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Marino, Ilaria Anna Maria (2009) Applicazioni di marcatori microsatellite per lo studio della filogeografia di organismi lagunari dell'Adriatico. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Molecular markers, at the mitochondrial and nuclear level, were applied to the study of the population structure of shore crab Carcinus aestuarii (Decapoda: Portunidae, Nardo, 1847).
A 482-base-pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was analysed to examine the phylogeography and demographic history of C. aestuarii. Moreover, 8 microsatellites markers specific for shore crab were isolated ex novo; additional three microsatellites loci, specific for the sibling species C. maenas, already reported to cross-amplify in C. aestuarii, were also amplified to study population genetic of shore crab.
Due to its high dispersive planktonic larval stage and ease of sampling sample, C. aestaurii is a good model for studying lagoon ecosystems and understanding connectivity patterns of populations from different lagoons.
COI was analysed from 255 crabs collected in 8 different lagoons of the Mediterranean Sea. 164 sequence variants were found among the 255 individuals studied. Fixation indices (Fst) and Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) showed a significant, though weak, genetic difference between samples, confirming the existence of a slight population structure and rejecting the panmixia hypothesis. AMOVA also showed that the 3.90% of the total genetic variability was explained by differences between groups of population that resemble the Tyrrenian and Adriatic-Ionian Sea.
We also investigated the demographic history of C. aestuarii populations. We found that all the samples showed departures from neutrality that are consistent with massive population expansions. Neutrality tests, mismatch distribution and bayesian skyline plot confirmed the exponential growth in effective population size in all eight population samples. Estimated times for these expansions for Adriatic and Ionian population samples fall before the Last Glacial Maximum. Instead, population expansion for Tyrrenian sample falls well within the last pleistocenic glaciation.
Microsatellites markers confirmed the results obtained with mitochondrial markers: a significant, though weak, genetic differentiation was found between samples. In particular, the application of microsatellite loci was very important for detecting a slight differentiation between population samples of Adriatic and Ionian Sea, that DNA mitochondrial marker did not find.
Microsatellites also revealed the presence of isolation by distance and were useful in estimating migration rates between samples. The data are not simply explainable: the migration flows have most often a north to south direction with two considerable exceptions. Both for Venezia-Marano and for Aquatina-Marano the migration has a different direction: from south to north. The cause of this pattern is probably due to the circulations of the Adriatic Sea.
In the last section of this study, two typical lagoon species (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus and Atherina boyeri) were used for a comparative analysis of the population genetic of Mediterranean lagoons organisms.

Abstract (italiano)

In questo lavoro di tesi sono stati applicati due tipi di marcatori molecolari, il DNA mitocondriale e i microsatelliti, per analizzare la struttura genetica di campioni di popolazione adriatici di Carcinus aestuarii (Decapoda: Portunidae, Nardo, 1847). Questo ha implicato l'amplificazione di un frammento di 482 paia di basi del gene mitocondriale codificante per la subunità  I della citocromo c ossidasi (COI) al fine di indagare alcuni aspetti di filogeografia e di demografia storica della specie. Inoltre, è stato effettuato l'isolamento ex novo di 8 marcatori microsatellite specie-specifici per C. aestuarii, a cui sono stati affiancati 3 loci specifici per la specie atlantica C. maenas, per ricavare informazioni sulla genetica di popolazione del granchio verde.
C. aestuarii può essere considerato a tutti gli effetti un valido modello di studio delle lagune, essendo un tipico rappresentante della fauna di questi ambienti in tutto il Mediterraneo. Per l'elevato potere dispersivo larvale e per la facilità di campionamento, C. aestuarii può ricoprire un ruolo determinante nella comprensione delle possibili connessioni tra popolazioni di lagune differenti.
A livello di analisi di DNA mitocondriale, sono stati sequenziati complessivamente 255 individui (suddivisi per 8 campioni di popolazione provenienti da altrettante lagune adriatiche, ioniche e tirreniche). Sono state trovate 164 diverse varianti di sequenza (aplotipi). Il calcolo degli indici Fst, come pure l'analisi molecolare della varianza (AMOVA) hanno permesso di evidenziare un basso ma significativo livello di differenziamento genico tra i campioni di popolazione analizzati, confermando la presenza di una lieve strutturazione genetica e permettendo di rigettare l'ipotesi di panmissia. In particolare, è stato visto che una quota significativa della variabilità  (3.90%) è dovuta alla suddivisione in gruppi, riconducibili rispettivamente al bacino tirrenico e a quelli adriatico-ionico.
Inoltre, è stato possibile evidenziare come tutte le popolazioni di C. aestuarii analizzate abbiano subito, in passato, fenomeni di espansione. Questo è stato possibile attraverso l'utilizzo dei test di neutralità-equilibrio, delle mismatch distribution e dei bayesian skyline plot, che hanno permesso di trarre indicazioni riguardo ai fenomeni demografici avvenuti in passato. In particolare, pare che per i campioni adriatico-ionici tali espansioni si siano realizzate in un intervallo di tempo antecedente le ultime glaciazioni pleistoceniche; mentre, per il campione tirrenico una variazione nelle dimensioni di popolazione sembra collocarsi in un periodo che coincide con gli ultimi cambiamenti climatici avvenuti in Mediterraneo.
Anche l'analisi attraverso i microsatelliti ha evidenziato, confermando i risultati mitocondriali, un debole ma significativo differenziamento tra i campioni di popolazione analizzati. L'uso dei marcatori microsatellite si è dimostrato di fondamentale importanza per rilevare, inoltre, piccole differenze presenti tra i campioni di popolazione dell'Adriatico e dello Ionio, dato non riscontrabile con il solo impiego del DNA mitocondriale.
Attraverso i microsatelliti, infine, è stato possibile verificare la presenza di isolamento per distanza e stimare i tassi di migrazione tra i campioni analizzati. Ne è emersa una situazione di non facile interpretazione: i flussi migratori nella maggior parte dei casi presentano direzione nord-sud con, tuttavia, due rilevanti eccezioni. Sia nel caso dei campioni di Venezia e Marano (alto Adriatico), che in quello dei campioni di Aquatina (bacino Adriatico meridionale) e Marano, la migrazione si inverte, andando da sud a nord. Il motivo di un tale andamento potrebbe essere attribuito alle correnti oceanografiche presenti nel Mar Adriatico.
Nella parte finale della tesi, vi è poi una sezione dedicata all'analisi di due specie lagunari (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus e Atherina boyeri) con lo scopo di condurre un'indagine comparata sulla genetica di popolazione di organismi che occupano abitualmente le lagune costiere del Mediterraneo.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Zane, Lorenzo
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 21 > Corsi per il 21simo ciclo > BIOLOGIA EVOLUZIONISTICA
Data di deposito della tesi:30 Gennaio 2009
Anno di Pubblicazione:Gennaio 2009
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Carcinus aestuarii, microsatelliti, DNA mitocondriale, genetica di popolazione, filogeografia
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 05 - Scienze biologiche > BIO/07 Ecologia
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Biologia
Codice ID:1797
Depositato il:30 Gen 2009
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