Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Artuso, Paolo (2019) Theoretical and experimental analysis of the transient behaviour of refrigerated transport systems. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]
Preview
PDF Document (Tesi di dottorato, Artuso Paolo) - Submitted Version
5Mb

Abstract (italian or english)

Refrigerated transport systems are employed in the cold chain to supply the consumer with safe, high-quality perishable freights. Differently from static refrigeration systems, refrigerated transport equipment is required to perform reliably in a wide range of ambient temperatures and under extremely variable weather conditions (solar radiation, cloudiness, rain etc…). Refrigerated vehicles include vans, rigid trucks and semi-trailers. The refrigerating system has to ensure a precise temperature control of the internal cargo space: given a certain perishable freight requiring a certain set-point temperature, a lower temperature might damage it while a higher temperature might reduce its shelf life or result in unsafe or low quality product for the consumer. Close temperature control systems for chilled goods require continuous, modulated refrigeration combined with high rates of air circulation.
This thesis contains the results of a study carried out during three years of PhD activity, conducted at the Construction Technology Institute (ITC) of the National Research Council (CNR) in Padova, where an official ATP test station is located. The ATP (Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be Used for such Carriage) is an international agreement regulating the transport of perishable foodstuff. Starting from this experience, dedicated experimental activity was set up to collect data: ATP K-value measurement tests have been performed, along with step tests intended to evaluate the characteristic time constant of the insulated body of a brand new refrigerated van, designed to the carriage of chilled products (0°C-class refrigerated vehicle). The experimental data collected during the ATP test and step test of the brand new refrigerated van were used to develop and validate a 0-D, unsteady, lumped capacitance, simple numerical model of its insulated box. The numerical model presented in this thesis introduces a novel approach to model the average transient response of the insulated body of a refrigerated vehicle: the model is able to reproduce the actual performance of the structure without the need for the detailed drawing of the structure or the knowledge of the actual properties of the material used for the construction.
Under the stimulus of environmental sustainability and in order to offer the market with a natural alternative to F-gases, CO2 was considered as a possible working fluid for refrigerating units serving refrigerated vehicles. A new lay-out for the cooling unit, developed for refrigerated transport application, which utilizes carbon dioxide as the working fluid, was developed. Starting from the experience developed in stationary refrigeration, but taking care of constraints specific of refrigerated transport, the cooling unit was designed to operate according to three different configurations: traditional low-pressure receiver cycle configuration, ejector cycle configuration and ejector cycle configuration utilizing an auxiliary evaporator located in the line between the ejector outlet and the low-pressure receiver. Numerical simulations of the refrigerating system operation with an internal cargo space temperature varying between -5°C and +15°C and an external ambient temperature spanning between 15 °C and 45 °C demonstrated that the operation of the refrigerating system with the ejector cycle configuration was convenient in hot climates and internal air temperature between +5 °C and -5 °C. For ambient temperature lower than 30 °C the operating range of the ejector could be extended with an auxiliary evaporator at the outlet of the ejector. Taking the coefficient of performance of the system as a thermal performance indicator, the ejector cycle configuration provided a maximum advantage by 15.9 % over the traditional cycle configuration at 42°C ambient temperature and -5°C internal cargo space temperature. On the other hand, when the auxiliary evaporator was employed in the refrigerating system, the maximum advantage of 14.2 % on the COP was identified for an ambient temperature of 27 °C and an internal cargo space temperature of 5 °C.
After the numerical models of the cooling unit and the insulated body were developed, they were coupled and a typical delivery mission was defined. The selected delivery mission was characterized by a total of 12 door opening operations where doors are kept completely opened and heat enters directly from the external environment. Numerical results gave the input to insight on the correct dimensioning and sizing of a refrigerated transport cooling unit, but were also utilized to compare the thermal performance of the state of the art (i.e. cooling unit operating with R-134a as the working fluid) with the innovation proposed in this thesis. Moreover, numerical simulations were able to assess the main heat fluxes that influence the performance of the refrigerating system during operation.


Statistiche Download
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Del Col, Davide
Supervisor:Minetto, Silvia
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 32 > Corsi 32 > INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE > INGEGNERIA ENERGETICA
Data di deposito della tesi:16 December 2019
Anno di Pubblicazione:16 December 2019
Key Words:Road transport; Refrigeration; Refrigerated vehicle; Numerical model; Carbon dioxide; Dynamic modelling; Transcritical cycle; Ejector
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 09 - Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione > ING-IND/10 Fisica tecnica industriale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale
Codice ID:12787
Depositato il:02 Feb 2021 10:41
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, “The future of food and agriculture: trend and challenges”, Rome, 2017. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i6583e.pdf. Vai! Cerca con Google

S. Mercier, S. Villenueve, M. Mondor, I. Uysal, Time–temperature management along the food cold chain: a review of recent developments, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16 (4) (2017), pp. 647-667. Cerca con Google

A. Oury, P. Namy, M. Youbi-Idrisi, Aero-Thermal simulation of a refrigerated truck under open and closed-door cycles, Proceedings of the 2015 COMSOL Conference, Grenoble (2015) Cerca con Google

S.A. Tassou, G. De-Lille, Ge Y.T., Food transport refrigeration–approaches to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts of road transport, Appl. Therm. Eng., 29 (8–9) (2009), p. 1467 Cerca con Google

M. Ahmed, O. Meade, M.A. Medina, Reducing heat transfer across the insulated walls of refrigerated truck trailers by the application of phase change materials, Energy Convers. Manag., 51 (3) (2010), pp. 383-392 Cerca con Google

UNEP. Report of the Refrigeration, Air conditioning and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee, 2010, UNEP. Cerca con Google

Eurostat Total number of relevant goods vehicles in the reporting countries, 2012-2016, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=File:Total_number_of_relevant_goods_vehicles_in_the_reporting_countries,_2012-2016.png . Vai! Cerca con Google

United Nations, Agreement on the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs and on the Special Equipment to be Used for Such Carriage (ATP), UNECE Transport Division, Geneva, Switzerland (1970) Cerca con Google

C. Capo, J.M. Petit, R. Revellin, J. Bonjour, G.Cavalier, Ageing of in-service refrigerated transport vehicles: a statistical analysis, proceedings of th 25th IIR International Congress of Refrigeration, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2019. Cerca con Google

S.K. Chatzidakis, K.S. Chatzidakis, Refrigerated Transport and Enviroment, 2003. Available from <http://www3.interscience.willey.come/cgi-bin/fulltext/109060950/PDFSTART/>. Vai! Cerca con Google

Economic Commission for Europe, TRANS/WP.11/2000/9, Inland Transport Committee, Working Party on the Transport of Perishable Foodstuffs (Geneva, 30 October- 2 November 2000), Comment to Annex 1, Appendix 2, paragraph 29, Transmitted by the expert from Denmark. Available from: <http://unece.org/trans/wp11/wp11doc/2000/wp110009.pdf/> Vai! Cerca con Google

S. Estrada-Flores, A. Eddy, Thermal performance indicators for refrigerated road vehicles, Int. J. Refrig., 29 (2006), pp. 889-898. Cerca con Google

M. Kayfeci, A keçebas, E. Gedik, Determination of optimum insulation thickness of external walls with two different methods in cooling applications, Appl. Therm. Eng., 50 (2013), pp. 217-224. Cerca con Google

R. Derrek, J. Bloemhof, I. Mallidis, Operations research for green logistics- an overview of aspects, issues, contributions and challenges, Eur. J. Oper. Res., 219 (3) (2012), pp. 671-679. Cerca con Google

O. Adekomaya, T. Jamiru, R. Sadiky, Huan Z., Sustaining the shelf life of fresh food in cold chain- a burden on the environment, Alex. Eng. J., 55 (2) (2016), pp. 1359-1365. Cerca con Google

International Institute of refrigeration, 2013, 16th Informatory Note on Refrigeration, refrigerated transport: progress achieved and challenges to be met. Available from: http://www.iifiir.org/userfiles/file/publications/notes/NoteTech_16_EN.pdf. Vai! Cerca con Google

S.J. James, C. James, J.A. Evans, Modelling of food transportation systems—a review, Int. J. Refrig., 29 (6) (2006), pp. 947-957. Cerca con Google

J. Moureh, D. Flick, Airflow pattern and temperature distribution in a typical refrigerated truck configuration loaded with pallets, Int. J. Refrig., 27 (5) (2004), pp. 464-474. Cerca con Google

N.J. Smale, J. Moureh, G. Cortella, A review of numerical models of air flow in refrigerated food applications, Int. J. Refrig., 29 (6) (2006), pp. 911-938. Cerca con Google

N. Zertal-Menia, J. Moureh, D. Flick, Simplified modelling of air flows in refrigerated vehicles, Int. J. Refrig., 25 (5) (2002), pp. 660-672 Cerca con Google

S. Estrada-Flores, D.J. Tanner, N.D. Amos, Cold chain management during transport of perishable products, Food Aust., 54 (7) (2002), pp. 268-270. Cerca con Google

N. Amos, D.J. Tanner, Temperature variability during refrigerated vessel shipment of fresh produce, Proceedings of the 21st International Congress Refrigeration (2003), p. 8, ICR 0250 Cerca con Google

D.J. Tanner, N.D. Amos, Temperature variability during shipment of fresh produce, Acta Hortic., 599 (2003), pp. 193-203 Cerca con Google

United Nations, Agreement on the international carriage of perishable foodstuffs and on the special equipment to be used for such carriage (ATP), UNECE Transport Division, Geneva, Switzerland, 1970. Cerca con Google

TRNSYS - © 2006 by the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison Cerca con Google

ASHRAE. ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Chapter4, 2009. Cerca con Google

Foster, A.M., Barrett, R., James, S.J., Swain, M.J., 2002, Measurement and prediction of air movement through doorways in refrigerated rooms. Int. J. Refrigeration 25, pp.1102-1109 Cerca con Google

United Nations, Agreement on the international carriage of perishable foodstuffs and on the special equipment to be used for such carriage (ATP), UNECE Transport Division, Geneva, Switzerland, 1970. Cerca con Google

C. Capo, J.M. Petit, R. Revellin, J. Bonjour, G.Cavalier, Ageing of in-service refrigerated transport vehicles: a statistical analysis, proceedings of th 25th IIR International Congress of Refrigeration, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 2019. Cerca con Google

P.G. Jolly, C.P.Tso, Y.M. Wong, S.M Ng, Simulation and measurement on the full-load performance of a refrigeration container system in a shipping container, International Journal of Refrigeration 23(2000) 112-126. Cerca con Google

Li B, Otten R, Chandan V, Mohs WF, Berge J, Alleyne AG (2010) Optimal on-off control of refrigerated transport systems. Control Eng Pract 18(2010):1406–1417. Cerca con Google

Bin Li, Neera Jain, William F. Mohs , Scott Munns , Vikas Patnaik , Jeff Berge & Andrew G. Alleyne (2012) Dynamic modeling of refrigerated transport systems with coolingmode/heating-mode switch operations, HVAC&R Research, 18:5, 974-996. Cerca con Google

Tso C. P., Wong Y. W., Jolly P. G., and Ng S. M., 2001, “A comparison of hot-gas by-pass and suction modulation method for partial load control in refrigerated shipping containers,” Int. J. Refrig., 24, pp. 544–553. Cerca con Google

Chatzidakis, S. K., Athienitis, A. and Chatzidakis, K. S. (2004), Computational energy analysis of an innovative isothermal chamber for testing of the special equipment used in the transport of perishable products. Int. J. Energy Res., 28: 899-916. Cerca con Google

S.K. Chatzidakis, K.S. Chatzidakis, A heat transfer simulation study of a multi-compartment isothermal liquid foodstuff tank tested according to the international ATP agreement, Energy Conversion and Management 46(2) (2005) 197-221. Cerca con Google

S. Estrada-Flores, D.J. Tanner, N.D. Amos, Cold chain management during transport of perishable products, Food Australia 54(7) (2002) 268-270. Cerca con Google

N. Amos, D.J. Tanner, Temperature variability during refrigerated vessel shipment of fresh produce, in : Porceedings of the 21st International Congress Refrigeration, 2003, ICR 0250, 8 pp. Cerca con Google

D.J. Tanner, N.D. Amos, Temperature variability during shipment of fresh produce, Acta Horticulturae 599 (2003), 193-203. Cerca con Google

N.J. Smale, J. Moureh, G. Cortella, A review of numerical models of airflow in refrigerated food applications, International Journal of Refrigeration, Volume 29, Issue 6, 2006, Pages 911-930. Cerca con Google

Han, J. , Zhao, C. , Yang, X. , Qian, J. and Xing, B. (2016), Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation to Determine Combined Mode to Conserve Energy in Refrigerated Vehicles. J Food Process Eng, 39: 186-195. Cerca con Google

James, S.J., C. James, and J.A. Evans. 2006. Modelling of food transportation systems—a review. International Journal of Refrigeration 29(6):947–57. Cerca con Google

C.P. Tso, S.C.M. Yu, H.J. Poh, P.G. Jolly, Experimental study on the heat and mass transfer characteristics in a refrigerated truck, Int J Refrigeration 25 (2002) 340-350. Cerca con Google

J. Moureh, N. Menia, D. Flick, Numerical and experimental study of airflow in a typical refrigerated truck configuration loaded with pallets, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 34 (2002) 25-42. Cerca con Google

J. Moureh, D. Flick, Airflow pattern and temperature distribution in a typical refrigerated truck configuration loaded with pallets, International Journal of refrigeration 27 (2004) 464-474. Cerca con Google

M. Tapsoba, J.Moureh, D.Flick, Airflow pattern in an enclosure loaded with pallets: the use of air ducts, Eurotherm seminar 77, Heat and Mass transfer in Food Processing, June 20-22, Parma, Italy, 2005. Cerca con Google

Estrada-Flores, S. Evaluation of dynamic models for refrigeration system components: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Process and Environmental Technology at Massey University. Cerca con Google

Estrada-Flores, S., Cleland, A. C., & Cleland, D. J. (1995, August 20-25). Modelling of thermal behaviour of walls for low temperature applications: sandwich panel type. Paper presented at the 19th International Congress of Refrigeration, The Hague, Netherlands. Cerca con Google

Estrada-Flores, S. and Eddy, A. The use of thermography to aid design of refrigerated road vehicles. Proc. "Innovative Equipment and Systems for Comfort and Food Preservation", 2006. International Institute of Refrigeration. Auckland, NZ. Cerca con Google

ASHRAE. ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook (SI), Chapter4, 2009. Cerca con Google

ASHRAE. ASHRAE handbook: HVAC applications. Atlanta (GA): ASHRAE, 1999. Cerca con Google

United States Department of Energy (DOE): EnergyPlus Engineering Reference Version 8.2: The Reference to EnergyPlus Calculations. The Reference to EnergyPlus Calculations, 2015, p.92-94. Cerca con Google

S. Rossi, P. Bison, A. Bortolin, G. Cadelano, G. Ferrarini, A. Libbra, A. Muscio. In field evaluation of the absorption coefficient of the external surface of the insulated box in a refrigerated vehicle. Proceedings of the 2nd IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, Paris, April 2013. Cerca con Google

T Lafaye de Micheaux, M Ducoulombier, J Moureh, V Sartre, J Bonjour. Experimental and numerical investigation of the infiltration heat load during the opening of a refrigerated truck body. International Journal of Refrigeration, Elsevier, 2015. Cerca con Google

G.Comini, G.Cortella, O.Saro, Finite element analysis of coupled conduction and convection in refrigerated transport, International Journal of Refrigeration 18: 123-131,,1995. Cerca con Google

Energy Plus Weather Data, EnergyPlus. <https://energyplus.net/weather location/europe_wmo_region_6/GRC//GRC_Athens.167160_IWEC >. Vai! Cerca con Google

ASHRAE. 2006. Refrigeration Handbook, Chapter R09, Thermal properties of foods. Atalanta, GA, USA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Cerca con Google

Harris, M. B., Carson, J. K., Willix, J., & Lovatt, S. J. (2004). Local surface heat transfer coefficients on a model lamb carcass. Journal of Food Engineering, 61, 421-429. Cerca con Google

Carrier. Light commercial vehicle refrigeration unit < https://www.carrier.com/truck-trailer/en/it/products/it-truck-trailer/lcv/pulsor-300/> , 2018, p.1. Vai! Cerca con Google

T. Michineau, G. Cavalier, E. Devin. F-gases in refrigerated transport. Proceedings of the 3rd IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain, 2014. London, England: The Institute of Refrigeration. Cerca con Google

Ge Y.T., Tassou S.A:, 2009. Control optimisation of CO2 cycles for medium temperature retail food refrigeration systems. International Journal of Refrigeration, 32, 1376-1388. Cerca con Google

Besagni, G., Mereu, R., Inzoli, F., 2016. Ejector refrigeration: a comprehensive review. Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. 53, 373–407. Cerca con Google

Ge Y.T., Tassou S.A. Thermodynamic analysis of transcritical CO2 booster refrigeration systems in supermarkets. Energ Convers Manage 2011;52(4):1868-75. Cerca con Google

Gullo P., Konstantinos T., Hafnera A., Geb Y., Tassou S.A., 2017. State-of-the-art technologies for transcritical R744 refrigeration systems – a theoretical assessment of energy advantages for European food retail industry. Energy Procedia. 123, 46-53. Cerca con Google

Koury R.N.N, Faria R.N, Nunes R.O., Ismail K.A.R., Machado L. 2013. Dynamic model and experimental study of an air-water heat pump for residential use. International Journal of Refrigeration 36, 674-688. Cerca con Google

Bendapudi S., Braun J.E., 2002. A review of literature on dynamic models of vapor compression equipment. ASHRAE Report, no.4036-5. Cerca con Google

Rasmussen B.P. 2002. Control-Oriented Modeling of a transcritical vapor compression systems (Master thesis). University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Cerca con Google

S. Minetto, 2011. Theoretical and experimental analysis of a CO2 heat pump for domestic hot water. International Journal of Refrigeration, 34(3): 742-751. Cerca con Google

R.F. Shi, D.G. Fu, Y.S. Feng, J.Q. Fan, S. Mijanovic, T. Radcliff, 2010. Dynamic modelling of CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration System. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. Paper 1127. Cerca con Google

N. Lawrence, S. Elbel, P.Hrnjak, 2018. Design and validation of a transcritical CO2 mobile refrigerated container system for military applications. Proceedings of 13th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference, Valencia. Cerca con Google

Banasiak K, Hafner A, Kriezi EE, Madsen KB, Birkelund M, Fredslund K., 2015. Development and performance mapping of a multi-ejector expansion work recovery pack for R744 vapour compression units. Int. J. Refrigeration; 57, 265-276. Cerca con Google

Dugaria, S., Calabrese, L., Azzolin, M., Minetto, S., Del Col, D., 2018. Energy analysis of CO2 refrigeration systems using measured values of compressor efficiency. Proceedings of 13th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference, Valencia. Cerca con Google

Chen Y, Gu J. The optimum high pressure for CO2 transcritical refrigeration systems with internal heat exchangers. International Journal of Refrigeration 2005;28:1238-49. Cerca con Google

Jolly P.G., Tso C.P., Wong Y.W., Ng S.M., 2000. Simulation and measurement on the full-load performance of a refrigeration system in a shipping container. Int. J. Refrigeration; 23:112-126 Cerca con Google

F.C. McQuiston Finned tube heat exchangers: state of the art for the air side ASHRAE Trans, 87 (1) (1981), pp. 1077-1085Mc-Quiston. Cerca con Google

Chen JC. A correlation for boiling heat transfer to saturated fluids in convective flow. ASME Paper 63-HT-34 (1963). Cerca con Google

Dittus, F. W. and Boelter, L. M. K., Heat transfer in automobile Cerca con Google

radiators of the tubular type. University of California Publications in Engineering, 1930,2,443461. Cerca con Google

Elbel, Stefan Wilfried and Hrnjak, Predrag S., "Effect of Internal Cerca con Google

Heat Exchanger on Performance of Transcritical CO2 Systems with Ejector" (2004). International Refrigeration and Air Cerca con Google

Conditioning Conference. Paper 708. Cerca con Google

Elbel, S., & Hrnjak, P. S., 2008. Experimental validation of a prototype ejector designed to reduce throttling losses encountered in transcritical R744 system operation. International Journal of Refrigeration, 31(3), 411-422. Cerca con Google

United Nations, Agreement on the international carriage of perishable foodstuffs and on the special equipment to be used for such carriage (ATP), UNECE Transport Division, Geneva, Switzerland, 1970. Cerca con Google

Benedict, Manson; Webb, George B.; Rubin, Louis C. (1940), "An Empirical Equation for Thermodynamic Properties of Light Hydrocarbons and Their Mixtures: I. Methane, Ethane, Propane, and n-Butane", Journal of Chemical Physics, 8 (4): 334–345. Cerca con Google

B.P. Rasmussen, 2005. Dynamic modelling and advanced control of air conditioning and refrigeration systems, Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA. Cerca con Google

McQuiston, F.C., 1978. Correlation of heat, mass and momentum transport coefficients for plate-fin-tube heat transfer surfaces with staggered tubes. ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 294-309. Cerca con Google

D. Steiner, J. Taborek. Flow boiling heat transfer in vertical tubes correlated by an asymptotic mode. Heat transfer engineering, Vol.13, pp 322-329. Cerca con Google

V. Gnielinski, 1976. New equations for heat and mass transfer in turbulent pipe and channel flow. Int. Chem. Eng. 16,359-368. Cerca con Google

L.Friedel, 1979. Imrpoved friction pressure drop for horizontal and vertical two-phase pipe flow. Europ. Two-phase Flow Group Meet, Paper E2, Ispra. Cerca con Google

S.W. Chiurchill, 1977. Friction-factor equation spans all fluid flow regimes. Chem. Eng. 7, 91-92. Cerca con Google

M.M. Shash, 1979. A general correlation for heat transfer during film condensation inside pipes. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.22, pp 547-556. Cerca con Google

Elbel, S., Hrnjak, P., 2008. Experimental validation of a prototype ejector designed to reduce throttling losses encountered in transcritical R744 system operation. Int. J. Refrigeration 31,411-422. Cerca con Google

James S.J., James C., Evans J.A., 2006. Modelling of food transport system- a review. Int.J.Refrigeration, 29: 947-957. Cerca con Google

Pereira V.F., Doria E.C., Carvalho jr B.C., Neves jr L.C., Silveira jr Cerca con Google

V., 2010. Evaluation of temperatures ina refrigerated container for chilled and frozen food transport. Ciencia e Tecnologia de alimentos, campinas, 30(1), 158-165. Cerca con Google

Estrada-Flores S., Eddy A., 2006. Thermal performance indicators for refrigerated road vehicles. Int. J. Refrigeration, 29: 889-898. Cerca con Google

Energy Plus Weather Data, EnergyPlus. <https://energyplus.net/weather location/europe_wmo_region_6/GRC//GRC_Athens.167160_IWEC >. Vai! Cerca con Google

McAdams, William H.: Heat Transmission. Third ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co. ,Inc., 1954. Mac Adams. Cerca con Google

Dugaria, S., Calabrese, L., Azzolin, M., Minetto, S., Del Col, D., 2018. Energy analysis of CO2 refrigeration systems using measured values of compressor efficiency. Proceedings of 13th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference, Valencia. Cerca con Google

Colburn A.P., A method of correlating forced convection heat transfer data and a comparison with fluid friction, Trans AICHE, 29 (1933), pp. 174-210. Cerca con Google

Steiner, D.; Taborek, J. Flow boiling heat transfer in vertical tubes correlated by an asymptotic model. Heat Transf. Eng. 1992, 13, 43–69. Cerca con Google

Shah, M.M. A general correlation for heat transfer during film condensation inside pipes. Int. J. Heat Mass Transf. 1979, 22, 547–556. Cerca con Google

Gnielinski V. (1976). New equation for heat and mass transfer in turbulent pipe and channel flow. Int. Chemical Enginnering 16, 359-68 Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record