65 Cerca con Google

Grillo, C., Gobat, R., Presotto, V., et al. 2014, ApJ, 786, 11 Cerca con Google

Grillo, C., Lombardi, M., & Bertin, G. 2008, A&A, 477, 397 Cerca con Google

Grillo, C., Rosati, P., Suyu, S. H., et al. 2018, ApJ, 860, 94 Cerca con Google

Grillo, C., Suyu, S. H., Rosati, P., et al. 2015, ApJ, 800, 38 Cerca con Google

Gruen, D., Brimioulle, F., Seitz, S., et al. 2013, MNRAS, 432, 1455 Cerca con Google

Haardt, F. & Madau, P. 2001, in Clusters of Galaxies and the High Redshift Universe Observed in X-rays, ed. D. M. Neumann & J. T. V. Tran, 64 Cerca con Google

Halkola, A., Seitz, S., & Pannella, M. 2007, ApJ, 656, 739 Cerca con Google

Hashimoto, T., Laporte, N., Mawatari, K., et al. 2018, Nature, 557, 392 Cerca con Google

Herbig, T. & Birkinshaw, M. 1994, in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 26, American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts, 1403 Cerca con Google

Hernquist, L. 1990, ApJ, 356, 359 Cerca con Google

Hinshaw, G., Larson, D., Komatsu, E., et al. 2013, ApJS, 208, 19 Cerca con Google

Hoekstra, H., Bartelmann, M., Dahle, H., et al. 2013, Space Sci. Rev., 177, 75 Cerca con Google

Hogg, D. W., Blanton, M. R., Brinchmann, J., et al. 2004, ApJ, 601, L29 Cerca con Google

Holden, B. P., van der Wel, A., Franx, M., et al. 2005, ApJ, 620, L83 Cerca con Google

Hubble, E. P. 1926, ApJ, 64 Cerca con Google

Hubble, E. P. 1936, Realm of the Nebulae (Dover Publications) Cerca con Google

Ilbert, O., Capak, P., Salvato, M., et al. 2009, ApJ, 690, 1236 Cerca con Google

Jaffe, W. 1983, MNRAS, 202, 995 Cerca con Google

Jauzac, M., Richard, J., Jullo, E., et al. 2015, MNRAS, 452, 1437 Cerca con Google

Jiang, L., Wu, J., Bian, F., et al. 2018, Nature Astronomy, 2, 962 Cerca con Google

Jørgensen, I., Chiboucas, K., Flint, K., et al. 2006, ApJ, 639, L9 Cerca con Google

Jorgensen, I., Franx, M., & Kjaergaard, P. 1996, MNRAS, 280, 167 Cerca con Google

Jullo, E. & Kneib, J.-P. 2009, MNRAS, 395, 1319 Cerca con Google

Jullo, E., Kneib, J.-P., Limousin, M., et al. 2007, New Journal of Physics, 9, 447 Cerca con Google

Karman, W., Caputi, K. I., Caminha, G. B., et al. 2017, A&A, 599, A28 Cerca con Google

Karman, W., Caputi, K. I., Grillo, C., et al. 2015, A&A, 574, A11 Cerca con Google

Kassiola, A. & Kovner, I. 1993, ApJ, 417, 450 Cerca con Google

Kawamata, R., Oguri, M., Ishigaki, M., Shimasaku, K., & Ouchi, M. 2016, ApJ, 819, 114 Cerca con Google

Keeton, C. R. & Madau, P. 2001, ApJ, 549, L25 Cerca con Google

Kelly, P. L., Brammer, G., Selsing, J., et al. 2016, ApJ, 831, 205 Cerca con Google

Kelly, P. L., Rodney, S. A., Treu, T., et al. 2015, Science, 347, 1123 Cerca con Google

Killedar, M., Borgani, S., Meneghetti, M., et al. 2012, MNRAS, 427, 533 Cerca con Google

Kneib, J.-P., Ellis, R. S., Smail, I., Couch, W. J., & Sharples, R. M. 1996, ApJ, 471, 643 Cerca con Google

Kochanek, C. S. 1993, ApJ, 419, 12 Kochanek, C. S. 1994, ApJ, 436, 56 Cerca con Google

Koekemoer, A. M., Avila, R. J., Hammer, D., et al. 2014, in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 223, American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #223, 254.02 Cerca con Google

Koopmans, L. V. E., Bolton, A., Treu, T., et al. 2009, ApJ, 703, L51 Cerca con Google

Kormendy, J. & Bender, R. 2013, ApJ, 769, L5 Cerca con Google

Kroupa, P. 2001, MNRAS, 322, 231 Cerca con Google

Lagattuta, D. J., Richard, J., Bauer, F. E., et al. 2019, MNRAS, 485, 3738 Cerca con Google

Lagattuta, D. J., Richard, J., Cl ́ement, B., et al. 2017, MNRAS, 469, 3946 Cerca con Google

Lewis, A. & Bridle, S. 2002, Phys. Rev. D, 66, 103511 Cerca con Google

Limousin, M., Kneib, J. P., Bardeau, S., et al. 2007, A&A, 461, 881 Cerca con Google

Limousin, M., Kneib, J.-P., & Natarajan, P. 2005, MNRAS, 356, 309 Cerca con Google

Limousin, M., Richard, J., Jullo, E., et al. 2016, A&A, 588, A99 Cerca con Google

Limousin, M., Sommer-Larsen, J., Natarajan, P., & Milvang-Jensen, B. 2009, ApJ, 696, 1771 Cerca con Google

Longair, M. S. 2008, Galaxy Formation (Springer Nature) Cerca con Google

Lotz, J., Mountain, M., Grogin, N. A., et al. 2014, in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts, Vol. 223, American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #223, 254.01 Cerca con Google

Lotz, J. M., Koekemoer, A., Coe, D., et al. 2017, ApJ, 837, 97 Cerca con Google

Mancini, C., Daddi, E., Juneau, S., et al. 2019, MNRAS, 2068 Cerca con Google

Markevitch, M., Mushotzky, R., Inoue, H., et al. 1996, ApJ, 456, 437 Cerca con Google

Maurogordato, S., Cappi, A., Ferrari, C., et al. 2008, A&A, 481, 593 Cerca con Google

Mead, J. M. G., King, L. J., Sijacki, D., et al. 2010, MNRAS, 406, 434 Cerca con Google

Melchior, P., Suchyta, E., Huff, E., et al. 2015, MNRAS, 449, 2219 Cerca con Google

Meneghetti, M. 2019, Introduction to Gravitational Lensing (www.ita.uni- heidelberg.de) Vai! Cerca con Google

Meneghetti, M., Natarajan, P., Coe, D., et al. 2017, MNRAS, 472, 3177 Cerca con Google

Meneghetti, M., Rasia, E., Vega, J., et al. 2014, ApJ, 797, 34 Cerca con Google

Merten, J., Meneghetti, M., Postman, M., et al. 2015, ApJ, 806, 4 Cerca con Google

Metcalf, R. B. & Madau, P. 2001, ApJ, 563, 9 Cerca con Google

Metcalf, R. B. & Petkova, M. 2014, MNRAS, 445, 1942 Cerca con Google

Meylan, G., Jetzer, P., North, P., et al., eds. 2006, Gravitational Lensing: Strong, Weak and Micro Cerca con Google

Mo, H., van den Bosch, F. C., & White, S. 2010, Galaxy Formation and Evolution (Cambridge University Press) Cerca con Google

Monna, A., Seitz, S., Balestra, I., et al. 2017, MNRAS, 466, 4094 Cerca con Google

Monna, A., Seitz, S., Greisel, N., et al. 2014, MNRAS, 438, 1417 Cerca con Google

Monna, A., Seitz, S., Zitrin, A., et al. 2015, MNRAS, 447, 1224 Cerca con Google

Munari, E., Grillo, C., De Lucia, G., et al. 2016, ApJ, 827, L5 Cerca con Google

Narayan, R. & Bartelmann, M. 1996, arXiv e-prints, astro Cerca con Google

Natarajan, P., Chadayammuri, U., Jauzac, M., et al. 2017, MNRAS, 468, 1962 Cerca con Google

Natarajan, P. & Kneib, J.-P. 1997, MNRAS, 287, 833 Cerca con Google

Natarajan, P., Kneib, J.-P., & Smail, I. 2002, ApJ, 580, L11 Cerca con Google

Natarajan, P., Kneib, J.-P., Smail, I., et al. 2009, ApJ, 693, 970 Cerca con Google

Newman, A. B., Treu, T., Ellis, R. S., & Sand , D. J. 2011, ApJ, 728, L39 Cerca con Google

Newman, A. B., Treu, T., Ellis, R. S., et al. 2009, ApJ, 706, 1078 Cerca con Google

Niemiec, A., Jullo, E., Giocoli, C., Limousin, M., & Jauzac, M. 2019, MNRAS, 1263 Cerca con Google

Nipoti, C., Giocoli, C., & Despali, G. 2018, MNRAS, 476, 705 Cerca con Google

Oguri, M. 2019, glafic: gravitational lens adaptive-mesh fitting code (www.slac.stanford.edu) Vai! Cerca con Google

Okabe, N., Bourdin, H., Mazzotta, P., & Maurogordato, S. 2011, ApJ, 741, 116 Cerca con Google

Peebles, P. J. E. 1982, ApJ, 263, L1 Cerca con Google

Peng, C. Y., Ho, L. C., Impey, C. D., & Rix, H.-W. 2002, AJ, 124, 266 Cerca con Google

Peng, C. Y., Ho, L. C., Impey, C. D., & Rix, H.-W. 2010, AJ, 139, 2097 Cerca con Google

Petkova, M., Metcalf, R. B., & Giocoli, C. 2014, MNRAS, 445, 1954 Cerca con Google

Planck Collaboration, Ade, P. A. R., Aghanim, N., et al. 2016, A&A, 594, A27 Cerca con Google

Planelles, S., Borgani, S., Fabjan, D., et al. 2014, MNRAS, 438, 195 Cerca con Google

Postman, M., Coe, D., Ben ́ıtez, N., et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 25 Cerca con Google

Puchwein, E., Bartelmann, M., Dolag, K., & Meneghetti, M. 2005, A&A, 442, 405 Cerca con Google

Rafelski, M., Teplitz, H. I., Gardner, J. P., et al. 2015, AJ, 150, 31 Cerca con Google

Rasia, E., Borgani, S., Murante, G., et al. 2015, ApJ, 813, L17 Cerca con Google

Renzini, A. 2006, ARA&A, 44, 141 Cerca con Google

Richard, J., Jauzac, M., Limousin, M., et al. 2014, MNRAS, 444, 268 Cerca con Google

Rosati, P. 2018, Nature Astronomy, 2, 944 Cerca con Google

Rosati, P., Balestra, I., Grillo, C., et al. 2014, The Messenger, 158, 48 Salpeter, E. E. 1955, ApJ, 121, 161 Cerca con Google

Sànchez Almeida, J., Terlevich, R., Terlevich, E., Cid Fernandes, R., & Morales-Luis, A. B. 2012, ApJ, 756, 163 Cerca con Google

Sànchez-Bla ́zquez, P., Peletier, R. F., Jim ́enez-Vicente, J., et al. 2006, MNRAS, 371, 703 Cerca con Google

Schmidt, K. B., Treu, T., Brammer, G. B., et al. 2014, ApJ, 782, L36 Cerca con Google

Schneider, P. 2006, Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology (Springer Nature) Cerca con Google

Schneider, P., King, L., & Erben, T. 2000, A&A, 353, 41 Cerca con Google

Sheth, R. K. & Tormen, G. 2002, MNRAS, 329, 61 Cerca con Google

Sijacki, D., Springel, V., Di Matteo, T., & Hernquist, L. 2007, MNRAS, 380, 877 Cerca con Google

Sijacki, D., Vogelsberger, M., Genel, S., et al. 2015, MNRAS, 452, 575 Cerca con Google

Soucail, G. 2012, A&A, 540, A61 Cerca con Google

Springel, V. 2005, MNRAS, 364, 1105 Cerca con Google

Springel, V. & Hernquist, L. 2003, MNRAS, 339, 289 Cerca con Google

Springel, V., White, S. D. M., Tormen, G., & Kauffmann, G. 2001, MNRAS, 328, 726 Cerca con Google

Springel, V., White, S. D. M., Tormen, G., & Kauffmann, G. 2001b, MNRAS, 328, 726 Cerca con Google

Steinborn, L. K., Dolag, K., Hirschmann, M., Prieto, M. A., & Remus, R.-S. 2015, MNRAS, 448, 1504 Cerca con Google

Stock, D., Meyer, S., Sarli, E., et al. 2015, A&A, 584, A63 Cerca con Google

Suyu, S. H., Bonvin, V., Courbin, F., et al. 2017, MNRAS, 468, 2590 Cerca con Google

Suyu, S. H. & Halkola, A. 2010, A&A, 524, A94 Cerca con Google

Tormen, G., Bouchet, F. R., & White, S. D. M. 1997, MNRAS, 286, 865 Cerca con Google

Treu, T. 1998, in ESA Special Publication, Vol. 429, LIA Colloq. 34: The Next Generation Space Telescope: Science Drivers and Technological Challenges, ed. B. Kaldeich-Schu ̈rmann, 255 Cerca con Google

Treu, T., Brammer, G., Diego, J. M., et al. 2016, ApJ, 817, 60 Cerca con Google

Treu, T., Ellis, R. S., Kneib, J.-P., et al. 2003, ApJ, 591, 53 Cerca con Google

Treu, T., Koopmans, L. V., Bolton, A. S., Burles, S., & Moustakas, L. A. 2006, ApJ, 640, 662 Cerca con Google

Treu, T. & Koopmans, L. V. E. 2004, ApJ, 611, 739 Cerca con Google

Treu, T., Schmidt, K. B., Brammer, G. B., et al. 2015, ApJ, 812, 114 Cerca con Google

Treu, T., Stiavelli, M., Bertin, G., Casertano, S., & Møller, P. 2001, MNRAS, 326, 237 Cerca con Google

Umetsu, K. 2010, arXiv e-prints, arXiv:1002.3952 Cerca con Google

Umetsu, K. 2013, ApJ, 769, 13 Cerca con Google

Umetsu, K. & Broadhurst, T. 2008, ApJ, 684, 177 Cerca con Google

Umetsu, K., Broadhurst, T., Zitrin, A., Medezinski, E., & Hsu, L.-Y. 2011, ApJ, 729, 127 Cerca con Google

Umetsu, K., Medezinski, E., Nonino, M., et al. 2014, ApJ, 795, 163 Cerca con Google

Umetsu, K., Tada, M., & Futamase, T. 1999, Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement, 133, 53 Cerca con Google

Valdes, F., Gupta, R., Rose, J. A., Singh, H. P., & Bell, D. J. 2004, ApJS, 152, 251 Cerca con Google

van de Voort, F., Schaye, J., Booth, C. M., & Dalla Vecchia, C. 2011, MNRAS, 415, 2782 Cerca con Google

van der Marel, R. P. 1994, MNRAS, 270, 271 Cerca con Google

Vanzella, E., Castellano, M., Meneghetti, M., et al. 2017, ApJ, 842, 47 Cerca con Google

Vogelsberger, M., Genel, S., Springel, V., et al. 2014a, Nature, 509, 177 Cerca con Google

Vogelsberger, M., Genel, S., Springel, V., et al. 2014b, MNRAS, 444, 1518 Cerca con Google

Warnick, K., Knebe, A., & Power, C. 2008, MNRAS, 385, 1859 Cerca con Google

Wiersma, R. P. C., Schaye, J., & Smith, B. D. 2009, MNRAS, 393, 99 Cerca con Google

Yin Cui, Yongzhou Xiang, Kun Rong, Feris, R., & Cao, L. 2014, in IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision, 213–219 Cerca con Google

Zheng, W., Postman, M., Zitrin, A., et al. 2012, Nature, 489, 406 Cerca con Google

Zitrin, A., Rosati, P., Nonino, M., et al. 2012, ApJ, 749, 97 Cerca con Google

Zwicky, F. 1937, ApJ, 86, 217 Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record