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Truppa, Valentina (2009) Il raggruppamento percettivo: elaborazione delle caratteristiche globali e locali degli stimoli visivi nei primati non umani e nei pesci. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

In order to visually identify the objects and segregate them from the background, the perceiver must be able to group their component elements into a coherent perceptual whole. Relatively few systematic studies dealt with the comparative study of perceptual grouping processes. Hence, it is fundamental both to adopt a broad range of tests on the same species and to compare the capabilities of different animal species using comparable procedures.
The studies carried out for this thesis had two main aims. The first goal was to elucidate the role of some factors in affecting the perception of global and local features of visual stimuli in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), a nonhuman primate species. The second aim was to study for the first time global versus local preference of fish (Xenotoca eiseni) when faced with hierarchical stimuli.
In capuchin monkeys, as in humans, the spatial organization of the parts of a visual stimulus plays an important role in pattern recognition. Moreover, capuchin monkeys, as humans, were able to identify the global shape of compound patterns on the basis of the spatial proximity, similarity of shape or orientation of the elements. Finally, the study of the ability to detect a visual target within a global configuration provided evidence that capuchin monkeys, as humans, are sensitive to some masking effects due to the orientation similarity between the global shape and the local target.
The study of global/local processing of hierarchical visual stimuli in fish showed the first evidence of a global precedence in these animals. This preference was not affected neither by the spatial proximity between elements or the size of the stimuli. Moreover, the global choice cannot be due to an inability to perceive local small elements since fish showed a clear capacity to discriminate stimuli according to their local elements.
Similarities as well as differences among different species point out that the study of different taxonomic groups is fundamental in understanding the role played by ecological factors in determining the perceptual grouping abilities of the different animal species.

Abstract (italiano)

Percepire e riconoscere un oggetto richiede che l’osservatore possieda la capacità di integrare gli elementi della scena visiva in unità coerenti. Sono relativamente pochi gli studi che hanno affrontato in modo sistematico lo studio dei processi di raggruppamento percettivo che regolano la percezione degli stimoli visivi nelle altre specie. Quindi, risulta di fondamentale importanza sia l’utilizzo di procedure sperimentali differenti nell’ambito di una stessa specie, sia la comparazione di specie differenti utilizzando procedure comparabili.
Le ricerche condotte in questo lavoro di tesi rappresentano un duplice contributo allo studio comparato dei processi di raggruppamento percettivo. Da un lato gli studi condotti sui cebi dai cornetti (Cebus apella) permettono di chiarire il ruolo svolto da alcuni fattori di raggruppamento sulla percezione del livello globale e locale degli stimoli visivi in queste scimmie neotropicali. D’altro canto lo studio sulle capacità di elaborazione degli stimoli gerarchici nei pesci (Xenotoca eiseni) rappresenta il primo contributo sull’elaborazione delle caratteristiche globali e locali in questa classe di vertebrati.
Dagli studi sui cebi è emerso che in queste scimmie, come nell’uomo, il riconoscimento della configurazione globale degli stimoli risulta fortemente influenzato dall’organizzazione spaziale degli elementi locali. Inoltre, i cebi, come l’uomo, quando devono identificare una configurazione globale sono in grado di utilizzare efficientemente fattori di unificazione figurale quali la prossimità spaziale, la somiglianza per forma e la somiglianza per orientazione. Infine, la capacità di queste scimmie di individuare elementi locali all’interno di configurazioni risulta essere influenzata da alcune caratteristiche, come l’orientazione della configurazione globale, che possono produrre, come si osserva nell’uomo, effetti di mascheramento degli elementi locali.
Lo studio dell’elaborazione delle caratteristiche globali e locali degli stimoli nei pesci ha fornito la prima evidenza sperimentale a favore del fatto che in questi vertebrati sia presente un vantaggio globale degli stimoli gerarchici. Tale preferenza, a differenza di ciò che si osserva in altre specie animali, non è influenzata ne’ dalla prossimità spaziale degli elementi che compongono la configurazione globale dello stimolo ne’ dalla dimensione degli stimoli. Inoltre, la preferenza globale non sembra essere dovuta ad una difficoltà di elaborazione nei confronti degli elementi locali; i pesci hanno infatti mostrato una chiara capacità di discriminazione quando potevano basarsi sui soli elementi locali.
Le similitudini e le differenze tra le diverse specie sottolineano che lo studio di specie appartenenti a differenti gruppi tassonomici è di fondamentale importanza per la comprensione del ruolo svolto dai fattori ecologici nell’evoluzione delle capacità di raggruppamento percettivo delle varie specie.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Bisazza, Angelo
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 21 > Scuole per il 21simo ciclo > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PSICOBIOLOGIA
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Gennaio 2009
Anno di Pubblicazione:2009
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Percezione visiva; Raggruppamento percettivo; Stimoli gerarchici; Primati non umani; Pesci
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/02 Psicobiologia e psicologia fisiologica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:1451
Depositato il:28 Gen 2009
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