Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Spedo, Giampaolo (2009) The Plot Against the Past: An Exploration of Alternate History in British and American Fiction. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

PDF Document

Abstract (english)

Alternate history [AH] is generally considered a subgenre within science fiction [SF]. However, while SF proper explores one of the possible alternatives to actuality set either in a distant world or at a future time, AH posits a counterfactual version of history which is presented as actual in the narrative, but is contradicted by the records. For this reason, texts describing future history or other, parallel worlds should be kept distinct from AH, as they can —theoretically — coexist with history as we know it and describe either the independent reality of another world or dimension, or one of the many, possible futures.
The analysis of AH involves the question of the referential content of the text. Traditional literary theory assumes a willing suspension of disbelief on the part of the reader of fiction, whereas philosophers have often tended to deny any referential value to literary texts. More recently, however, there has been fruitful cross-disciplinary fertilization, and fictionality is now seen as a pragmatically decided feature of texts, which can be fruitfully analyzed in terms of Possible Worlds theory.
Possible worlds describe alternative states of affairs, analyzed in terms of their modal relationship to the actual world, which is usually taken as the world of reference and whose states of affairs are described by true propositions. However, fictional worlds exist only on the authority of the texts describing them, whose incomplete descriptions cannot be validated or supplemented by access to alternative sources or to reality itself. The worlds created by AH are not as autonomous from reality as are other fictional worlds, as the historical alternative they posit is inevitably compared to the actual timeline so that its plausibility may be tested.
AH is written as if it were historical fiction, containing characters and events partly or totally invented, set against a real historical background, but it is read as absolutely fictional, as it describes events that never happened. In contrast, historical fiction [HF] is written and read as essentially realistic, if not necessarily real in all its parts. The delusion of a clearcut distinction between facts and fiction has been exposed, most famously, by Hayden White, who has pointed to the common discursive practices adopted by both historians and novelists, and analyzed the emplotment of historiographic discourse according to narrative forms borrowed from fiction. The ramifications are also momentous for counterhistorical discourse such as AH. If the form of emplotment encodes the narrative of past events so as to predetermine, to a large extent, its reception and interpretation, the same events may be understood to tell each time a different history. Indeed, the next logical step is the modification of the content itself, which is already, to some extent, an interpretation, an artificial representation of an object — the past — that cannot be experienced directly.
The writing of AH operates through the double selection that is common to all narratives: of the object of the text, and of a meaningful order in which its parts will be subsequently arranged. However, it requires another, intermediate process of selection: from the actuality of history one possible alternative will be extrapolated and developed. In this respect, AH or allo-history inherently recovers one of those forms of otherness that official historiography, in its rationalizing furore, tends to obliterate. AH is thus a challenging form: rhetorically, all but indistinguishable from other historical fictions; referentially, more fundamentally fictional than any realistic fiction, which does not contradict the received version of history.
AH is also different from historical counterfactuals [HC], speculative texts written by professional historians that usually present the alternative timeline as merely hypothetical. This argumentative form has been practiced unobtrusively by great historians of the past such as Livy and Gibbon, but only recently has it acquired some respectability as a powerful analytical tool overcoming the limitations of deterministic historiography and correcting the hindsight bias that prevents one from examining possible alternative outcomes for the events analyzed.
HC are subject to stricter plausibility constraints than is allohistorical fiction [AF] in the concoction of a nexus event, the turning point in history on which the alternative timeline is based; professional historians will confine themselves to those alternatives which could have obtained, given the same initial conditions that produced actual history. Favourite turning points are wars, revolutions, and events affecting key historical figures, in accordance with Carlyle’s Great Man theory, which holds that history is shaped by exceptional personalities.
Even when the hypothesis is not pursued and developed until the present day, both HC and AF often reflect presentist concerns, for example in the exploration of possible alternatives to the rise of the West to world dominance. In rejecting the received version of history, both forms of AH recognize the play of necessity and contingency in human events, as does Chaos theory in science: we do live in a universe governed by laws, but lack the instruments to measure and predict their workings adequately. Generally speaking, the longer the temporal span considered, the harder it is to make inferences with a reasonable degree of reliability, as too many factors come into play.
After defining the boundaries inscribing AH within the general field of discourse — whether referential or fictional — about history, some attention has been devoted to the distinction between AH and conspiracy theory: the latter is a type of discourse claiming that an alteration to past records (rather than events) did take place and some crucial information has been kept secret as a consequence. Consideration has also been given to the space allotted to AH as distinguished from non-fictional extrapolation about future history or more or less static descriptions of alternatives to contemporaneous society, as in utopia/dystopia. There follows a discussion of the relationship between AH and the more general postmodernist play with a past no longer taken for granted. Whereas conspiracy theory is preoccupied with the knowability of events, AH is definitely postmodern in that it reflects a general shift in fiction from epistemological to ontological concerns (McHale), but it is usually more rigorous than escapist parallel worlds stories or postmodernist pastiche mingling elements from disparate ages.
In its exploration of the hazy border zone between history and fiction — neither what has happened nor what may still happen, but rather what could have happened — AH might constitute a pragmatic form of metahistory, no less precious and insightful than are theoretical elaborations on the form and object of historiography on the one hand, and on the nature of fiction on the other hand.
The first fully fledged counterhistorical narratives did not appear until the post-Napoleonic era. Geoffroy-Château's Napoléon et la conquête du monde (1836) is generally considered the first modern fictional AH, while the title of Renouvier’s Uchronie (1876) has become a synonym for AH. Whereas John Collings Squire’s collection of HC If It Had Happened Otherwise (1931) contributed to the acceptance of such speculative exercises as intellectual divertissements — if not yet as serious academic hypotheses — fictional AH came of age after WWII.
WWII is one of the favourite subjects of AH, for its undisputable importance, for the moral alternatives it presents, and, more simply, because it is generally known. This study has selected for analysis a triptych of narratives devoted to alternative developments and outcomes of the war. The selection has not the ambition of being representative of the diachronic development of AH as a whole, not even of the thematic cluster chosen for analysis. Rather, the works analyzed can be considered specimens of a general, progressive tendency of AH to go mainstream.
A fundamental contribution to the establishment of AH was given by Philip Dick’s The Man in the High Castle (MHC, 1962), set in a counterhistorical US, defeated in WWII and split up in three by the victorious Axis powers of Germany and Japan, leaving a powerless buffer zone in the middle. The situation is complicated by the unstable reality of the novel, challenged by the subversive counternarrative of The Grasshopper Lies Heavy but also by glimpses of yet another timeline, recognizable as our own. Ontological displacement is a recurrent theme in Dick’s novels. No ultimate truth is available for the characters, each corresponding to a separate centre of consciousness and trying to make sense of a dangerous and chaotic world. But far from certain are also the respective roles and allegiances — even the identities — of the various characters, including the Americans, oscillating between collaboration and individual, perhaps pointless resistance.
The disturbing suggestion of the rather inconclusive ending is that man in the real world is also groping in the dark, proceeding by trial and error, with no cognitive and moral compass to show the way. Even the authorial attitude toward the fictional world is uncertain: neither the rather hellish world of the novel nor the eutopian alternative of Grasshopper correspond to our world, although both can be said to hint at it to some extent. In the final analysis, readers could feel authorized to choose for several, contrasting interpretations, including the multiverse option of each reality coexisting with the others, on separate or even communicating levels.
In Robert Harris’ Fatherland (FL, 1992) the presentist aspect is more evident, as the victorious Reich of the narrative is polemically compared to the European Union of our timeline, starting from the cover image. The novel reached a wider, general readership, beyond the more specialized readership of AH and SF fans. Unsurprisingly, the reception of the book in Germany has been far less unanimously positive than abroad.
Borrowing many a cliché from detective stories — including the maverick protagonist — the narrative describes an inquiry into the crime of the century, the Holocaust. The unearthing of the embarrassing secrets of an aging regime, eerily similar to the actual USSR and the totalitarian society of 1984, threatens to undo the diplomatic moves towards détente with the US. Analogous to Orwell’s dystopia is also the rewriting of history to suit the needs of a totalitarian regime and cover up its crimes, thus creating an endless series of alternate histories, each suppressing its antecedent. What is not in the record did not exist, and, if narratives are the way humanity makes sense of the past, what cannot be told never happened in the first place. Highly popular narratives of the Holocaust such as FL can therefore serve the cause of memory as well as does the indispensable work of historians.
The analysis of Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America (TPAA, 2004) starts — literally — from the cover, which is as evocative of the contents as were those of MHC and FL (and of AH in general). The image refers to the Nazi threat incumbent on the American landscape and to the stamp-collecting hobby of the protagonist, a younger alter ego for the author, one of many in Roth’s work, which is largely autobiographic and had already featured passing reference to an anti-Semitic threat that becomes paramount in this narrative. Generally speaking Roth appears more at ease with the personal lives of himself and his immediate circle — however fictionalized — than with the larger historical picture.
There follows an analysis of the agential constellation of the novel, in which the fate of the Great Men, mundane gods who make history, is intertwined with that of the Roth family. Roth’s imagination appears to have been haunted for sometime by the controversial figure of Charles Lindbergh, who finds a more positive counterpart in the Swede, the failed model father and husband and protagonist of American Pastoral (AP, 1997). However, there are both analogies and differences, even ontological, between the respective protagonists, as the Swede ‘was fettered to history, an instrument of history’, whereas Lindbergh, who defeats Roosevelt in the 1940 presidential election of the narrative, is an active agent of history. Thus, Doležel’s Modern Myth model can be applied to TPAA as to other narratives in which different sets of characters enjoy different status and power.
The main focus is therefore on the nexus event, the turning point which alters the course of history. Presidential elections lend themselves particularly well to being treated as decisive moments in American history, although it is arguable whether a maverick candidate like Lindbergh, for all his heroic aura and the way it could have been enhanced by the media, could have turned the tables so dramatically as to beat Roosevelt. At all events, what is least convincing is not the concoction of an alternative America but its sudden disappearance, leaving no discernible trace in subsequent events.
The way the descent of a country into fascist hell is exorcised, with the exposure of a plot against America that is as intricate as it is improbable and the ensuing, all-too-convenient disappearance of Lindbergh, is a deus ex machina solution that constitutes perhaps the weakest point in a narrative otherwise rigorous and convincing, in its treatment of historical sources and figures — for example, that of the highly influential and controversial columnist Walter Winchell, who in TPAA becomes a generous if chanceless antagonist for Lindbergh.
It is as if Roth had wanted to offer readers just a glimpse of a danger that did threaten a whole country, not only the Jewish portion of its population. A similar message was conveyed in Sinclair Lewis’s It Can’t Happen Here (1935), which, retrospectively, could be read as an AH of sorts. In fact, presentist interpretations of TPAA, however rejected by the author, have been offered, some of them highly unlikely or controversial. The point both Lewis and Roth try to illustrate is that, although it did not ‘happen here’, it could have, and the Anglo-Saxon democracies where spared by the dictatorial wave that swept much of the world in the interbellum through a fortunate accident rather than their manifest destiny or intrinsic resilience to such a fate.
MHC contributed at once to the establishment of Dick as author, to the acceptance of SF within literature at large, and to the coming into its own of AH as a subgenre within SF proper. FL came in a later phase, and reached beyond the niche of specialized AH readers thanks to its contamination of realistic (counter)historical fiction with a protagonist and plot borrowed from the well-established, even formulaic conventions of the detective story. Finally, TPAA marks the somewhat awkward and idiosyncratic adoption of AH by a mainstream, by now canonical author. To sum up: MHC established — or helped to establish — AH within SF; FL did so outside SF; TPAA, above or beyond SF.
To the definitive acceptability in mainstream fiction of AH as a literary device will certainly contribute its adoption in recent novels by important authors. For example Doris Lessing, the Nobel laureate, uses in Alfred & Emily (2008) a counterhistorical backdrop for the development of an alternative family history. In the dreary alternate England of Kazuo Ishiguro’s Never Let Me Go (2005), society is organized according to biological engineering, with the creation of clones and the establishment of a system of compulsory ‘donations’ of organs. The huge injustice goes unchallenged, the wrongs are generally accepted as fair in comparison to the advantages. Thus, the novel is mainly an exercise in emotional restraint — both on the part of the narrator and of the protagonists — and raises more moral questions than it answers. But perhaps the most controversial among recent AH novels by mainstream authors is Michael Chabon’s The Yiddish Policemen’s Union (2007), set in a counterfactual postwar Jewish Alaska settlement enjoying large autonomy, whereas the foundation of the State of Israel has failed. The novel starts as a detective investigation on the murder of a purported Messiah, later to discover a plot to blow up the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, hatched by extremist Hasidic Jews. Their disparaging descriptions have sparked controversy, as they lack the human sympathy that emerges not only in TPAA but even in the earlier prose by Roth.
With this last example, the counterfactual investigation of WWII and of the crime of the Holocaust has come full circle, back to the heart of darkness of that historical tragedy; if the War itself no longer appears to elicit, in Anglo-American narrative, the same strong emotional responses as before, the Shoah and the ensuing foundation of the State of Israel still stimulate both narrative and speculative exercises that are either polemical or met with polemical reactions — and will probably continue to, in an age where the shattered illusion about the End of History has rekindled interest for the past, including the paths it has not taken.

Abstract (italian)

La storia alternativa o Alternate History è un sottogenere della Science Fiction che postula l’alterazione della Storia e gode di una crescente popolarità, in particolare nella letteratura anglosassone. Nell’ambito dell’analisi teorica, che tiene conto del rapporto tra testi finzionali e mondi possibili, si è proceduto al confronto con altri generi e con la storia in quanto memoria individuale e collettiva, nonché all’individuazione dei precedenti storici del genere.
In seguito, è stata svolta un’analisi dettagliata di tre romanzi basati su alternative alla storia della Seconda Guerra Mondiale: Philip Dick, The Man in the High Castle (1962), tra Science Fiction e Alternate History, giocato sulla messa in discussione di diversi piani di realtà; Robert Harris, Fatherland (1992), una detective story applicata alla ricostruzione della Shoah; Philip Roth, The Plot against America (2004), una rivisitazione della storia in chiave maggiormente personale che nei romanzi precedenti.
Infine, i testi in esame sono stati collegati a una tendenza più generale dell’Alternate History verso la letteratura mainstream, attraverso la recente adozione di postulati contrafattuali nelle opere di altri autori di lingua inglese, non più confinati nell’ambito popolare della Science Fiction.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Bottalla, Paola
Data di deposito della tesi:27 January 2009
Anno di Pubblicazione:2009
Key Words:Alternate History, Philip Roth, The Plot Against America, Philip Dick, The Man in the High Castle, Robert Harris, Fatherland
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 10 - Scienze dell'antichità, filologico-letterarie e storico-artistiche > L-LIN/11 Lingue e letterature anglo-americane
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > pre 2012 - Dipartimento di Lingue e Letterature Anglo-Germaniche e Slave
Codice ID:1463
Depositato il:27 Jan 2009
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format


I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

WORKS BY PHILIP K. DICK Cerca con Google

Dick, Philip K., Time Out of Joint (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1959) Cerca con Google

—— The Man in the High Castle (New York: Vintage, 1992; first published 1962) Cerca con Google

Williams, Paul, ‗Una conversazione con Philip K. Dick‘, in Philip Dick, La Svastica sul sole Cerca con Google

[The Man in the High Castle], trans. by Riccardo Valla and Luca Signorelli (Milan: Cerca con Google

Nord, 1993), pp. 268-281 Cerca con Google

Dick, Philip K., ‗If You Find This World Bad, You Should See Some of the Others‘, Grey Lodge Cerca con Google

Occult Review, 10 (February 2004) <http://www.greylodge.org/occultreview/glor_010/ Vai! Cerca con Google

dick_world.htm> [accessed 3 November 2008]; first published in French translation in Cerca con Google

L'Année 1977-78 de la S.-F. et du Fantastique (Juilliard, 1978), ed. by Jacques Goimard; Cerca con Google

first published in English in PKDS Newsletter, 27 (August 1991) Cerca con Google

Library of America series (New York): Cerca con Google

Four novels of the 1960s [The Man in the High Castle; The Three Stigmata of Palmer Eldritch; Cerca con Google

Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?; Ubik] (2007) Cerca con Google

Five Novels of the 1960s and 70s [Martian Time-Slip; Dr. Bloodmoney; Now Wait for Last Year; Cerca con Google

Flow My Tears, the Policeman Said; A Scanner Darkly] (2008) Cerca con Google


Harris, Robert, and Jeremy Paxman, A Higher Form of Killing: Secret Story of Gas and Germ Cerca con Google

Warfare (London: Chatto & Windus, 1982) Cerca con Google

Harris, Robert, Gotcha!: The Media, the Government, and the Falklands Crisis (London: Faber Cerca con Google

and Faber, 1983) Cerca con Google

—— The Making of Neil Kinnock (London: Faber and Faber, 1984) Cerca con Google

—— Selling Hitler: The Story of the Hitler Diaries (London: Faber and Faber, 1986) Cerca con Google

—— Good and Faithful Servant: The Unauthorized Biography of Bernard Ingham (London: Cerca con Google

Faber and Faber, 1990) Cerca con Google

—— Fatherland (London: Hutchinson, 1992) Cerca con Google

—— Enigma (London: Hutchinson, 1995) Cerca con Google

—— Archangel (London: Hutchinson, 1998) Cerca con Google

—— Pompeii (London: Hutchinson, 2003) Cerca con Google

—— Imperium (London: Hutchinson, 2006) Cerca con Google

—— The Ghost (London: Hutchinson, 2007) Cerca con Google


Portnoy’s Complaint (New York: Random House, 1969) Cerca con Google

Our Gang (Starring Tricky and his Friends) (New York: Random House, 1971) Cerca con Google

Goodbye, Columbus and Five Short Stories (London: Penguin, 1986; first published 1964) Cerca con Google

The Facts: A Novelist’s Autobiography (New York: Penguin, 1988) Cerca con Google

Operation Shylock: A Confession (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993) Cerca con Google

American Pastoral (New York: Vintage, 1998; first published 1997) Cerca con Google

The Plot against America (London: Cape, 2004) Cerca con Google

‗The Story Behind The Plot Against America‘, New York Book Review, 19 September 2004, pp. Cerca con Google

10-12 Cerca con Google

236 Cerca con Google

Library of America series (New York): Cerca con Google

Novels and Stories 1959–1962 [Goodbye, Columbus and Five Short Stories; Letting Go] (2005) Cerca con Google

Novels 1967–1972 [When She Was Good; Portnoy’s Complaint; Our Gang; The Breast] (2005) Cerca con Google

Novels 1973–1977 [The Great American Novel; My Life as a Man; The Professor of Desire] Cerca con Google

(2006) Cerca con Google

Zuckerman Bound: A Trilogy & Epilogue 1979–1985 [The Ghost Writer; Zuckerman Unbound; Cerca con Google

The Anatomy Lesson; The Prague Orgy; previously unpublished television screenplay Cerca con Google

for The Prague Orgy] (2007) Cerca con Google

Novels and Other Narratives 1986–1991 [The Counterlife; The Facts; Deception; Patrimony] Cerca con Google

(2008) Cerca con Google


Allen, Woody, ‗The Kugelmass Episode‘, in Side Effects (New York: Ballantine, 1991), pp. 59- Cerca con Google

78; first published in New Yorker, 2 May 1977 Cerca con Google

Anderson, Poul, Time Patrol (Riverdale, NY: Baen, 2006; first published 1991) Cerca con Google

Asimov, Isaac, The Foundation Trilogy: Three Classics of Science Fiction (Garden City, NY: Cerca con Google

Doubleday, 1982; first published 1951-1953) Cerca con Google

—— ‗Spell My Name with an S‘, in The Complete Short Stories (London, 1994; first published Cerca con Google

1958), I, 397-414 Cerca con Google

Barnes, Steven, Lion’s Blood (New York: Warner, 2002) Cerca con Google

Benford, Gregory, and Martin H. Greenberg, eds, Hitler Victorious: Eleven Stories of the Cerca con Google

German Victory in World War II (New York: Garland, 1986) Cerca con Google

Boccaccio, Giovanni, Decameron, XML-encoded version of the Italian text based on V. Branca Cerca con Google

(1992); translation by J.M. Rigg (1921; first printed 1903) <http://www.stg.brown.edu/ Vai! Cerca con Google

projects/decameron/itDecIndex.php> [accessed 9 July 2008] Cerca con Google

Borges, Jorge Luis, ‗Funes, the Memorious‘, in Ficciones, trans. by Anthony Kerrigan (New Cerca con Google

York: Grove, 1963), pp. 107-116 Cerca con Google

Bradley, David, The Chaneysville Incident (New York: Harper & Row, 1981) Cerca con Google

Chabon, Michael, The Yiddish Policemen’s Union (London: Fourth Estate, 2007) Cerca con Google

Chesney, George Tomkyns, ‗The Battle of Dorking: Reminiscences of a Volunteer‘ (Edinburgh; Cerca con Google

London: Blackwood, 1871) Cerca con Google

Clarke, Arthur C., Childhood’s End (London: Pan, 1990; first published 1954) Cerca con Google

Deighton, Len, SS-GB: Nazi-occupied Britain (London: Cape, 1978) Cerca con Google

DeLillo, Don, White Noise (New York; London: Penguin, 1986; first published 1985) Cerca con Google

—— Libra (London: Penguin, 2006; first published 1988) Cerca con Google

Fielding, Henry, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, ed. by Thomas Keymer and Alice Cerca con Google

Wakely (London: Penguin, 2005; first published 1749) Cerca con Google

Gibson, William, Burning Chrome (New York: Ace, 1987; first published 1986) Cerca con Google

Gibson, William, and Bruce Sterling, The Difference Engine (New York: Bantam, 1991) Cerca con Google

Genna, Giuseppe, Hitler (Milan: Mondadori, 2008) Cerca con Google

Ishiguro, Kazuo, Never Let Me Go (London: Faber and Faber, 2005) Cerca con Google

Lessing, Doris, Alfred & Emily (New York: HarperCollins, 2008) Cerca con Google

Lewis, Sinclair, It Can’t Happen Here (New York: Signet, 1970; first published: 1935) Cerca con Google

Moore, Ward, Bring the Jubilee (London: Gollancz, 2001; first published in book form 1953) Cerca con Google

O‘Brien, Tim, In the Lake of the Woods (London: Penguin, 1995; first published 1994) Cerca con Google

Orwell, George, Nineteen Eighty-Four (Harlow: Longman, 1983; first published 1949) Cerca con Google

Pohl, Frederik, The Coming of the Quantum Cats (New York: Bantam, 1986) Cerca con Google

Renouvier, Charles, Uchronie, (l’utopie dans l’histoire), esquisse historique apocryphe du Cerca con Google

développement de la civilisation européenne, tel qu’il n’a pas été, tel qu’il aurait pu être Cerca con Google

(Paris: Fayard, 1988; first published 1876) Cerca con Google

Roberts, Andrew, The Aachen Memorandum (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1995) Cerca con Google

237 Cerca con Google

Rotrou, Jean de, Le Véritable St Genest, tragédie de M. de Rotrou (1647) <http://gallica2.bnf.fr/ Vai! Cerca con Google

ark:/12148/bpt6k707997> [accessed 9 July 2008] Cerca con Google

Spiegelman, Art, Maus: A Survivor’s Tale (New York: Pantheon, 1986) Cerca con Google

Squire, John Collings, ed., If It Had Happened Otherwise: Lapses into Imaginary History Cerca con Google

(London: Longmans, 1931) Cerca con Google

Turtledove, Harry, The Guns of the South: A Novel of the Civil War (New York: Ballantine, Cerca con Google

1992) Cerca con Google

Wells, H. G., The War of the Worlds (New York: Pocket, 1988; first published 1898) Cerca con Google


ON PHILIP K. DICK Cerca con Google

Carter, Cassie, ‗The Metacolonization of Philip K. Dick‘s The Man in the High Castle: Mimicry, Cerca con Google

Parasitism, and Americanism in the P.S.A.‘, Science-Fiction Studies, 22.67 (November Cerca con Google

1995), 333-342 Cerca con Google

Pagetti, Carlo, ‗Dick and Meta-SF‘, trans. by Angela Minchella and Darko Suvin, in R. D. Cerca con Google

Mullen and Darko Suvin, eds, Science-Fiction Studies: Selected Articles on Science Cerca con Google

Fiction 1973-1975 (Boston: Gregg, 1976), pp. 180-187 Cerca con Google

Robinson, Kim Stanley, The Novels of Philip K. Dick (Ann Arbor: UMI, 1984) Cerca con Google

Rose, Frank, ‗Philip K. Dick Goes Legit With Library of America Canon‘, Wired, 15.6 (June Cerca con Google

2007) <http://www.wired.com/print/culture/culturereviews/magazine/15-06/pl_print> Vai! Cerca con Google

[accessed 18 November 2008] Cerca con Google

Simons, John L., ‗The Power of Small Things in Philip K. Dick‘s The Man in the High Castle‘, Cerca con Google

Rocky Mountain Review of Language and Literature, 39.4 (1985), 261-275 Cerca con Google

Suvin, Darko, ‗P.K. Dick‘s Opus: Artifice as Refuge and World View‘, in Positions and Cerca con Google

Presuppositions in Science Fiction (London: Macmillan, 1988), pp. 112-133 Cerca con Google

Wilson, John, ‗The Man in the High Castle‘, in Magill’s Survey of American Literature, Revised Cerca con Google

Edition (2007), Literary Reference Center. EBSCO Cerca con Google

<http://search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.bu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lfh&AN=MOL Vai! Cerca con Google

9830000643> [accessed 4 June 2008] Cerca con Google

ON ROBERT HARRIS Cerca con Google

Anelli, Sara, ‗Counterfactual Holocausts: Robert Harris‘ Fatherland and Martin Amis‘ Time’s Cerca con Google

Arrow‘, Textus, 20.2 (May-August 2007), 407-432 Cerca con Google

Fassbender, Bardo, ‗A Novel, Germany‘s Past, and the Dilemmas of Civilised Germans‘, Cerca con Google

Contemporary Review, 265.1546 (November 1994), 236-246 Cerca con Google

Husemann, Harald, ‗If Adolf Had Come; If Helmut Were to Come‘, in The Novel in Anglo- Cerca con Google

German Context: Cultural Cross-Currents and Affinities, ed. by Susanne Stark Cerca con Google

(Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2000), pp. 399-424 Cerca con Google

Whitney, Craig R., ‗Inventing a World in Which Hitler Won‘, New York Times, 3 June 1992 Cerca con Google

ON PHILIP ROTH Cerca con Google

Acocella, Joan, ‗Counterlives: Philip Roth‘s The Plot Against America‘, New Yorker, 20 Cerca con Google

September 2004, pp. 96-100 Cerca con Google

Atzmon, Gilad, ‗The Plot Against America, a Book Report and a Reality Check‘, Truth Seeker, 7 Cerca con Google

November 2005 <http://www.thetruthseeker.co.uk/print.asp?ID=3788> [accessed 9 May Vai! Cerca con Google

2008] Cerca con Google

238 Cerca con Google

Baumgarten, Murray, and Barbara Gottfried, Understanding Philip Roth (Columbia: University Cerca con Google

of South Carolina Press, 1990) Cerca con Google

Berman, Paul, ‗What If It Happened Here?‘, New York Times Book Review, 3 October 2004, pp. Cerca con Google

1; 14-16; 28 Cerca con Google

Blandin, Noël, ‗Philip Roth : Le complot contre l'Amérique‘, La République des Lettres, 24 May Cerca con Google

2006 <http://www.republique-des-lettres.fr/1226-philip-roth.php> [accessed 7 Vai! Cerca con Google

September 2008] Cerca con Google

Coetzee, J.M., ‗What Philip Knew: The Plot Against America by Philip Roth‘, New York Review Cerca con Google

of Books, 51.18 (18 November 2004), 4-6 Cerca con Google

Donadio, Rachel, ‗Promotional Intelligence‘, New York Times, 21 May 2006 Cerca con Google

Douthat, Ross, ‗It Didn‘t Happen Here‘, Policy Review, 129 (February-March 2005), 73-78 Cerca con Google

Engel, William E., ‗Philip Roth Comes of Age‘, Sewanee Review, 114.1 (Winter 2006), ix-xii Cerca con Google

Garner, Dwight, ‗Inside the List‘, New York Times, 14 May 2006 Cerca con Google

Halio, Jay L., ‘The Plot Against America (Review)‘, Shofar, 24.2 (Winter 2006), 204-206 Cerca con Google

Halkin, Hillel, ‗How to Read Philip Roth‘, Commentary, 97.2 (February 1994), 43-48 Cerca con Google

Michaels, Walter Benn, ‗Plots Against America: Neoliberalism and Antiracism‘, American Cerca con Google

Literary History, 18.2 (2006), 288-302 Cerca con Google

Miller, Laura, ‗The Plot Against America by Philip Roth‘, Salon, 29 September 2004 Cerca con Google

<http://dir.salon.com/story/books/review/2004/09/29/roth/> [accessed 28 October 2008] Vai! Cerca con Google

Parrish, Timothy, ‗The Plot Against America‘, Philip Roth Studies, 1.1 (Spring 2005), 93-101 Cerca con Google

Posnock, Ross, ‗On Philip Roth‘s The Plot Against America‘, Salmagundi, 150-151 (Spring- Cerca con Google

Summer 2006), 270-282 Cerca con Google

Rich, Frank, ‗President Lindbergh in 2004‘, New York Times, 26 September 2004 Cerca con Google

Schweber, Matthew S., ‗Philip Roth‘s Populist Nightmare‘, Cross Currents, 54.4 (Winter 2005), Cerca con Google

125-137 Cerca con Google

Sokoloff, Naomi, ‗Reading for the Plot? Philip Roth‘s The Plot Against America‘, AJS Review, Cerca con Google

30.2 (2006), 305-312 Cerca con Google

Steinberg, Gillian, ‗Philip Roth‘s ―Defender of the Faith‖: A Modern Midrash‘, Philip Roth Cerca con Google

Studies, 1.1 (Spring 2005), 7-18 Cerca con Google

Wirth-Nesher, Hana, ‗Roth‘s Autobiographical Writings‘, in Timothy Parrish, ed., The Cerca con Google

Cambridge Companion to Philip Roth (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), Cerca con Google

pp. 158-172 Cerca con Google

Wisse, Ruth R., ‗In Nazi Newark: The Plot Against America by Philip Roth‘, Commentary, 118.5 Cerca con Google

(December 2004), 65-70 Cerca con Google

Wood, Michael, ‗Just Folks‘, London Review of Books, 4 November 2004, pp. 3-6 Cerca con Google


Cheuse, Alan, ‗Doris Lessing Mines Gold in Alfred & Emily‘, NPR, 12 August 2008 Cerca con Google

<http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=93528963> [accessed 30 August Vai! Cerca con Google

2008] Cerca con Google

Cohen, Patricia, ‗The Frozen Chosen‘, New York Times, 29 April 2007 Cerca con Google

James, Caryn, ‗They May Not Mean to, but They Do‘, New York Times, 10 August 2008 Cerca con Google

Johnson, Richard, ‗Novelist‘s Ugly View of Jews‘, New York Post, 22 April 2007 Cerca con Google

Johnston, Amy E. Boyle, ‗Ray Bradbury: Fahrenheit 451 Misinterpreted‘, L.A. Weekly, 30 May Cerca con Google

2007 <http://www.laweekly.com/news/news/ray-bradbury-fahrenheit-451- Vai! Cerca con Google

misinterpreted/16524/> [accessed 5 June 2007] Cerca con Google

Kakutani, Michiko, ‗Doris Lessing Looks Back on Shadows and Parents‘, International Herald Cerca con Google

Tribune, 5 August 2008 Cerca con Google

Kennedy, Jay Richard, ‗Introduction‘ to Sinclair Lewis, It Can’t Happen Here, pp. 7-13 Cerca con Google

McAlpin, Heller, ‗Alfred & Emily by Doris Lessing‘, Los Angeles Times, 27 July 2008 Cerca con Google

Ray, David, ‗It Can & Is Happening Here: Commentary on the Relevancy of Sinclair Lewis‘s Cerca con Google

Prognostication‘, XRAYS, 1.5, 1-6 <http://www.howlingdogpress.com/XRAYS/ Vai! Cerca con Google

index.html> [accessed 29 July 2007] Cerca con Google

Smith, David, ‗Dumbledore Was Gay, JK Tells Amazed Fans‘, Observer, 21 October 2007 Cerca con Google

239 Cerca con Google

Traister, Rebecca, ‗Dumbledore? Gay. J.K. Rowling? Chatty‘, Salon, 23 October 2007 Cerca con Google

<http://www.salon.com/books/feature/2007/10/23/dumbledore/> [accessed 10 July 2008] Vai! Cerca con Google

Wiener, Jon, ‗Arctic Jews: An Interview with Michael Chabon‘, Dissent, 14 April 2007 Cerca con Google

<http://www.dissentmagazine.org/online.php?id=10> [accessed 30 November 2008] Vai! Cerca con Google



Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, ed. by H. Rackham, 1, II.[6] <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgibin/// Vai! Cerca con Google

ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0054;query=toc;layout=;loc=1138b%201 Cerca con Google

8> [accessed 27 November 2006] Cerca con Google

—— Poetics, IX, trans. by S.H. Butcher <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/aristotlepoeticsi. Vai! Cerca con Google

txt> [accessed 29 April 2008] Cerca con Google

Bakhtin, M. M., ‗Forms of Time and the Chronotope in the Novel‘, in The Dialogic Imagination: Cerca con Google

Four Essays by M. M. Bakhtin, ed. by Michael Holquist (Austin: University of Texas Cerca con Google

Press, 1996; first published 1981), pp. 84-258 Cerca con Google

Bal, Mieke, Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative, 2nd edn (Toronto; Buffalo; Cerca con Google

London: University of Toronto Press, 1997) Cerca con Google

Barthes, Roland, ‗The Death of the Author‘, in Modern Criticism and Theory: A Reader, ed. by Cerca con Google

David Lodge and Nigel Wood, 3rd edn (London: Longman, 2008), pp. 313-316 Cerca con Google

Benjamin, Walter, ‗The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction‘, in Illuminations, Cerca con Google

ed. by Hannah Arendt and trans. by Harry Zohn (New York: Schocken, 1969; first Cerca con Google

published 1968), pp. 217-251 Cerca con Google

Bonheim, Helmut, The Narrative Modes: Techniques of the Short Story (Cambridge: Brewer, Cerca con Google

1982) Cerca con Google

Booth, Wayne G., The Rhetoric of Fiction (Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Toronto: Cerca con Google

University of Toronto Press, 1961) Cerca con Google

—— The Company We Keep: An Ethics of Fiction (Berkeley: University of California Press, Cerca con Google

1988) Cerca con Google

Borges, Jorge Luis, ‗Foreword‘ to Brodie’s Report (1970), in Collected Fictions (New York: Cerca con Google

Penguin, 1999), pp. 345-347 Cerca con Google

Britton, John, ‗A. C. Bradley and those Children of Lady Macbeth‘, Shakespeare Quarterly, 12.3 Cerca con Google

(Summer 1961), 349-351 Cerca con Google

Brooks, Cleanth, The Well-Wrought Urn: Studies in the Structure of Poetry (New York: Harcourt Cerca con Google

Brace, 1947) Cerca con Google

Cobley, Evelyn, ‗Catastrophe Theory in Tom Stoppard‘s Professional Foul‘, Contemporary Cerca con Google

Literature, 25.1 (Spring 1984), 53-65 Cerca con Google

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, Biographia Literaria; or, Biographical Sketches of My Literary Life Cerca con Google

and Opinions (New York: Gowans, 1852; first published 1817) Cerca con Google

Currie, Gregory, The Nature of Fiction (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990) Cerca con Google

De Man, Paul, ‗Semiology and Rhetoric‘, in Allegories of Reading: Figural Language in Cerca con Google

Rousseau, Nietzsche, Rilke, and Proust (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982; first Cerca con Google

published 1979), pp. 3-19 Cerca con Google

—— ‗Literary History and Literary Modernity‘, in Blindness and Insight, 2nd edn (Minneapolis: Cerca con Google

University of Minnesota Press, 1983), 142-165 Cerca con Google

Derrida, Jacques, ‗The Exorbitant. Question of Method‘, in Of Grammatology, trans. by Gayatri Cerca con Google

Chakravorty Spivak (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998; first published Cerca con Google

1976), pp 157-164 Cerca con Google

—— ‗Plato‘s Pharmacy‘, in Dissemination, trans. by Barbara Johnson (London; New York: Cerca con Google

Continuum, 2004; first published 1981), pp. 67-186 Cerca con Google

240 Cerca con Google

Doležel, Lubomìr, Heterocosmica: Fiction and Possible Worlds (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Cerca con Google

University Press, 1998) Cerca con Google

Du Bois, W. E. B. ‗Criteria of Negro Art (1926)‘, in The New Negro: Readings on Race, Cerca con Google

Representation, and African American Culture, 1892-1938, ed. by Henry Louis Gates Cerca con Google

and Gene Andrew Jarrett (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007), pp. 257-260 Cerca con Google

Eliot, T. S., ‗Notes towards the Definition of Culture‘, in Christianity and Culture (New York: Cerca con Google

Harvest, 1940), pp. 79-186 Cerca con Google

Fanon, Frantz, ‗On National Culture‘, in The Wretched of the Earth, trans. by Constance Cerca con Google

Farrington (London: Penguin, 1990; first published 1961), pp. 166-189 Cerca con Google

Forster, E. M., Aspects of the Novel (London: Penguin, 1990; first published 1927) Cerca con Google

Harvey, David, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Inquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change Cerca con Google

(Oxford: Blackwell, 1989) Cerca con Google

Hassan, Ihab ‗The Culture of Postmodernism‘, Theory, Culture, and Society, 2.3 (1985), 119-131 Cerca con Google

Hoberek, Andrew, ‗Introduction: After Postmodernism‘, Twentieth Century Literature, 53.3 (Fall Cerca con Google

2007), 233-247 Cerca con Google

Hutcheon, Linda, A Poetics of Postmodernism: History, Theory, Fiction (London; New York: Cerca con Google

Routledge, 1988) Cerca con Google

Iser, Wolfgang, ‗Interaction between Text and Reader‘, in Prospecting: From Reader Response Cerca con Google

to Literary Anthropology (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993; first Cerca con Google

published 1989), pp. 31-41 Cerca con Google

Jameson, Fredric, Postmodernism; or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Durham: Duke Cerca con Google

University Press, 1991) Cerca con Google

Kermode, Frank, The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction (New York: Oxford Cerca con Google

University Press, 1967) Cerca con Google

Lewis, David, Counterfactuals (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973) Cerca con Google

Mallin, Eric S., ‗―You kilt my foddah‖; or, Arnold, Prince of Denmark‘, Shakespeare Quarterly, Cerca con Google

50.2 (Summer 1999), 127-151 Cerca con Google

McHale, Brian, Postmodernist Fiction (London; New York: Routledge, 1999; first published Cerca con Google

1987) Cerca con Google

Pavel, Thomas G., Fictional Worlds (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986) Cerca con Google

Plantinga, Alvin, The Nature of Necessity (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974) Cerca con Google

Punday, Daniel, ‗Creative Accounting: Role-playing Games, Possible-World Theory, and the Cerca con Google

Agency of Imagination‘, Poetics Today, 26.1 (Spring 2005), 113-139 Cerca con Google

Ronen, Ruth, Possible Worlds in Literary Theory (Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Cerca con Google

Press, 1994) Cerca con Google

Ryan, Marie-Laure, ‗Fiction, Non-Factuals and the Principle of Minimal Departure‘, Poetics, 9, 4 Cerca con Google

(August 1980), 403-422 Cerca con Google

—— ‗From Parallel Universes to Possible Worlds: Ontological Pluralism in Physics, Cerca con Google

Narratology, and Narrative‘, Poetics Today, 27.4 (2006), 633-674 Cerca con Google

Steiner, George, Grammars of Creation (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001) Cerca con Google

Tolkien, J. R. R., ‗On Fairy-Stories‘, in The Monsters and the Critics, and Other Essays, ed. by Cerca con Google

Christopher Tolkien (London: Allen &Unwin, 1983), pp. 109-161 Cerca con Google

Weinrich, Harald, Tempus: Besprochene und erzählte Welt (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1964) Cerca con Google

Wright, Edmond, ‗Jorge Luis Borges‘s ―Funes the Memorious‖: A Philosophical Narrative‘, Cerca con Google

Partial Answers, 5.1 (2007), 33-49 Cerca con Google


Aldiss, Brian W., and David Wingrove, Trillion Year Spree: The History of Science Fiction Cerca con Google

(London: Gollancz, 1986) Cerca con Google

Alkon, Paul J., ‗Alternate History and Postmodern Temporality‘, in Time, Literature and the Cerca con Google

Arts: Essays in Honor of Samuel L. Macey, ed. by Thomas R. Cleary (Victoria, BC: Cerca con Google

University of Victoria, 1994), pp. 65-85 Cerca con Google

241 Cerca con Google

Baudry, René, ‗Chevalier, dit Beauchêne, Robert‘, in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, ed. by Cerca con Google

George W. Brown and others (Toronto; Buffalo; London: University of Toronto Press, Cerca con Google

1966), Vol. 2 (1701 to 1740), p. 142 Cerca con Google

Booker, M. Keith, The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism Cerca con Google

(Westport, CT; London: Greenwood, 1994) Cerca con Google

Bush, Fred, ‗The Time of the Other: Alternate History and the Conquest of America‘, Strange Cerca con Google

Horizons, 15 July 2002 <http://www.strangehorizons.com/2002/20020715/time.shtml> Vai! Cerca con Google

[accessed 8 July 2008] Cerca con Google

Chamberlain, Gordon B., ‗Allohistory in Science Fiction‘, in Alternative Histories: Eleven Cerca con Google

Stories of the World as it Might Have Been, ed. by Charles G. Waugh and Martin H. Cerca con Google

Greenberg (New York: Garland, 1986), pp. 281-300 Cerca con Google

Clarke, I. F., ‗Future-War Fiction: The First Main Phase, 1871-1900‘, Science Fiction Studies, 73 Cerca con Google

(November 1997) <http://www.depauw.edu/sfs/clarkeess.htm> [accessed 5 May 2006] Vai! Cerca con Google

Collins, William Joseph, ‗Paths Not Taken: The Development, Structure, and Aesthetics of the Cerca con Google

Alternative History‘ (unpublished doctoral dissertation, University Of California at Cerca con Google

Davis, 1990) Cerca con Google

Dudek, Duane, ‗Old Stories, New Boundaries: What-If Questions Are Answered in Different Cerca con Google

Worlds‘, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 27 October 2002 <http://www2.jsonline.com:80/ Vai! Cerca con Google

enter/books/oct02/90603.asp> [accessed 24 April 2006] Cerca con Google

Duncan, Andy, ‗Alternate History‘, in The Cambridge Companion to Science Fiction, ed. by Cerca con Google

James and Farah Mendlesohn (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp 209- Cerca con Google

218 Cerca con Google

Freedland, Jonathan, ‗The Start of History‘, Guardian, 15 September 2004 Cerca con Google

Girardot, Jean-Jacques, and Fabrice Méreste, ‗Le Steampunk: une machine littéraire à recycler le Cerca con Google

passé‘, Cycnos, 22.1 <http://revel.unice.fr/cycnos/document.html?id=472> [accessed 27 Vai! Cerca con Google

November 2007] Cerca con Google

Hantke, Steffen, ‗Difference Engines and Other Infernal Devices: History According to Cerca con Google

Steampunk‘, Extrapolation, 40.3 (Fall 1999), 244-254 Cerca con Google

Hellekson, Karen, ‗Toward a Taxonomy of the Alternate History Genre‘, Extrapolation (Kent Cerca con Google

State University Press), 41.3 (Fall 2000), 248-256 Cerca con Google

—— The Alternate History: Refiguring Historical Time (Kent, OH; London: Kent State Cerca con Google

University Press, 2001) Cerca con Google

Henriet, Eric B., L’Histoire revisitée: Panorama de l’uchronie sous toutes ses formes (Paris: Cerca con Google

Encrage, 1999) Cerca con Google

Hudde, Hinrich, and Peter Kuon, eds, De l’Utopie à l’Uchronie: Formes, Significations, Cerca con Google

Fonctions (Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 1988) Cerca con Google

James, Edward, Science Fiction in the 20th Century (Oxford: OUP, 1994) Cerca con Google

Ketterer, David, New Worlds for Old: The Apocalyptic Imagination, Science Fiction, and Cerca con Google

American Literature (Bloomington; London: Indiana University Press, 1974) Cerca con Google

Kumar, Krishan, Utopia and anti-Utopia in Modern Times (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987) Cerca con Google

Lem, Stanislaw, ‗The Time-Travel story and Related Matters of SF Structuring‘, in R. D. Mullen Cerca con Google

and Darko Suvin, eds, Science-Fiction Studies: Selected Articles on Science Fiction Cerca con Google

1973-1975 (Boston: Gregg, 1976), pp. 16-27 Cerca con Google

McCormack, Kathleen, ‗George Eliot and Victorian Science Fiction: Daniel Deronda as Cerca con Google

Alternate History‘, Extrapolation (Kent State University Press), 27.3 (Fall 1986), 185- Cerca con Google

196 Cerca con Google

McKnight, Edgar Vernon, ‗Alternative History: The Development of a Literary Genre‘ Cerca con Google

(unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1994) Cerca con Google

Moylan, Tom, Demand the Impossible: Science Fiction and the Utopian Imagination (New Cerca con Google

York; London: Methuen, 1986) Cerca con Google

—— Scraps of the Untainted Sky: Science Fiction, Utopia, Dystopia (Boulder, CO: Westview, Cerca con Google

2000) Cerca con Google

Pynchon, Thomas, ‗The road to 1984‘, Guardian, 3 May 2003 Cerca con Google

Rabkin, Eric S., Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, No Place Else: Explorations in Cerca con Google

Utopian and Dystopian Fiction (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1983) Cerca con Google

242 Cerca con Google

Régnier, Jean-Jacques ‗L'Histoire, un cas particulier de la science-fiction‘, Cycnos, 22.1 Cerca con Google

<http://revel.unice.fr/cycnos/document.html?id=459> [accessed 3 July 2008] Vai! Cerca con Google

Roberts, Adam, Science Fiction (London; New York: Routledge, 2000) Cerca con Google

Robinson, Lori, ‗Turning Points: Actual and Alternate Histories‘, Library Media Connection, Cerca con Google

26.3 (November 2007), 87 Cerca con Google

Rosenfeld, Gavriel David, ‗Why Do We Ask ―What If?‖ Reflections on the Function of Alternate Cerca con Google

History‘, History and Theory, 41.4 (December 2002), 90-103 Cerca con Google

—— The World Hitler Never Made: Alternate History and the Memory of Nazism (Cambridge: Cerca con Google

Cambridge University Press, 2005) Cerca con Google

Ross, Andrew, ‗Getting out of the Gernsback Continuum‘, Critical Inquiry, 17.2 (Winter 1991), Cerca con Google

411-433 Cerca con Google

Sargent, Lyman Tower, British and American Utopian Literature, 1516-1985: An Annotated, Cerca con Google

Chronological Bibliography (New York: Gardland, 1988) Cerca con Google

Spedo, Giampaolo, ‗1862: A Not-So-Alternate History of the Civil War‘, in Mario Melchionda Cerca con Google

and Monica Santini, Carte d’occasione, 3 (Padova: Unipress, 2007), pp. 285-323 Cerca con Google

Sterling, Bruce, ‗Preface‘ to William Gibson, Burning Chrome (New York: Ace, 1987; first Cerca con Google

published 1986), pp. ix-xii Cerca con Google

Suvin, Darko, ‗On the Poetics of the Science Fiction Genre‘, College English, 34.3 (December Cerca con Google

1972), 372-382 Cerca con Google

—— ‗Victorian Science Fiction, 1871-85: The Rise of the Alternative History Sub-Genre‘, Cerca con Google

Science Fiction Studies, 10.2 (July 1983), 148-169 Cerca con Google

Turing, A. M., ‗Computing Machinery and Intelligence‘, in Douglas R. Hofstadter and Daniel C. Cerca con Google

Dennett, eds, The Mind’s I: Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul (New York: Cerca con Google

Basic Books, 1981), pp. 53-67; first published 1950 Cerca con Google

Walsh, Harry, ‗The Microcosmography of Russian Cultural Myths in Vladimir Sharov‘s Cerca con Google

Allohistorical Novels‘, Slavic and East European Journal, 46.3 (Autumn, 2002), 565- Cerca con Google

585 Cerca con Google

Winthrop-Young, Geoffrey, ‗Review: How the Mule Got Its Tale: Moretti‘s Darwinian Cerca con Google

Bricolage‘, Diacritics, 29.2 (Summer 1999), 18-40 Cerca con Google


Bateman, Robert L., ‗Review of Fred Anderson and Andrew Cayton, The Dominion of War: Cerca con Google

Empire and Liberty in North America, 1500-2000‘, Parameters, 36.1 (Spring 2006), Cerca con Google

143-145 Cerca con Google

Beatty, John, ‗Replaying Life‘s Tape‘, paper originally delivered at the 2002 Philosophy of Cerca con Google

Science Association meetings, <http://www.philosophy.ubc.ca/faculty/beatty/ Vai! Cerca con Google

BeattyReplay0506.pdf> [accessed 17 September 2008] Cerca con Google

Ben-Menahem, Yemima, ‗Historical Contingency‘, Ratio (new series), 10.2 (September 1997), Cerca con Google

99-107 Cerca con Google

Bulhof, Johannes, ‗What If? Modality and History‘, History and Theory, 38.2 (May 1999), 145- Cerca con Google

168 Cerca con Google

Bunzl, Martin, ‗Counterfactual History: A User‘s Guide‘. American Historical Review, 109.3 Cerca con Google

(June 2004) <http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/ahr/109.3/bunzl.html> Vai! Cerca con Google

[accessed 14 November 2006] Cerca con Google

Camon, Ferdinando, ‗Primo Levi, dire l‘indicibile‘, Avvenire, 1 April 2007 Cerca con Google

Carlyle, Thomas, ‗Lecture VI [May 22, 1840]: The Hero As King. Cromwell, Napoleon: Modern Cerca con Google

Revolutionism‘, in Sartor Resartus and On Heroes and Hero Worship (London: Dent, Cerca con Google

1967), pp. 422-467 Cerca con Google

Carr, Edward Hallett, What Is History? The George Macaulay Trevelyan Lectures Delivered in Cerca con Google

the University of Cambridge January-March 1961, ed. by R.W. Davies, 2nd edn Cerca con Google

(Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1987) Cerca con Google

Certeau, Michel de, L’écriture de l’histoire (Paris: Gallimard, 2002; first published 1975) Cerca con Google

Chang, Kenneth, ‗Edward N. Lorenz, a Meteorologist and a Father of Chaos Theory, Dies at 90‘, Cerca con Google

New York Times, 17 April 2008 Cerca con Google

243 Cerca con Google

Choi, Charles Q., ‗Odysseus‘ Return from Trojan War Dated‘, LiveScience, 23 June 2008 Cerca con Google

<http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25337041/> [accessed: 25 June 2008] Vai! Cerca con Google

Cowley, Robert, ed., What If? Military Historians Imagine What Might Have Been (London: Pan Cerca con Google

Macmillan, 2001; first published 1999) Cerca con Google

Danto, A. C., Analytical Philosophy of History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965) Cerca con Google

Dosse, François, ‗Michel de Certeau et l‘écriture de l‘histoire‘, Vingtième siècle, 2.78 (2003), Cerca con Google

145-156 <http://www.cairn.info/article_p.php?ID_ARTICLE=VING_078_0145> Vai! Cerca con Google

[accessed 16 July 2008] Cerca con Google

Dray, William, Laws and Explanation in History (London: Oxford University Press, 1957) Cerca con Google

Engels, Friedrich, ‗Engels to Borgius‘, London, 25 January 1894, in Marx and Engels Cerca con Google

Correspondence, trans. by Donna Torr (N.P.: International, 1968) <http://marx.org/ Vai! Cerca con Google

archive/marx/works/1894/letters/94_01_25.htm> [accessed 8 February 2007] Cerca con Google

Evans, Richard J., ‗Telling It Like It Wasn‘t‘, Historically Speaking, 5.4 (March 2004) Cerca con Google

<http://www.bu.edu/historic/hs/march04.htm> [accessed 25 April 2008] Vai! Cerca con Google

Fay, Brian, ‗Introduction: Unconventional History‘, History and Theory, 41.4 (December 2002), Cerca con Google

1-6 Cerca con Google

Feeley, Gregory, ‗The Way It Wasn't: How What-If History Grew from a Minor Literary Cerca con Google

Curiosity to a Bestselling Genre of Popular Fiction‘, Weekly Standard, 6 September 2004 Cerca con Google

<http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Protected/Articles/000/000/004/523imbvr.as> Vai! Cerca con Google

[accessed 1 October 2006] Cerca con Google

Ferguson, Niall, ed., Virtual History: Alternatives and Counterfactuals (London: Picador, 1997) Cerca con Google

Fisher, Herbert Albert Laurens, A History of Europe (London: Edward Arnold, 1935) Cerca con Google

Fuller, Graham E., ‗A World Without Islam‘, Foreign Policy, 164 (January-February 2008), 46- Cerca con Google

53 Cerca con Google

Fukuyama, Francis, ‗The End of History?‘, <http://www.wesjones.com/eoh.htm> [accessed 14 Vai! Cerca con Google

September 2008]; first published in National Interest (Summer 1989) Cerca con Google

Gallagher, Catherine, ‗The Way It Wasn‘t: The Uses of Counterfactual Pasts‘, paper delivered at Cerca con Google

The Politics of the Past: Second Jyväskylä Symposium on Political Thought and Cerca con Google

Conceptual History (University of Jyväskylä, 8-9 June 2007) <http://www.jyu.fi/yhtfil/ Vai! Cerca con Google

PolCon/coepolcon/ PolTCH/events/gallagher.pdf> [accessed 6 August 2008] Cerca con Google

Gibbon, Edward, The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ed. by David Cerca con Google

Widger and commented by Henry Hart Milman, 12 vols (Project Gutenberg, 2008; first Cerca con Google

published 1776-1788 in 6 vols) <http://www.gutenberg.org/files/735/735.txt> [accessed Vai! Cerca con Google

29 July 2008] Cerca con Google

Gould, Stephen Jay, Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History (New York: Cerca con Google

Norton, 1989) Cerca con Google

Holbrooke, Richard, ‘Washington‘s Battle Over Israel‘s Birth‘, Washington Post, 7 May 2008 Cerca con Google

Hook, Sidney, The Hero in History: A Study in Limitation and Possibility (New York: Cerca con Google

Humanities Press, 1950; first published 1943) Cerca con Google

Joffe, Josef, ‗A World Without Israel‘, Foreign Policy, 146 (January-February 2005), 36-42 Cerca con Google

Klug, Brian, and others, ‗Debating a World Without Israel‘, Foreign Policy, 147 (March-April Cerca con Google

2005), 56-65 Cerca con Google

Livy [Titus Livius], The History of Rome, Vol. II, trans. by Rev. Canon Roberts and ed. by Cerca con Google

Ernest Rhys (London: Dent, 1905) <http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/ Vai! Cerca con Google

index.html> [accessed 10 June 2008] Cerca con Google

Lukacs, John, ‗What if Hitler Had Won the Second World War?‘, in Wallechinsky, David, and Cerca con Google

Irving Wallace, eds, The People’s Almanac #2 (New York: Morrow, 1978), pp. 396-398 Cerca con Google

Mandel, David R., Denis J. Hilton, and Patrizia Catellani, eds, The Psychology of Counterfactual Cerca con Google

Thinking (London: Routledge, 2005) Cerca con Google

Mandelbaum, Maurice, The Anatomy of Historical Knowledge (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Cerca con Google

University Press, 1977) Cerca con Google

Morello, Ruth, ‗Livy‘s Alexander Digression (9.17-19): Counterfactuals and Apologetics‘, Cerca con Google

Journal of Roman Studies, 92 (2002), 62-85 Cerca con Google

Ranke, Leopold von, The Theory and Practice of History, ed. by Georg G. Iggers and Konrad Cerca con Google

von Moltke (Indianapolis; New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973) Cerca con Google

Ricoeur, Paul, Histoire et vérité (Paris: Seuil, 1955) Cerca con Google

244 Cerca con Google

—— Temps et récit, 3 vols (Paris: Seuil, 1983-85) Cerca con Google

Roberts, Andrew, ed., What Might Have Been: Leading Historians on Twelve ‘What Ifs’ of Cerca con Google

History (London: Phoenix, 2005; first published 2004) Cerca con Google

Schama, Simon, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution (New York: Vintage, 1990; first Cerca con Google

published 1989) Cerca con Google

Shermer, Michael, ‗Exorcising Laplace‘s Demon: Chaos and Antichaos, History and Cerca con Google

Metahistory‘, History and Theory, 34.1 (February 1995), 59-83 Cerca con Google

Shirer, William L., ‗If Hitler Had Won World War II‘, Look, 19 December 1961, pp. 26-36; 41- Cerca con Google

42; 44 Cerca con Google

Staley, David J., ‗A History of the Future‘, History and Theory, 41.4 (December 2002), 72-89 Cerca con Google

Stewart, Ian, Does God Play Dice? The New Mathematics of Chaos (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002; Cerca con Google

first published 1989) Cerca con Google

Tetlock, Philip E., Richard Ned Lebow, and Geoffrey Parker, eds, Unmaking the West: ‘What-If’ Cerca con Google

Scenarios that Rewrite World History (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006) Cerca con Google

Toynbee, Arnold J., ‗If Alexander the Great had Lived On‘, in Some Problems of Greek History Cerca con Google

(London: Oxford University Press, 1969), pp. 441-486 Cerca con Google

Tucker, Aviezer, ‗Historiographical Counterfactuals and Historical Contingency‘, History and Cerca con Google

Theory, 38.2 (1999), 264-276 Cerca con Google

White, Hayden, Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe Cerca con Google

(Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973) Cerca con Google

—— Tropics of Discourse: Essays in Cultural Criticism (Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins Cerca con Google

University Press, 1978) Cerca con Google

—— The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation (Baltimore; Cerca con Google

London: John Hopkins University Press, 1987) Cerca con Google

Woodcock, Alexander, and Monte Davis, Catastrophe Theory (New York: Dutton, 1978) Cerca con Google

Wright, Georg Henrik von, Explanation and Understanding (London: Routledge and Kegan Cerca con Google

Paul, 1971) Cerca con Google


Adorno, Theodor W., Prisms, trans. by Samuel and Shierry Weber (London: Neville Spearman, Cerca con Google

1967) Cerca con Google

Arendt, Hannah, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (London: Penguin Cerca con Google

Classics, 1992; first published 1963) Cerca con Google

Bratu Hansen, Miriam, ‗Schindler’s List Is Not Shoah: The Second Commandment, Popular Cerca con Google

Modernism, and Public Memory‘, Critical Inquiry, 22.2 (Winter 1996), 292-312 Cerca con Google

Churchill, Winston S., The Second World War, 6 vols (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981; first Cerca con Google

published 1948-1954) Cerca con Google

DeLillo, Don, ‗Silhouette City: Hitler, Manson and the Millennium‘, in White Noise: Text and Cerca con Google

Criticism, ed. by Mark Osteen (New York: Penguin, 1998), pp. 344-352; first published Cerca con Google

in Dimensions, 4.3 (1989), 29-34 Cerca con Google

Denby, David, ‗Back in the Bunker‘, New Yorker, 14 February 2005 Cerca con Google

Drayton, Richard, ‗An Ethical Blank Check: British and US Mythology About the Second World Cerca con Google

War Ignores Our Own Crimes and Legitimizes Anglo-American Warmaking‘, Guardian, Cerca con Google

10 May 2005 Cerca con Google

Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah, Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust Cerca con Google

(London: Little, Brown, 1996) Cerca con Google

Grass, Günter, Beim Häuten der Zwiebel (Göttingen: Steidl, 2006) Cerca con Google

Haidu, Peter, ‗The Dialectics of Unspeakability: Language, Silence, and the Narratives of Cerca con Google

Desubjectification‘, in Saul Friedlander, ed., Probing the Limits of Representation: Cerca con Google

Nazism and the ‘Final Solution’, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), pp. Cerca con Google

277-299 Cerca con Google

Heffernan, Virginia, ‗The Hitler Meme‘, New York Times Magazine, 26 October 2008 Cerca con Google

245 Cerca con Google

Heuvel, Eric, Ruud van der Rol, and Lies Schippers, Die Suche [The Search] (Amsterdam: Anne Cerca con Google

Frank House, 2007) Cerca con Google

Hoyle, John R., Leadership and Futuring: Making Visions Happen (Thousand Oaks, CA: Cerca con Google

Corwin, 2007) Cerca con Google

Koch, Gertrud, ‗The Aesthetic Transformation of the Image of the Unimaginable: Notes on Cerca con Google

Claude Lanzmann‘s Shoah‘, trans. by Jamie Owen Daniel and Miriam Hansen, October, Cerca con Google

48 (Spring 1989), 15-24 Cerca con Google

Kristof, Nicholas D., ‗Unmasking Horror — A special report: Japan Confronting Gruesome War Cerca con Google

Atrocity‘, New York Times, 17 March 1995 Cerca con Google

Kulish, Nicholas, ‗Germany Confronts Holocaust Legacy Anew‘, New York Times, 29 January Cerca con Google

2008 Cerca con Google

Landler, Mark, ‗In Germany, a Hitler Comedy Goes Over With a Thud‘, New York Times, 11 Cerca con Google

January 2007 Cerca con Google

Parry, Ann, ‗Idioms for the Unrepresentable: Post-War Fiction and the Shoah‘, Journal of Cerca con Google

European Studies, 27.4 (December 1997), Academic OneFile. Gale Cerca con Google

<http://find.galegroup.com.ezproxy.bu.edu/itx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IACDocuments& Vai! Cerca con Google

type=retrieve&tabID=T002&prodId=AONE&docId=A20816373&source= Cerca con Google

gale&srcprod=AONE&userGroupName=mlin_b_bumml&version=1.0> [accessed 6 Cerca con Google

November 2008] Cerca con Google

Rosenfeld, Gavriel David, ‗The Reception of William L. Shirer‘s The Rise and Fall of the Third Cerca con Google

Reich in the United States and West Germany, 1960-62‘, Journal of Contemporary Cerca con Google

History, 29.1 (January 1994), 95-128 Cerca con Google

Rothberg, Michael, Traumatic Realism: The Demands of Holocaust Representation Cerca con Google

(Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000) Cerca con Google

Shirer, William L., The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (London: Book Club, 1968; first Cerca con Google

published 1960) Cerca con Google

—— Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent, 1934-1941 (Baltimore, MD: Johns Cerca con Google

Hopkins University Press, 2002; first published 1941) Cerca con Google

Spiegel, Gabrielle M., ‗Memory and History: Liturgical Time and Historical Time‘, History and Cerca con Google

Theory, 41. 2 (May 2002), 149-162 Cerca con Google

Winterbotham, F.W., The Ultra Secret (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1974) Cerca con Google

Young, James, ‗The Terrible Beauty of Nazi Aesthetics: Acknowledging the Role of Art in a Cerca con Google

Spectacular Act of Barbarism‘, Forward, 25 April 2003 <http://www.forward.com/ Vai! Cerca con Google

articles/8694/> [accessed 16 November 2008] Cerca con Google


Anon., ‗The Convulsions of America‘, Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, 91 (January 1862), Cerca con Google

118-130 Cerca con Google

‗Fried Politics: Restaurant Serves ―Freedom Fries‖‘, CNN, 19 February 2003 Cerca con Google

<http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/South/02/19/offbeat.freedom.fries.ap/> [accessed 1 Vai! Cerca con Google

August 2007] Cerca con Google

Gabler, Neal, Walter Winchell: Gossip, Power and the Culture of Celebrity (London: Picador, Cerca con Google

1995; first published 1994) Cerca con Google

Herbert, Bob, ‗Clueless in America‘, New York Times, 22 April 2008 Cerca con Google

Klurfeld, Herman, Winchell: His Life and Times (New York: Praeger, 1976) Cerca con Google

Lewis, David L., The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American Folk Hero and his Company Cerca con Google

(Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1976) Cerca con Google

Lindbergh, Charles A., The Spirit of St Louis (New York: Scribner, 1953) Cerca con Google

Mallon, Thomas, ‗Five Days in Philadelphia: The Plot Against Germany‘, New York Times, 31 Cerca con Google

July 2005 Cerca con Google

Mikkelson, Barbara and David, ‗LaGuardian Angel‘, Snopes.com <http://www.snopes.com/ Vai! Cerca con Google

glurge/laguardia.asp> [accessed 4 July 2008] Cerca con Google

246 Cerca con Google

Plotkin, David George, The Plot Against America: Senator Wheeler and the Forces behind Him Cerca con Google

(Missoula: J.E. Kennedy, 1946) Cerca con Google

Winchell, Walter, Winchell Exclusive: Things That Happened to Me — and Me to Them Cerca con Google

(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975) Cerca con Google

OTHER SOURCES Cerca con Google

Anon., ‗Hitler Tamed by Prison: Released on Parole, He Is Expected to Return to Austria‘, New Cerca con Google

York Times, 21 December 1924, p. 16 Cerca con Google

Bancroft-Hinchey, Timothy, ‗LA Times: A Classic Example of Disinformation‘, Pravda, 13 Cerca con Google

August 2008 <http://english.pravda.ru/opinion/columnists/106083-0> [accessed 25 Vai! Cerca con Google

August 2008] Cerca con Google

Carr, Nicolas, ‗Is Google Making Us Stupid?‘, Atlantic Monthly (July/August 2008), Cerca con Google

<http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200807/google> [accessed 10 July 2008] Vai! Cerca con Google

Compton, Piers, The Broken Cross: The Hidden Hand in the Vatican Cerca con Google

<http://www.catholicvoice.co.uk/brokencross/> [accessed 9 June 2008] Vai! Cerca con Google

Microsoft, Age of Empires (1997) Cerca con Google

Shamir, Israel, Cabbala of Power (NP: Four O‘Clock, 2007) Cerca con Google

FILMS Cerca con Google

The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara. Dir. Errol Morris. Sony Cerca con Google

Pictures. 2003. Cerca con Google

It’s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. RKO Radio Pictures. 1946. Cerca con Google

Last Action Hero. Dir. John McTiernan. Columbia Pictures. 1993. Cerca con Google

Lindbergh. Dir. Stephen Ives. Insignia Films Production. 1990. Cerca con Google

Lola rennt. Dir. Tom Tykwer. Prokino Filmverleih. 1998. Cerca con Google

Schindler’s List. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Universal. 1993. Cerca con Google

Sliding Doors. Dir. Peter Howitt. Miramax / Paramount. 1998. Cerca con Google

The Spirit of St Louis. Dir. Billy Wilder. Warner Bros. 1957. Cerca con Google

Der Untergang. Dir. Oliver Hirschbiegel. Constantin Film Produktion. 2005 Cerca con Google


‗Anne Morrow Lindbergh on: The Des Moines Speech‘ <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/ Vai! Cerca con Google

lindbergh/filmmore/reference/interview/anne06.html> [accessed 30 October 2008] Cerca con Google

DW staff (jb), ‗German Company Fined for Selling Anti-Nazi Symbols‘, Deutsche Welle, 29 Cerca con Google

September 2006 <http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,2189625,00.html> Vai! Cerca con Google

[accessed 3 September 2008] Cerca con Google

Farmani, Hiedeh, and Aresu Eqbali, ‗Iranian President Launches New Tirade against Israel‘, Cerca con Google

AFP, 5 October 2007 <http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20071005/wl_afp/ Vai! Cerca con Google

iranisraelmideastpolitics_071005133939> [accessed 7 October 2007] Cerca con Google

‗Ferry Apologises for Nazi Remarks‘, BBC News, 16 April 2007 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/ Vai! Cerca con Google

entertainment/6561177.stm> [accessed 17 April 2007] Cerca con Google

Fowler, Mayhill, ‗Obama: No Surprise That Hard-Pressed Pennsylvanians Turn Bitter‘, Cerca con Google

Huffingtonpost.com, 11 April 2008 <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/mayhill-fowler/ Vai! Cerca con Google

obama-no-surprise-that-ha_b_96188.html> [accessed 15 April 2008] Cerca con Google

‗Hitler: intervista a Giuseppe Genna‘, <http://www.booksblog.it/post/2389/hitler-intervista-agiuseppe- Vai! Cerca con Google

genna> [accessed 9 February 2008] Cerca con Google

London Science Museum, ‗Babbage‘ <http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/onlinestuff/stories/ Vai! Cerca con Google

babbage.aspx> [accessed 03 December 2007] Cerca con Google

247 Cerca con Google

‗Memorable Quotes for The Spirit of St. Louis (1957)‘, Internet Movie Database Cerca con Google

<http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0051003/quotes> [accessed 30 November 2008] Vai! Cerca con Google

‗Nelle scuole tedesche l‘Olocausto a fumetti‘, <http://www.repubblica.it/2006/05/gallerie/scuola/ Vai! Cerca con Google

fumetti-olocausto/1.html> [accessed 9 February 2008] Cerca con Google

One Laptop per Child (OLPC) <http://www.laptopgiving.org/en/index.php> [accessed 27 Vai! Cerca con Google

October 2008] Cerca con Google

‗Reviews for 1862: A Novel‘, <http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/customer-reviews/ Vai! Cerca con Google

0345482379/104-5970667-1576703> [accessed 13 November 2006] Cerca con Google

Roberts, Andrew, ‗The Aachen Memorandum‘ ‗<http://www.andrew-roberts.net/pages/books/ Vai! Cerca con Google

the_aachen_memorandum.asp> [accessed 16 November 2008] Cerca con Google

Uchronia: The Alternate History List, ed. by Robert B. Schmunk <http://www.uchronia.net/> Vai! Cerca con Google

[accessed 15 June 2008] Cerca con Google

‗Walter Winchell‘, Radio Hall of Fame <http://www.radiohof.org/news/walterwinchell.html> Vai! Cerca con Google

[accessed 29 April 2008] Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record