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Morad, Mohammad (2019) Multiple migrations: social networks and transnational
lives of italian bangladeshis in Europe.
[Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (italian or english)

Increasingly, scholars have highlighted that migration is no longer a one-way movement between a country of origin and a destination because migrants move through and settle in several locations in their life trajectories. In this study, I aim to examine the multiple migration experiences, social networks and transnational lives of Bangladeshi first generation migrants who acquired Italian citizenship and this study therefore refers to them ‘Italian Bangladeshis’. This study is carried out by following a multi-sited qualitative research approach, consisting of in-depth interviews and participant observation. The main material for this article is based on fifty in-depth interviews with Bangladeshi first-generation migrants in Italy and the UK.

Chapter Two provides, on the one hand, a brief description of Bangladesh as a migrant-sending country and, on the other hand, a presentation about Italy as an immigrant-receiving country. It has shown that in the case of Bangladeshi migration, even though the choice of the UK is traditionally the top destination for long-term Bangladeshi migrants, Italy has recently emerged as one of their major destinations on this continent. In particular, Bangladeshi migrants started to arrive in this Southern European country from the late 1980s, but rapid growth started from the early 1990s.

Chapter Three is devoted to making a theoretical understanding of the concept of ‘multiple migrations’. This chapter conceptualizes the term multiple migrations by highlighting several terminologies that existing studies adopted in their analysis of multi sage migration trajectories. It also reviews a number of studies that underline a combination of economic, social and cultural factors for this inter-EU mobility. Chapter Four theorises social networks and transnationalism in order to provide a better understanding of how these two concepts are related to the concept of ‘multiple migrations’. This chapter underlines the fact that even though the social networks and transnational ties have an important role in shaping first international migrations, existing empirical research appears not to have largely addressed the ways in which social networks and transnational ties may influence multiple migrations.

Chapter Five is the first empirical chapter of this dissertation that examines the motivation behind emigration, socio-demographic and economic profiles and the region of origin of Italian Bangladeshis who participated in this study.

In Chapter Six, concerning the first research question – the previous destination and motivation for multiple migratory trajectories before arriving in Italy and within Italy - this research has shown that, before arriving in Italy, Bangladeshi first-generation migrants who participated in this study worked for several years in at least two different European, Southeast Asian or Middle Eastern countries. However, some migrants came directly to Italy, but they also stayed for a certain period of time – from a couple of months to years - in several countries as transit migrants. This study finds that the in most cases multiple migrations of the research participants before arriving in Italy were not part of their pre-migration plan. Instead, their multi-stage migrations were motivated by the experiences they encountered in several societies of destination. In most cases, after arriving in Italy, Bangladeshis in this study moved first to the capital city of Rome. After two regularization scheme in 1990 and 1996, when the number of documented Bangladeshis in Rome became larger, they later started internal migration to other Italian cities.

In Chapter Seven, with regard to the second research question in this research - the intention of leaving Italy - findings have shed light on the fact that Italian Bangladeshis want more control over their children by instilling Bengali cultural traditions and inherited religion into their second-generation. In relation to this issue, many of them think that their children are growing up in a kind of Italian cultural environment and day by day their children leaving behind their home culture and Islamic norms. As regards the third research question of this study – the selection of the UK as an onward migration destination – the findings of this research revealed the centrality of the colonial legacy from the cultural and economic perspective. Since the UK is hosting the biggest Bangladeshi diaspora, there is more space created in terms of maintaining and enjoying both Bengali culture and more freedom in practising the religion. The findings of this study also indicate that the political climate of the UK is more welcoming to immigrants and more multicultural compared to their country of EU citizenship, i.e. Italy. With reference to the fourth research question on the motivation to remain in Italy, this study indicates that some of Bangladeshis considered Italy as their last destination. As they were already established in Italy socially and economically, they were afraid that if they made an onward relocation to a new destination it would be a ‘new beginning of migration’.

Chapter eight uncovers how important the composition of social networks and transnational ties are for facilitating the multiple migration trajectories. With reference to the fifth research question - the role of social networks and transnational ties in facilitating multiple migrations - this research shows the importance of strong ties (transnational kinship networks) in the selection of first migration destination of the research participants. Most of them had someone from their immediate family and relatives in the preferred country of destination with whom they were connected. However, In the case of their subsequent migration from the first destination to other destinations, the role of weak ties was important compared to strong ties with close kin. Bangladeshis who arrived in Italy from several countries mostly had networks either with someone from their local district in Bangladesh or with their earlier fellow migrants who moved to Italy before them. The study findings also indicated the importance of weak ties in facilitating their onward migrations to the UK compared to their strong ties. In particular, their relocation to the UK is mainly influenced by the transnational ties with their Italian Bangladeshi fellow migrants who moved from Italy to the UK.

In the Chapter nine, the empirical findings related to the research question six – in what ways do Italian Bangladeshis maintain their transnational connection across multiple destinations – this study suggests that Bangladeshi earlier migrants who have Italian citizenship create their own ‘transnational social field’ by their social, economic, political, religious, and cultural practices across borders through direct and indirect relations. Even though these Italian Bangladeshis lived with family (with their wife and children) for many years outside of their home country and now hold Italian citizenship, but they maintain various transnational contacts with their extended family members, friends and relatives back home’ in Bangladesh and in other countries. Their transnational activities express both ‘ways of being” and ‘ways of belonging’.


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EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Sacchetto, Devi
Supervisor:Sacchetto, Devi
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 32 > Corsi 32 > SCIENZE SOCIALI: INTERAZIONI, COMUNICAZIONE, COSTRUZIONI CULTURALI
Data di deposito della tesi:01 December 2019
Anno di Pubblicazione:02 December 2019
Key Words:Multiple migrations, Social networks, Transnational ties, Migration aspirations, Transnational Social Field, Ways of Being, Ways of Belonging, Intra-European Mobility, Italian Bangladeshis, Italian amnesties.
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 14 - Scienze politiche e sociali > SPS/08 Sociologia dei processi culturali e comunicativi
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Filosofia, Sociologia, Pedagogia e Psicologia Applicata
Codice ID:12231
Depositato il:25 Jan 2021 15:10
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