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Romens, Anne-Iris (2019) Coping with essentialism and stratifications: Migrant women with tertiary education in local labour markets of France and Italy. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (italian or english)

Migrant women with tertiary education are significantly concerned with over-education, de-skilling and underemployment, as they primarily work in jobs that are not in line with their studies. The dissertation argues that analysing essentialism is crucial to understanding the stratifications of the labour market and comprehending why migrant women continue to be confined in jobs with low social recognition, despite their degrees.

The thesis puts into light that representations based on coloniality, global inequalities and also on conservative and eroticised models of femininity, affect the selection process and finally limit the access that these women have to employment. To explore the influence of essentialism in the assessment of skills, the thesis uses the concept of embodiness. It stresses that recruiters tend to value skills, according to who embodies them, and depending on how candidates are perceived in terms of class, gender, and racialisation. Assessment of skills appears to involve a high level of scrutiny over female candidates' body and habitus, leading to class selectivity and eroticisation of migrant women.

Moreover, the dissertation explores how migrant women with tertiary education are coping, resisting, and eventually challenging essentialism and stratifications. It analyses how they react to their position in the local labour markets, whether they feel downgraded or they have accessed satisfying jobs. In addition, motherhood emerged from fieldwork as a crucial factor that influences migrant women's trajectories. As a result, the dissertation analyses how the interplay of migration, welfare, care, and gender orders conditions access to employment, leading to frequent de-skilling

The local labour markets that were selected in which to conduct fieldwork are those of Veneto, in Italy and Alsace, in France. These two contexts are characterised by different models of care, and of addressing migrants' otherness. The social phenomenon is studied from a variety of perspectives. The dissertation crosses the gazes of migrant women with tertiary education, born in Sub-Saharan African and European non-EU countries, with those of recruiters and social workers. Overall, 52 narrative interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis and biographical policy evaluation. In addition, the dissertation is one of the first studies that uses statistical data to highlight the differential access that migrants with tertiary education have to employment in Italy and France, according to their country of birth and gender.

By studying the challenges faced by migrant women with tertiary education, the dissertation highlights how access to resources and employment is gendered, classed, and racialised and how essentialist processes influence it. It argues that understanding the mechanisms that contribute to reproducing stratifications enables us to design paths towards more equal access to employment and resources.

Abstract (a different language)

Le donne migranti con istruzione superiore sono significativamente colpite dalla sovra-istruzione, dalla de-qualificazione e dalla sottoccupazione, in quanto lavorano principalmente in posti di lavoro che non sono in linea con i loro percorsi di studio. La tesi sostiene che analizzare l'essenzialismo è cruciale per comprendere le stratificazioni del mercato del lavoro e capire perché le donne migranti continuano ad essere confinate in posti di lavoro con scarso riconoscimento sociale, nonostante la loro laurea.

La tesi mette in luce come le rappresentazioni basate sulla colonialità, le disuguaglianze globali e anche su modelli di femminilità conservatori ed erotizzati, influenzano il processo di selezione e infine limitano l'accesso che queste donne hanno al lavoro. Per esplorare l'influenza dell'essenzialismo nella valutazione delle competenze, la tesi utilizza il concetto di incorporazione (embodiness). Sottolinea che i selezionatori tendono a valutare le competenze, in base a chi le incorpora e in base a come i candidati vengono percepiti in termini di classe, genere e razzializzazione. La valutazione delle competenze sembra comportare un alto livello di scrutinio sul corpo e sull'habitus delle candidate donne, portando a una selettività basata sulla classe e l'erotizzazione delle donne migranti.

Inoltre, la tesi esamina come le donne migranti con istruzione superiore affrontano, resistono e alla fine sfidando l’essenzialismo e le stratificazioni. Analizza il modo in cui reagiscono alla loro posizione nei mercati del lavoro locali, sia che si sentano declassati o che abbiano avuto accesso a lavori soddisfacenti. Inoltre, la maternità è emersa dal lavoro sul campo come un fattore cruciale che influenza le traiettorie delle donne migranti. Di conseguenza, la tesi analizza il modo in cui l'interazione tra migrazione, welfare, cura e ordini di genere condiziona l'accesso all'occupazione, portando a frequenti declassamenti.

I mercati del lavoro locali che sono stati selezionati per svolgere attività sul campo sono quelli del Veneto, in Italia e dell’Alsazia, in Francia. Questi due contesti sono caratterizzati da diversi modelli di cura e di rapportarsi all'alterità dei migranti. Il fenomeno sociale è studiato da una varietà di prospettive. La tesi incrocia gli sguardi delle donne migranti con istruzione superiore, nate in paesi dell'Africa subsahariana ed dall’Europa non-UE, con quelle di selezionatori e lavoratori sociali. Complessivamente, sono state condotte e analizzate 52 interviste narrative utilizzando l'analisi tematica e la valutazione biografica di politiche. Inoltre, la tesi è uno dei primi studi che utilizza i dati statistici per evidenziare l’accesso differenziato che i migranti con istruzione superiore hanno al lavoro in Italia e Francia, in base al loro paese di nascita e al loro genere.

Studiando le sfide affrontate dalle donne migranti con istruzione terziaria, la tesi evidenzia come l'accesso alle risorse e all'occupazione sia influenzata dal genere, dalla classe e dalla razzializzazione e come siano influenzati dall’essenzialismo. Sostiene che la comprensione dei meccanismi che contribuiscono a riprodurre le stratificazioni ci consente di progettare percorsi verso un accesso più equo all'occupazione e alle risorse.

EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Sacchetto, Devi
Supervisor:Sacchetto, Devi
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 32 > Corsi 32 > SCIENZE SOCIALI: INTERAZIONI, COMUNICAZIONE, COSTRUZIONI CULTURALI
Data di deposito della tesi:02 December 2019
Anno di Pubblicazione:02 December 2019
Key Words:essentialism, discrimination, migrant women, labour market, tertiary education, skills
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 14 - Scienze politiche e sociali > SPS/09 Sociologia dei processi economici e del lavoro
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Filosofia, Sociologia, Pedagogia e Psicologia Applicata
Codice ID:12304
Depositato il:03 Feb 2021 16:14
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