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Romaioli, Diego (2008) L'agire terapeutico: Le Teorie sul Cambiamento tra Rappresentazioni Sociali e Individuali. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (english)

This work aims to explore the social representations linked to the change phenomenon,
within a social-constructionist research paradigm (Farr & Moscovici, 1984). In particular we tried to explore those meaning dimensions through which people establish how a psychological problem can be structured and solved (Duncan & Miller, 2000). The articulation of these dimensions gives birth to what we call, in literature, a “change theory”, meaning a symbolic system that organizes the (therapeutic) knowledge in order to: 1)define the nature of a hypothetical problem; 2) suppose its possible causes; 3)suggest the strategic lines in order to obtain its modification. These meaning configurations have been investigated on different levels of psychological and psychotherapeutic training, with the purpose of showing the role of the social-generative processes in the development of specific forms of knowledge and in order to make clear the points of reciprocity between the “scientific” and the “common sense” change theories. Concerning this point, we singled out that the research does not deal with the change process itself, but with the processes of meaning ascription that the various actors put into practice in order to configure the change; this is why we gave them the possibility of expressing what they really meant when using this term.
This work is based on the social representation theory (Farr & Moscovici, 1984) and on the goal directed action theory (Von Cranach et. al.,1992; Von Cranach, et al., 1986). The clinical praxis is therefore configured in terms of an activity structured in actions oriented through partially conscious and socially-originated cognitions (Von Cranach, 1992). The research, therefore, is based on the assumption that the therapeutic acting is led by the intentional activity of a person and it is oriented through a means-goal scheme; moreover we presume that strategies and goals are selected starting from a symbolic system that is borrowed from the reference group. It has been relevant for this work the distinction made by Von Cranach (1992) between social representations (RS) and individual social representations (RSI): while the first ones have been defined as a supply of ordinate knowledge, made abstract and standardized by a social group, the second ones are the cognitive component of a single individual that includes an idiosyncratic knowledge that doesn’t derive from the RS of the reference group. The Rsi are located onto different levels on the knowledge structure and do not necessarily configure as original products tout court: they often make use of conceptual repertoires borrowed from different psychological models or also from other types of knowledge. We mainly want to point out, in this research, the way these knowledge systems are structured and organized. These systems are the basis of the therapeutic acting and they mingle a knowledge that is specific to various psychotherapeutic orientations with other implicit aspects derived from the participation of the therapists to the institutional praxis and to the common sense of a culture. In particular the structure of the knowledge is investigated and rebuilt through various interlinked dimensions : 1)social (cultural) representation: it is the set of meanings shared by various groups on the basis of a common sense knowledge; 2)hegemonic social representation linked to the school of thought one belongs to: it is the set of meanings generated by a specific group defined through the theoretic orientation followed by its members; 3) conventional individual social representation: it is the set of meanings generated by a minor part of a group that are somewhat matching to those produced by a different group; 4)privatized individual social representations: it is the set of relevant meanings that the individual expresses and that are not formalized in the studied symbolic universe. These can be considered as new models for the clinical intervention, as justification narrations for the eclectic practices, as integrations between different operative models, etc. This work is articulated into five main issues that are strongly interlinked.

Abstract (italian)

Entro un paradigma di ricerca socio-costruttivista (Farr & Moscovici, 1984), il lavoro propone un’esplorazione delle rappresentazioni sociali connesse al fenomeno del cambiamento. Nello specifico si è tentato di esplorare quelle dimensioni di significato attraverso cui le persone si orientano nello stabilire come un problema di ordine psicologico possa strutturarsi e risolversi (Duncan & Miller, 2000). L’articolazione di queste dimensioni da luogo a ciò che, in letteratura, viene definita una “teoria sul cambiamento”, cioè un sistema simbolico che organizza la conoscenza (terapeutica) in modo da:definire la natura di un ipotetico problema; supporne le possibili cause (in termini di ragioni della sua persistenza); suggerire le linee strategiche (in termini di mezzi-fini) e le condizioni adeguate per ottenere la sua modificazione.
Queste configurazioni di significato sono state indagate a diversi livelli della formazione in psicologia e psicoterapia, con l’obiettivo sia di mostrare il ruolo dei processi socio-genetici nel generare forme di sapere specialistico, sia di evidenziare i punti di reciprocità tra teorie “scientifiche” e teorie di “senso comune” sul cambiamento. Attraverso questa ricerca, quindi, si è voluto perseguire quanto Moscovici riteneva prioritario per le scienze sociali, ovvero un’investigazione che dettagliasse il modo in cui gli individui descrivono i fenomeni e contribuiscono a generarli nella vita quotidiana. Ecco perché la ricerca non si occupa del processo di cambiamento in sé, quanto dei processi di significazione che i diversi partecipanti agiscono al fine di configurare il cambiamento, lasciando ad essi, quindi, la possibilità di esprimere cosa effettivamente intendono quando utilizzano questo termine.
La ricerca fa riferimento alla teoria delle rappresentazioni sociali (Farr & Moscovici, 1984) e alla teoria dell’azione diretta a scopo (Von Cranach et. al.,1992; Von Cranach, et al., 1986). In funzione di queste, la prassi clinica viene a configurarsi nei termini di un’attività strutturata in azioni finalizzate attraverso cognizioni parzialmente coscienti e di origine sociale (Von Cranach, 1992). La ricerca muove cioè dal presupposto che l’agire terapeutico sia regolato dall’attività intenzionale delle persone e venga orientato, in modo più o meno consapevole, attraverso uno schema mezzi-fini. Strategie ed obbiettivi terapeutici vengono inoltre selezionati a partire dal sistema simbolico che viene mutuato dal gruppo di riferimento, quindi in funzione della matrice di significati attraverso la quale viene solitamente configurata la realtà problematica e vengono prodotte anticipazioni per un suo (eventuale) cambiamento. Rilevante per il presente lavoro è la distinzione euristica operata da Von Cranach (1992) tra rappresentazioni sociali (RS) e rappresentazioni sociali individuali (RSI): mentre le prime sono state definite come una provvista di conoscenze ordinate, rese astratte e standardizzate di un gruppo sociale, le seconde costituiscono la componente cognitiva del singolo individuo che contempla anche un sapere idiosincrasico non derivato dalle RS del gruppo di riferimento, o comunque non rilevante per esso. Le RSI contengono cioè saperi che l’individuo mutua da altri contesti simbolici traducendoli, grazie ad una atto creativo, in espedienti conoscitivi per la sua attività. Infatti, le RSI si trovano locate a differenti livelli della struttura di conoscenza e non si configurano necessariamente come produzioni originali tout court: queste sfruttano spesso i repertori linguistico-concettuali mutuati da differenti modelli della psicologia o, anche, da altri settori del sapere. A questo riguardo, è opportuno inserire un’ulteriore distinzione tra RSI convenzionali e RSI privatizzate: mentre le prime si costituiscono come elementi condivisi su cui esiste un elevato accordo all’interno della collettività di un gruppo (seppur differente dal gruppo di riferimento dell’individuo che esprime la rappresentazione), le seconde comprendono elementi significativi solo per l’individuo, non possedendo alcuna rilevanza nell’ambito del più ampio contesto sociale. Ciò che si vuole mettere in luce nella presente ricerca è il modo in cui vengono strutturati e organizzati questi sistemi di conoscenza che sostengono l’agire terapeutico e che intrecciano, a diversi livelli di generazione delle RSI, i saperi specifici dei vari orientamenti psicoterapeutici con altri impliciti, derivati dalla partecipazione dei clinici alle pratiche istituzionali e, più in generale, al senso comune di una cultura. Nello specifico, la struttura di conoscenza verrà investigata e ricostruita su più dimensioni interconnesse:
1)rappresentazione sociale (culturale): è l’insieme dei significati condivisi dai diversi gruppi sulla base di un sapere di senso comune, collettivo, definito culturalmente;
2)rappresentazione sociale egemonica della scuola di appartenenza: è l’insieme dei significati condivisi da uno specifico gruppo definito in funzione dell’orientamento teorico seguito dai suoi componenti;
3)rappresentazione sociale individuale convenzionale: è l’insieme dei significati generati da una parte minoritaria di un gruppo che, in qualche misura, sono sovrapponibili alle produzioni discorsive e alle logiche concettuali congruenti a quelle di un gruppo differente da quello di appartenenza;
4)rappresentazione sociale individuale privatizzata: è l’insieme dei significati rilevanti che il partecipante esprime e che non trovano formalizzazione nell’universo simbolico rilevato dall’insieme empirico della ricerca. Queste possono emergere come configurazioni inedite di modelli psicologici per l’intervento clinico, come narrazioni di giustificazione e legittimazione di pratiche eclettiche, come integrazioni tra modelli operativi differenti, ecc.
L’articolazione della ricerca si sviluppa attorno a cinque studi principali fortemente intrecciati tra di loro.

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EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Contarello, Alberta
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 21 > Scuole per il 21simo ciclo > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PSICOLOGIA SOCIALE E DELLA PERSONALITA'
Data di deposito della tesi:28 January 2009
Anno di Pubblicazione:2008
Key Words:psicoterapie, teorie sul cambiamento, socio costruttivismo, rappresentazioni sociali, intervista episodica, metodologia qualitativa
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/05 Psicologia sociale
Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/08 Psicologia clinica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:1570
Depositato il:28 Jan 2009
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