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Martello, Graziano (2009) Microrna coinvolti nello sviluppo embrionale e nella progressione tumorale. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (english)

MicroRNAs(miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. MiRNAs are involved in many biological processes, as embryonic development, cellular differentiation and proliferation.
Genes involved in embryonic development are often used aberrantly by cancer cells: for example, the TGF-? cascade has a key role during early development in vertebrates, but during cancer progression TGF-? controls proliferation and invasion.
In the first part of this thesis we characterized miR-15 and miR-16 as microRNAs critical for early embryonic development. Indeed, we demonstrated that they regulate the induction of the Spemann Organizer, a tissue controlling axis formation and neural induction in Xenopus embryos (Martello et al., 2007).
The second part of this thesis is about a microRNA family with oncogenic activity: miR-103 and -107 are overexpressed in different tumor types and can control the epithelial plasticity and cellular motility, two main aspects of the metastatic progression.

Abstract (italian)

I microRNA (miRNA) sono una famiglia di piccoli RNA non codificanti, in grado di inibire l’espressione genica a livello post-trascrizionale; i miRNA sono coinvolti in numerosi processi biologici, che vanno dallo sviluppo embrionale al controllo della proliferazione cellulare.
E’ interessante osservare come spesso la cellula tumorale utilizzi in maniera aberrante dei programmi genici propri dell’embrione; ad esempio il segnale TGF-? ha un ruolo chiave durante lo sviluppo embrionale precoce, ma nel contesto tumorale regola sia la proliferazione e che l’invasività cellulare.
Nella prima parte (A) di questa tesi di dottorato ci siamo occupati di miR-15 e miR-16, per i quali ho identificato un ruolo durante lo sviluppo embrionale precoce. Abbiamo dimostrato come miR-15 e miR-16 regolino la formazione dell’Organizzatore di Spemann, una struttura che controlla la formazione degli assi corporei e del sistema nervoso in embrioni di Xenopus laevis (Martello et al., 2007).
La seconda parte (B) di questa tesi è dedicata ad uno studio, ancora non pubblicato, su una famiglia di miRNA a potenziale attività oncogenica, miR-103 e miR-107. Questi geni sono espressi ad alti livelli in diversi tipi tumorali e sono in grado di controllare la plasticità epiteliale e la motilità cellulare, due aspetti cruciali nel processo metastatico.

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EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Piccolo, Stefano
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 21 > Scuole per il 21simo ciclo > BIOSCIENZE > GENETICA E BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE DELLO SVILUPPO
Data di deposito della tesi:29 January 2009
Anno di Pubblicazione:2009
Key Words:microrna, sviluppo embrionale, metastasi
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 05 - Scienze biologiche > BIO/11 Biologia molecolare
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > pre 2012 Dipartimento di Istologia, Microbiologia e Biotecnologie Mediche
Codice ID:1613
Depositato il:29 Jan 2009
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