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Cannizzo, Chiara (2009) Fermentative disturbs in dairy cow: subacute ruminal acidosis in field conditions and metabolic-inflammatory effects observed. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Transition period is defined as 3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum and it is a period marked by changes in endocrine status to accommodate parturition and lactogenesis. Most infectious diseases and metabolic disorders occur during this time. Probably nutrition of transition cows is the key for the success of a dairy farm, since cows during the transition period are very sensible and a well fed herd will probably have more opportunity to be in good health status; but it is important at the same time to consider the environment and the management of cows groups within the herd in order to prevent stress which could influence feeding behavior. Forestomach motility of ruminants, especially cattle, is of major concern to the veterinarian, especially during the transition period. Among disturbs of rumen fermentation we can include Subacute Ruminal Acidosis (SARA) that is primarily a variation in rumen fermentation, tipical at the beginning of lactation…but not only. The disease seems to represent one of the most important fermentative/metabolic disorders in intensive dairy farms that affects rumen fermentations, animal welfare, productivity and farm profitability. According to the literature SARA may be caused by formulation of rations that contain excessive amounts of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates but also by a deficency of fiber or errors in delivery of the rations. In fact we can find SARA also in herds with correctly formulated diets in a chemical point of view and in this case the problem is probably related to management and physical treatment of the ration. This is probably the reason why we have SARA not only in early lactation but also in mid lactation: in the lattest situation SARA is not caused by inadequate adaptation of rumen papillae to the lactation diet because SARA appears long time after calving. In mid-lactation the development of SARA is linked to managerial factors like feeding frequency, processing of feed, e.g. pelleting, and housing and similar influences. Many authors studied the acute phase response during SARA. It has been suggested that low rumen pH could result in death and lysis of gram-negative bacteria that are in the rumen and hence increase free endotoxins in the rumen. It has been suggested that the acidic rumen environment, changes in osmotic pressure, and ruminal LPS may render the rumen epithelium susceptible to injury resulting in translocation of rumen endotoxin (which is a strong inducer of acute phase response) into the bloodstream. The role of free ruminal LPS in SARA remains difficult to ascertain because free LPS is detoxified in the liver and hence is not detectable in peripheral blood circulation. Acute phase proteins are the best indicators of an acute phase response but other indicators of inflammation such as fibrinogen and white blood cells can also be used as markers. The use of other blood parameters like base excess
(BE) or blood pH has been cited as diagnostic tool of non-acute ruminal acidosis. Because of an absorption of SCFA by the ruminal wall, the BE may be reduced. The objective was to investigate, analyze and study changes in blood, urine and faeces parameters in dairy cows affected by SARA in field conditions. The project was a collaboration which involved the Department of Veterinary Clinical Science of the University of Padova, the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie and the animal feed company Cortal Extrasoy s.p.a. that follow 10 of these farms for the nutrition plan. Twelve farms were investigated; farms where selected with similar characteristics about production, management and structures in the north-east of Italy (Veneto region). Many samples were collected (rumen liquid, urine, faeces and blood) from 132 lactating cows. Rumen liquid, urine and faeces pH was measured in field; ematochemical, ematological and blood gas analysis were then perfomed on blood and urine samples to the IZS delle Venezie and acute phase proteins were measured to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Glasgow. Results showed the absence of strong correlation between SARA and APR leading to think that SARA as described in the literature is not really SARA that we find in field. According to our data we can not say that there is a direct relationship between SARA and metabolism and between SARA and blood gases; some intermediate products like homocysteine or other toxic products like valerate could affect general metabolism but this subject must be investigated more. We found alteration in blood parameters (leukocytosis with stress-like leukogram that included altered neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio, albumin alteration, some alteration in APP that could be related to stress as well): these data suggest that SARA could be related to a general unhealthy status and welfare decrease. It would be interesting to investigate more on causes and effects of SARA to understand if this fermentative disturb is the consequence of stressful situations: neuroendocrine conditions, management and environment could be related to SARA since several neuropeptides control voluntary feed intake and their effect may result in sorting out feeds from the diet. We hypothesize also that at the base of SARA onset in our region there could be a gastro-intestinal motility problem: low rumen pH values detectable during SARA could lead to weaker rumen motility inhibited by certain mechanisms arising during low pH phases within the reticulo-ruminal environment. Our data confirmed that SARA must be considered as a herd problem and even if the transition period is the most delicate in the cow's carrier SARA must be considered in every lactation stage and related not only to feeding management but to the equilibrium between the animals and the environment (general herd management, structures and welfare of cows).

Abstract (italiano)

Il periodo di transizione viene definite come il periodo che va da 3 settimane prima del parto a 3 settimane dopo il parto ed è un periodo caratterizzato da profondi cambiamenti a livello endocrine che hanno lo scopo di sopperire alle necessità del parto e della lattogenesi. La maggior parte delle patologie infettive e metaboliche si verificano in questo periodo. Probabilmente la nutrizione delle bovine è la chiave di successo di una azienda da latte, dal momento che le vacche nel periodo di transizione sono molto sensibili e che una mandria ben nutrita probabilmente avrà maggiore opportunità di godere di buona salute. È però importante allo stesso tempo considerare l'ambiente circostante e la gestione dei gruppi all'interno dell'intera mandria con lo scopo di prevenire qualunque elemento di stress che potrebbe a sua volta influenzare il comportamento alimentare degli animali. La motilità dell'apparato gastroenterico dei ruminanti, specialmente per i bovini, è una delle maggiori preoccupazioni per il veterinario, specialmente durante il periodo di transizione. Tra i disturbi fermentativi che colpiscono la vacca da latte possiamo includere l'acidosi ruminale subacuta (SARA) che è primariamente una variazione delle fermentazioni ruminali, e si verifica all'inizio della lattazione…ma non solo. Questa patologia sembra rappresentare uno dei maggiori problemi metabolico-fermentativi delle aziende da latte intensive che interessa le fermentazioni ruminali ma anche il benessere animale, la produzione ed il profitto. Secondo quanto riportato in letteratura SARA potrebbe essere causata dalla formulazione di razioni che contengono un eccesso di carboidrati rapidamente fermentescibili ma anche da una carenza di fibra o errori nella preparazione e distribuzione della razione. Infatti possiamo trovare SARA anche in mandrie con diete correttamente formulate dal punto di vista della composizione chimica e in questo caso probabilmente il problema è collegato al management e ai trattamenti fisici dell'alimento. Questo spiegherebbe perché troviamo SARA non solo a inizio lattazione ma anche a lattazione avanzata: in quest'ultima situazione SARA non può essere causata da un inadeguato adattamento delle papille ruminali alla dieta da lattazione perché compare molto tempo dopo il parto. Durante la lattazione avanzata lo sviluppo di SARA è legato a fattori manageriali come la frequenza di alimentazione, processi di trattamento dell'alimento come ad esempio l'uso del pellet, e i ricoveri o fattori simili. Molti autori hanno studiato la risposta di fase acuta in condizioni di SARA. È stato suggerito che il pH basso del rumine possa risultare nella morte e lisi dei batteri gram-negativi contenuti nel rumine stesso e quindi nell'aumento di endotossine libere (LPS). Si suppone che l'ambiente acido a livello ruminale, i cambi di pressione osmotica e i lipopolisaccaridi (LPS) liberi possano rendere l'epitelio 4 ruminale suscettibile a insulti che permetterebbero il passaggio delle endotossine (che sono forti induttori della risposta di fase acuta) nel circolo sanguigno. Il ruolo dei LPS in corso di SARA resta difficile da definire perché i LPS liberi vengono detossificati nel fegato e quindi non sono misurabili nel sangue periferico. Le proteine di fase acuta sono i migliori indicatori di una risposta di fase acuta ma altri indicatori di infiammazione come il fibrinogeno e i leucociti possono essere usati come markers. L'uso di altri parametri come il base excess (BE) o il pH sanguigno è stato citato come strumento diagnostico di acidosi ruminale non acuta: a causa dell'assorbimento di acidi grassi volatili a catena corta attraverso la parete ruminale, il BE dovrebbe ridursi.
L'obiettivo di questo lavoro era di approfondire, analizzare e studiare i cambiamenti di parametri a livello ematico, urinario e fecale in vacche da latte con SARA in condizioni di campo. Il progetto è stato realizzato grazie ad una collaborazione tra il Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Veterinarie dell'Università di Padova, l'Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie e la ditta mangimistica Cortal Extrasoy s.p.a. che segue 10 delle aziende dal punto di vista nutrizionale. Dodici aziende sono state incluse; sono state scelte nel nord-est dell'Italia (in regione Veneto) con caratteristiche simili relativamente alla produzione, la gestione e le strutture. Diversi campioni sono stati raccolti (liquido ruminale, urine, feci e sangue) da 132 vacche in lattazione. Il pH del liquido ruminale, delle urine e delle feci è stato misurato in campo; sui campioni di sangue e di urine sono stati fatti profili biochimici, oltre all'esame emocromocitometrico, l'emogasanalisi (presso IZS delle Venezie) e la misurazione delle proteine di fase acuta (presso la Facoltà di Medicina Veterinaria di Glasgow). I risultati hanno mostrato l'assenza di correlazioni forti tra SARA e risposta di fase acuta portando a pensare che SARA così come è descritta in letteratura non è realmente la SARA che troviamo in campo. Secondo i nostri risultati non esiste una relazione diretta tra SARA e metabolismo e tra SARA e parametri dell'emogas; alcuni prodotti intermedi come l'omocisteina o altri prodotti tossici come l'acido valerianico potrebbero influire sul metabolismo generale ma questo argomento meriterebbe di essere approfondito ulteriormente. Abbiamo trovato alterazioni in parametri sanguigni (leucocitosi con leucogramma assimilabile a situazione di stress, compreso un alterato rapporto neutrofili/linfociti, alterazione dell'albumina, alterazioni delle APP che potrebbero far pensare anch'esse a stress): questo suggerisce che SARA potrebbe essere legata ad uno stato di cattiva salute generale e mancanza di benessere. Sarebbe interessante approfondire le cause e gli effetti di SARA per capire se questo disturbo fermentativo è la conseguenza di una situazione stressante: condizioni neuroendocrine, management e ambiente potrebbero essere correlati a SARA dal momento che neuro peptidi 5 controllano l'assunzione volontaria di alimento e il loro effetto potrebbe risultare in alterati comportamenti alimentari. Abbiamo ipotizzato anche che alla base dell'insorgenza di SARA nella nostra regione ci possa essere un problema di motilità gastrointestinale: un basso pH registrabile durante SARA potrebbe portare a diminuita motilità inibita da meccanismi scatenati durante le fasi di abbassamento del pH nell'ambiente reticolo-ruminale. I nostri dati confermano che l?acidosi ruminale subacuta deve essere considerata come problema di mandria e, anche se il periodo di transizione è quello più delicato nella carriera di una vacca, SARA deve essere considerata in ogni stadio di lattazione e correlata non solo all'alimentazione ma anche all'equilibrio tra l'animale e l'ambiente (management, strutture e benessere).

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Dalvit, Paolo - Morgante, Massimo
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 21 > Scuole per il 21simo ciclo > SCIENZE VETERINARIE > SCIENZE CLINICHE VETERINARIE
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Gennaio 2009
Anno di Pubblicazione:2009
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Dairy cow, transition, fermentative disturbs, subacute ruminal acidosis, acute phase proteins, stress
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > VET/08 Clinica medica veterinaria
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Veterinarie
Codice ID:1530
Depositato il:28 Gen 2009
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