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Baldo, Mirco (2009) Il deperimento della farnia in boschi planiziali. Stato ectomicorrizico e possibilità di controllo. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Oak decline, caused by the interaction of many biotic and abiotic factors, is compromising the survival of common oak (Quercus robur L.) in relict oak stands. Previous researches evidenced that sanitary thinning may reduce crown dieback. The main purpose of this survey was to verify the real effectiveness of a thinning treatment which led to the release of declining oak canopies. Sixteen declining oak trees were chosen, and their conditions were monitored through seasonal root samplings. Mycorrhizal status, considered as mycorrhizal root tip vitality and fungal species involved in the symbiosis, is considered a synthetic indicator of tree decline conditions, which display a broad range of symptoms. Before treatment, samplings confirmed a lower root tip vitality and mycorrhizal status of most declining trees. The canopies of eight oaks were released cutting all competing trees. After treatment, the change of environmental conditions caused a worsening of root conditions in treated trees. Four years after the treatment, no difference between treated and control oaks could be observed. The survey led to the identification of 55 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes. A strong association between morphotypes and sampling period evidenced a successional species change in time and a community composition change following the sylvicultural treatment. Some ECM morphotypes were associated to tree decline class, supporting the hypothesis that some species could be considered as bioindicators of host tree health. Leaf total N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and S contents were analyzed to evaluate canopy conditions. Most declining oaks showed higher total N, P and S content.
The lack of oak regeneration in woodlands is one of the effects of oak decline. It could be necessary to provide forest plantations to preserve the species. Nursery controlled mycorrhization with selected fungal species (especially with Laccaria laccata) has often been successfully applied to improve the early growth and the survival of forest plantations. A native strain of the ECM fungus L. laccata was chosen to inoculate 100 common oak seedlings. They were then outplanted in a woodland and compared with 100 control seedlings. Root tip vitality and mycorrhizal status were higher for inoculated seedlings. The survey of plant heights and diameters showed an initial contraction of inoculated seedling growth, probably owed to an increased C request by developing fungal tissues. In time, differences were reduced, and two years after outplanting no difference could be observed between the two seedling groups. L. laccata seems not to have improved the early growth of seedlings, and was almost completely substituted by more competitive native species.

Abstract (italiano)

Il “deperimento della quercia”, causato dall’interazione di molti fattori biotici e abiotici, sta compromettendo l’esistenza della farnia (Quercus robur L.) nei querco-carpineti relitti. Alcuni precedenti studi hanno evidenziato la possibile efficacia dei tagli sanitari nel limitare la manifestazione del deperimento. Lo scopo principale dello studio è stato perciò verificare la reale efficacia di un diradamento finalizzato a liberare la chioma di farnie deperenti. Allo scopo, sono state scelte 16 farnie deperenti e ne sono state monitorate le condizioni con prelievi stagionali di campioni di radici. Lo stato micorrizico, inteso come vitalità degli apici micorrizati e specie fungine coinvolte, è infatti considerato un parametro sintetico idoneo a valutare le condizioni fitosanitarie di piante deperenti, le cui manifestazioni sintomatologiche sono molteplici. I campionamenti effettuati prima dell’intervento selvicolturale hanno confermato una minore vitalità e micorrizazione degli apici radicali delle piante più deperenti. Dopo il taglio attorno a 8 piante, che probabilmente ha causato uno stress iniziale, le piante trattate hanno mostrato un peggioramento delle condizioni dell’apparato radicale. A quattro anni dall’intervento selvicolturale, non si sono osservate differenze tra piante trattate e di controllo. Sono stati osservati 55 morfotipi ectomicorrizici, fortemente associati ai periodi di campionamento, a conferma di un cambiamento successionale delle specie nel corso degli anni e di un cambiamento di composizione in seguito al trattamento selvicolturale. È emersa anche la presenza di alcuni morfotipi associati alla classe di deperimento delle farnie, a conferma dell’ipotesi che alcune specie possano essere utilizzate come bioindicatrici delle condizioni delle piante ospiti. Per valutare le condizioni delle piante anche nella loro parte epigea, sono state confrontate le concentrazioni fogliari di N totale, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe e S. Le piante più deperenti hanno mostrato una concentrazione maggiore di N totale, P e S.
Uno degli effetti del deperimento, è la mancanza di rinnovazione della farnia in bosco. Per conservare la specie, potrebbe essere necessario provvedere alla rinnovazione artificiale. Tra le tecniche per migliorare la sopravvivenza dei semenzali trapiantati, la micorrizazione artificiale in vivaio con specie fungine selezionate (soprattutto Laccaria laccata) è stata spesso impiegata con successo. Sono stati trapiantati 100 semenzali micorrizati con un isolato di L. laccata autoctono, per valutare il loro attecchimento rispetto a 100 semenzali non micorrizati artificialmente. Il monitoraggio della vitalità e della micorrizazione delle radici, ha mostrato condizioni migliori per le piante micorrizate. La misurazione delle altezze e dei diametri raggiunti, invece, ha rilevato una contrazione iniziale nella crescita delle piante micorrizate, probabilmente a causa della richiesta di fotosintati alla pianta da parte dei funghi in crescita. Nel tempo queste differenze si sono ridotte, e a due anni dal trapianto non si osservano differenze tra i due gruppi. La specie fungina scelta per l’inoculo non sembra aver migliorato l’attecchimento dei semenzali, ed è stata quasi completamente sostituita da specie autoctone più competitive.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Montecchio, Lucio
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 21 > Scuole per il 21simo ciclo > TERRITORIO, AMBIENTE, RISORSE E SALUTE > ECOLOGIA
Data di deposito della tesi:22 Gennaio 2009
Anno di Pubblicazione:2009
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):deperimento della quercia, ECM, querco-carpineto, micorrizazione artificiale, trattamento selvicolturale, morfotipi ectomicorrizici, semenzali, farnia
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/12 Patologia vegetale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali
Codice ID:1369
Depositato il:22 Gen 2009
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