Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Gianesella, Matteo (2008) Subacute rumen acidosis in Italian dairy herds: occurence and diagnostic tools. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

Documento PDF

Abstract (english)

Subacute rumen acidosis (SARA) represent one of the most important metabolic disorders in intensive dairy farms that affects rumen fermentations, animal welfare, productivity and profitability. Many are the factors that can increase the possible occurrence of SARA in dairy farms and in particular in intensive dairy farms: food type, food administration modality, rumen ability in absorbing short chain fatty acids (SCFA), year period, ingestion frequency, dry-lactation transition period and others conditions able to contribute to the SARA onset. SARA is possibly under diagnosed because of lack of pathognomonic signs, diurnal fluctuations in rumen metabolism, and problems in obtaining representative rumen fluid samples. Clinical signs of SARA include decreased dry matter intake (DMI), laminitis, rumenitis, liver abscesses, pulmonary bacterial emboli and, furthermore, displacement of the abomasums, mastitis and metritis, low fertility. These problems are linked to rumen pathology because of the exceptional osmotic capacity shown by the rumen and the increase in the adsorption rate of ruminal products, which may have toxic and vasomotor effects. Considering the above statement it is impractical to base the diagnosis of SARA only on the outcome of a clinical sign, but the only way to obtain an early and correct diagnosis is to observe and correlate multiple aspects of the condition: a thorough collection of the history in the farm; evaluation of the diet; evaluation of the ruminal fluid. The determination of ruminal pH is a key factor for the diagnosis of SARA. Different methods are available for the collection of rumen fluid for pH analysis. According several researcher rumenocentesis may be useful for the collection of rumen fluid for pH determination. A group of at least 12 cows (early or middle lactation) is defined as having SARA when more than 30% of them show a ruminal pH lower than 5.5. Anyway rumenocentesis remains a mildly invasive diagnostic method so it results hardly used by freelancer veterinarian and poorly accepted by farmer. A practical need for Veterinarians and Food practitioner, is to have a simple and economic method of diagnosis of SARA, in order to implement in a timely manner the appropriate corrective diet, eliminate the causes of arrival of this disorder and avert the danger of progress in the same very high levels. In response to these requests, the aim of this PhD thesis, was to lead three different studies related to each other but, in order to evaluate the occurrence of subacute rumen acidosis in intensive Italian dairy herds to determine the relationship among diet composition, ruminal pH and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration, to evaluate the effect of the subacute ruminal acidosis on some blood parameters in lactating dairy cows and finally to evaluate the effects of rumenocentesis on the health and welfare status of lactating dairy cows, evaluated by physical examination, blood analysis, milk production and superficial temperature on the area of rumenocentesis using infrared thermography.
Trial 1: The aim of the present study was to study the occurrence of subacute rumen acidosis in intensive Italian dairy herds and to determine the relationship among diet composition, ruminal pH and SCFA concentration. Ten commercial dairy herds were investigated; twelve cows in good body condition, between 5 and 60 DIM and without clinical signs of disease were selected randomly from each herd, to perform rumenocentesis and obtain rumen fluid. Ruminal pH was determined immediately after sampling and concentration of SCFA in ruminal fluid was determined on samples after storage. We further studied the effects of rumenocentesis on animal health. Our data confirm the extreme validity of this technique as ruminal sampling. Results were subject to ANOVA and correlation analysis using SIGMA STAT 2.03. The results indicated the presence of SARA in 3 herds (more than 33% cows with rumen pH < 5.5), a critical situation (more than 33% cows with rumen pH < 5.8) in 5 farms and a normal rumen pH condition in 2 herds. In particular dairy herds show an average SCFA concentration of 150, 145, 123 mmol/L for low pH, critical pH and normal pH herds, respectively. The differences among diet composition were not significant even if herds with SARA showed a light discordance between initial composition and residual feed. In the affected herds it was not possible to understand the exact causes of SARA. Animal management seems to be one of the most important factor in developing SARA, including total mixed ration preparation.
Trial 2: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subacute ruminal acidosis on some blood parameters in lactating dairy cows. The study was carried out on ten highly productive farms, stationed in different zones throughout northern Italy. In all farms, ruminal fluid was collected through rumenocentesis from 12 dairy cows in early lactation, and ruminal pH was measured with a pH meter. Blood samples for hematochemical and hematological profiles were obtained from the same cows that had rumenocentesis performed by jugular venipuncture. The herds were divided into three groups depending on the mean rumen pH: group A counted farms with average ruminal pH > 5.8 (normal), group B included farms with average ruminal pH between 5.6 and 5.8 (risk), and in group C, dairy farms presented an average ruminal pH < 5.6 (acidosis). Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance to verify the effect of the group. The Bonferroni test was applied to determine statistical significances between the three groups. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for various parameters. It was concluded that during subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows, modifications of the concentrations of some blood parameters can be observed.
Trial 3: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rumenocentesis on the health and welfare status of lactating dairy cows, evaluated by physical examination, blood analysis, milk production and superficial temperature on the area of rumenocentesis using infrared thermography. Two groups of 6 cows either underwent ruminocentesis (GA) or sham (GB) procedures. Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance to verify the effect of the group. No effect was observed on white blood cell count, haptoglobin, total protein, and electrophoretic fractions between GA and GB groups. Milk yield was not affected by rumenocentesis. On the region of rumenocentesis in group GA, skin temperature increased 1.0°C immediately following rumen fluid collection, returned to the baseline after 48 h, and remained constant till the end of the study. This study suggested that ruminocentesis used to diagnose subacute ruminal acidosis has no negative impact on animal health and welfare of lactating cows.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Morgante, Massimo
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 20 > Scuole per il 20simo ciclo > SCIENZE VETERINARIE > SCIENZE CLINICHE VETERINARIE
Data di deposito della tesi:10 January 2008
Anno di Pubblicazione:10 January 2008
Key Words:benessere, bovina da latte, parametri emetici, ruminocentesi
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > VET/08 Clinica medica veterinaria
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > pre 2012 - Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Veterinarie
Codice ID:193
Depositato il:16 Oct 2008
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format


I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

1. Aceto H, Simeone AJ, Fergusson JD, 2000. Effect of rumenocentesis on health and productivity in dairy cows. Journal Animal Science 78, Suppl. 1/J. Dairy Sci. 83, Suppl. 1, Abstract 162. Cerca con Google

2. Akinbamijo OO, Bennison JJ, Jaitner J, Dempfle L, 1998. Haematological changes in N'Dama and Gobra Zebu bulls during Trypanosoma congolense infection maintained under a controlled feeding regimen. Acta Trop 69: 181-192. Cerca con Google

3. Allen MS, Voelker JA, Oba M, 2004. Physically effective fiber and regulation of ruminal pH: more than just chewing. Proceedings of the 12th international conference. East Lansing, Michigan USA, July 2004 Cerca con Google

4. Andersen PH, Bergelin B, Christensen KA, 1994. Effect of feeding regimen on concentration of free endotoxin in ruminal fluid of cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 72: 487-491. Cerca con Google

5. Andersen PH, Jarlov N, Hesselholt M, Baek L, 1996. Studies on in vivo endotoxin plasma disappearance times in cattle. J Vet Med A 43: 93-101. Cerca con Google

6. Andersen JB, Sehested J, Ingvartsen KL, 1999. Effect of dry cow feeding strategy on rumen pH, concentration of volatile fatty acids and rumen epithelium development. Acta Agric. Scand., Sect. A, Animal Sci. 49: 149-155. Cerca con Google

7. Batchelder TL, 2000. The impact of head gates and overcrowding on production and behavior patterns of lactating dairy cows. In Dairy Housing and Equipment Systems: Managing and Planning for Profitability, pp. 325-330. NRAES-129. Camp Hill, PA. NRAES, Ithaca, NY. Cerca con Google

8. Baumann DE, Grinari JM, Baldi A (eds), Stelwagen K, 2001. Regulation and nutritional manipulation of milk fat: low milk-fat syndrome. In: Fifth international workshop on the biology of lactation in farm animals. Livest. Prod. Sc. 70: 15-29. Cerca con Google

9. Beauchemin KA, 1991. Ingestion and mastication of feed by dairy cattle. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 7: 439-463. Cerca con Google

10. Berry RJ, Kennedy AD, Scott SL, Kyle BL, Schaefer AL, 2003. Daily variation in the udder surface temperature of dairy cows measured by infrared thermography: Potential for mastitis detection. Canadian Journal Animal Science 83: 687-693. Cerca con Google

11. Bonfanti U, Comazzi S, Paltrinier S, Bertazzolo W, 2004. Stomatocytosis in 7 related Standard Schnauzers. Vet Clin Pathol 33: 234 - 239. Cerca con Google

12. Brand A, Warner M, 1996. Monitoring reproductive performance Execution. In: Brand, A., J. P. T. M.Noordhuizen, Y. H.Schukken (eds), Herd Health and Production Management in Dairy Practice, pp. 293-312. Wageningen Pers, Wageningen Cerca con Google

13. Britt JH, 1995. Relationship between postpartum nutrition, weight loss and fertility. Cattle practice (BVCA), Jan. 79-83 Cerca con Google

14. Callaway TR, Martin SA, Wampler JL, Hill NS, Hill GM, 2000. Malate content of forage varieties commonly fed to cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 80: 1651-1655. Cerca con Google

15. Cassida KA, Stokes MR, 1986. Eating and resting salivation in early lactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 69: 1282-1292. Cerca con Google

16. Chalupa W, Sniffen CJ, Stone GM, 2000. Balancing rations for milk components Asian-Australasian. J. Anim. Sc. 13 (Suppl.): 388-396. Cerca con Google

17. Clarkson MJ, Downham DY, Faull WB, Hughes JW, Manson FJ, Merritt JB, Murray RD, Russell W B, Sutherst JE, Ward WR, 1996. Incidence and prevalence of lameness in dairy cattle. Vet. Rec. 138: 563-567. Cerca con Google

18. Cook NB, 2002. Lameness prevalence and the effect of housing on 30 Wisconsin dairy herds. In Proc. 12th Intl. Symp. on Lameness in Ruminants, pp. 325-327. Shearer JK, ed. Orlando, FL. Cerca con Google

19. Cottee G, Kyriazakis I, Widowski TM, Lindinger MI, Cant JP, Duffield TF, Osborne VR, McBride BW, 2004. The effects of subacute ruminal acidosis on sodium bicarbonate-supplemented water intake for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87: 2248 - 2253. Cerca con Google

20. Dado RG, Allen MS, 1993. Continuous computer acquisition of feed and water intakes, chewing, reticular motility, and ruminal pH of cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 1589-1600. Cerca con Google

21. Dawson KA, Allison MJ, 1988. Digestive Disorders and Nutritional Toxicity. In: Hobson, P. N. (ed.), The rumen microbial ecosystem, pp. 445-459. Elsevier Science, Barking Cerca con Google

22. Dawson KA, 1995. The use of yeast strain 8417 in manipulating ruminant high concentrate diets. In: Proceedings of the 56th Minnesota Nutrition Conference and Alltech, Inc. Technical Symposium, Minnesota Cooperative Extension Service, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 25-36. Cerca con Google

23. De Brabander DL, De Boever JL, Vanacker JM, Geerts NE, 2002. Evaluation and effects of physical structure in dairy cattle nutrition. In: Kaske, M., H.Scholz, M. Höltershinken (eds), Recent Developments and Perspectives in Bovine Medicine, Keynote Lectures from the XXII World Buiatrics Congress, pp. 182—197. Hannover, August 2002. Cerca con Google

24. De Frain JM, Shirley JE, Titgemeyer EC, Park AF, Ethington RT, 2002. Impact of feeding a raw soybean hull-condensed corn steep liquor pellet on induced subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating cows. J. Dairy. Sci. 85: 2000 - 2008. Cerca con Google

25. Delaquis A, Block E, 1995. Acid-Base Status, Renal Function, Water, and Macromineral Metabolism of Dry Cows Fed Diets Difeering in Cation-Anion Difference. Journal of Dairy Science 78: 604-619 Cerca con Google

26. Denoix JM, 1994. Diagnostic techniques for identification and documentation of tendon and ligament injuries. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice 10: 365-407. Cerca con Google

27. Dirksen G, 1970. Erkrankungen desVerdauungsapparat. In: Rosenberger, G. (ed.), Krankheiten des Rindes, pp. 173-348. Verlag Parey, Berlin a. Hamburg. Cerca con Google

28. Dirksen G, Liebich HG, Brosi G, Hagemeister H, Mayer E, 1984. Morphologie der Pansenschleimhaut und Fettsäureresorption beim Rind – bedeutende Faktoren für Gesundheit und Leistung. Zbl. Vet. Med. A. 31: 414–430. Cerca con Google

29. Dirksen G, 1985. Der Pansenazidose-Komplex - neuere Erkenntnisse und Erfahrungen. Tierärztl. Prax. 13: 501-512. Cerca con Google

30. Dirksen G, 1989. Rumen function and disorders related to production disease. In Proc. VII Int. Conf. Dis. Farm Anim, pp. 350-361. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Cerca con Google

31. Donovan J, 1997. Subacute acidosis is costing us millions. Hoard's Dairyman 142, 666. Cerca con Google

32. Doornenbal H, Tong AKW, Murray NL, 1988. Reference values of blood parameters in beef cattle of different ages and stages of lactation. Can J Vet Res 52: 99 - 105. Cerca con Google

33. Duffield T, Plaizier JC, Fairfield A, Bagg R, Vessie G, Dick P, Wilson J, Aramini J, McBride B, 2004. Comparison of techniques for measurement of rumen pH in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 87: 59-66. Cerca con Google

34. Eddy AL, van Hoogmoed LM, Snyder JR, 2001. The role of thermography in the management of equine lameness. Veterinary Journal 162: 172-181. Cerca con Google

35. Edmonson AJ, Lean IJ, Weaver LD, Farver T, Webster G, 1989. A Body Condition Scoring Chart for Holstein Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72: 68-78. Cerca con Google

36. Einarson MS, Plaizier JC, Wittenberg KM, 2004. Effects of barley silage chop length on productivity and rumen conditions of lactating dairy cows fed total mixed ration. J. Dairy Sci. 87: 2987-2996 Cerca con Google

37. Elam CJ, 1976. Acidosis in feedlot cattle: practical observations. J. Anim. Sci. 43: 898-901. Cerca con Google

38. Enemark JMD, Jorgenssen RS, Enemark PS, 2002. Rumen acidosis, with special emphasis on diagnostic aspects in subclinical rumen acidosis. A review. Veterinary Zootecnie 20: 16-29. Cerca con Google

39. Enemark JMD, Jorgensen RJ, Kristensen NB, 2004. An evaluation of parameters for the detection of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy herds. Veterinary Research Communications 28: 687 - 709. Cerca con Google

40. Erdman RA, 1988. Dietary buffering requirements of the lactating dairy cow: a review. J. Dairy Sci. 71: 3246-3266. Cerca con Google

41. Fernandez A, Hernandez M, Sanz MC, Verde MT, Ramos JJ, 1997. Serological serum protein fraction and responses to Brucella melitensis in lambs fed aflatoxins. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 39: 137 - 140. Cerca con Google

42. Firkins JL, Eastridge ML, St-Pierre NR, Noftsger SM. 2001. Effects of grain variability and processing on starch utilization by lactating dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 79(E. Suppl.): E218-E238. Cerca con Google

43. Firkins JL, 2002. Optimizing rumen fermentation. In Tri-State Dairy Nutr. Conf. Fort Wayne, pp. 39-53, IN. Cerca con Google

44. Fürll M, Schäfer M, Dabbagh MN, 1993. Einfluß subakuter Buttersäurebelastung aauf die Pansenfunktion bei Rindern unterschiedlichen Alters. Mh. Vet. Med. 48: 189–195. Cerca con Google

45. Gäbler G, 1990. Pansenazidose – Interaktionen zwischen den Veränderungen im Lumen und in der Wand des Pansens. Übers. Tierernährg. 18: 1–38. Cerca con Google

46. Garrett EF, 1996. Subacute rumen acidosis. Large Anim. Vet. X: 6-10. Cerca con Google

47. Garrett EF, Nordlund KV, Goodger WJ, Oetzel GR, 1997. A cross-sectional field study investigating the effect of periparturient dietary management on ruminal pH in early lactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80(Suppl. 1): 169 (Abstract). Cerca con Google

48. Garrett EF, Perreira MN, Nordlund KV, Armentano LE, Goodger WJ, Oetzel GR, 1999. Diagnostic methods for the detection of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82: 1170-1178. Cerca con Google

49. Garry FB, 2002. Indigestion in ruminants. In: Smith, B. P. (ed.), Large Animal Internal Medicine, 3rd edn. pp. 722-747. Mosby, St Louis and Baltimore Cerca con Google

50. Gearhart MA, Curtis CR, Erb HN, Smith RD, Sniffen CJ, Chase LE, Cooper MD, 1990. Relationship of changes in condititon score to cow health in holsteins. J. Dairy. Sci. 73: 3132-3140. Cerca con Google

51. Gozho GN, Plaizier JC, Krause DO, Kennedy AD, Wittenberg KM, 2005. Subacute ruminal acidosis induces ruminal lipopolysaccharide endotoxin release and triggers an inflammatory response J Dairy Sci 88:1399-1403. Cerca con Google

52. Gozho GN, Krause DO, Plaizier JC, 2006: Ruminal lipo-polysaccharide concentration and inflammatory response during gradual stepwise adaptation to concentrate and subsequent induction of subacute ruminal acidosis in steers. J Dairy Sci 89: 4404-4413. Cerca con Google

53. Gozho GN, Krause DO, Plaizier JC, 2007. Ruminal lipopolysaccharide concentration and inflammatory response during grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 90: 856 - 866. Cerca con Google

54. Gröhn YT, Bruss ML, 1990. Effect of disease, production, and season on traumatic reticuloperitonitis and ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 73: 2355–2363. Cerca con Google

55. Gürtler H, Schweigert FJ, 2000. Physiologie der Laktation. In: Engelhardt, W., and V. U. G.Breves (eds), Physiologie der Haustiere, pp. 572–593. Enke-Verlag, Stuttgart Cerca con Google

56. Herdt TH, 2000. Variability characteristics and test selection in herd-level nutritional and metabolic profile testing. Vet Clinics NA: Food Anim Pract 16: 387-403. Cerca con Google

57. Hibbard B, Peters JP, Chester ST, Robinson JA, Kotarski SF, Croom WJ Jr, Hagler WM Jr, 1995. The effect of slaframine on salivary output and subacute and acute acidosis in growing beef steers. Journal of Animal Science 73: 516-525. Cerca con Google

58. Hoeben D, Burvenich C, Trevisi E, Bertoni G, Hamann J, R.Buckmaier, Blum JW, 2000. Role of endotoxins and TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of experimentally induced coliform mastitis in periparturient cows. J. Dairy Res. 67: 503-514. Cerca con Google

59. Hollberg W, 1984. Comparative studies of rumen fluid samples obtained by using the Schambye-Sorensen sonde or by puncture of the caudoventral rumen sac. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 91: 317-320. Cerca con Google

60. Hutjens MF, 1996. Rumen acidosis. University of Illinois. http://www.westerndairyscience.com/html/ADM%20articles/htm/Acidosis.html Vai! Cerca con Google

61. Ivany JM, Rings DM, Anderson DE, 2002. Reticuloruminal disturbances in the bovine. The Bovine Pract. 36: 56-64. Cerca con Google

62. Jacob SK, Ramnath V, Philomina PT, Raghunandhanan KV, Kannan A, 2001. Assessment of physiological stress in periparturient cows and neonatal calves. Indian. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 45: 233 - 238. Cerca con Google

63. Jorgenson RJ, Erdman R, Murphy M, Foldager J, Norgaard P, Moller P, Andersen PH, Nielsen E, Osteras O, Harmoinen P, Kodarik P, Emanuelson K, Reinam E, 1993. Rumen Acidosis: areas of research. Summary of group discussion. Acta Vet. Scand. Suppl. 89: 153-154. Cerca con Google

64. Kaneko J, Harvey W, Bruss M, 1997. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. 5th edn. Academic Press, USA, Appendix. Cerca con Google

65. Kania BF, Dutkiewicz M, Brikas P, 1994. Different reactions of sheep to the intravenously administered Histamine. Annals of Warsaw, pp. 91-97. Agricultural University No. 19, Warsaw Cerca con Google

66. Kennelly JJ, Robinson B, Khorasani GR, 1999. Influence of carbohydrate source and buffer on rumen fermentation characteristics, milk yield and milk composition in early lactation Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82: 2486-2496. Cerca con Google

67. Keunen JE, Plaizier JC, Kyriazakis L, Duffield TF, Widowski TM, Lindinger MI, McBride BW, 2002. Effects of a subacute ruminal acidosis model on the diet selection of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85: 3304-3313. Cerca con Google

68. Khorasani GR, Kennelly JJ, 2001. Influence of carbohydrate source and buffer on rumen fermentation charaacteristics, milk yield, and milk composition in late-lactate Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84: 1707-1716. Cerca con Google

69. Kleen JL, Hooijer GA, Rehage J, Noordhuizen JP, 2003. Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA): a review. J. Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 50: 406-414. Cerca con Google

70. Kleen JL, Hooijer GA, Rehage J, Noordhuizen JP, 2004. Rumenocentesis (rumen puncture): a viable instrument in herd health diagnosis. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 111: 458-462. Cerca con Google

71. Krause KM, Oetzel GR, 2005. Inducing subacute ruminal acidosis in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 88: 3633 - 3639. Cerca con Google

72. Krause KM, Oetzel GR, 2006. Understanding and preventing ruminal acidosis: A review. Animal Feed Science and Technology 126: 215-236. Cerca con Google

73. Krajcarski-Hunt H, Plaizir JC, Walton JP, Spratt R, McBride BW, 2002. Effect of subacute ruminal acidosis on in situ fiber digestion in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85: 570-573. Cerca con Google

74. Kristensen NB, Pierzynowski SG, Danfær A, 2000. Net portal appearance of volatile fatty acids in sheep intraruminally infused with mixtures of acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, butyrate, and valerate. J. Anim. Sci. 78: 1372-1379. Cerca con Google

75. Lammers BP, Buckmaster DR, Heinrichs AJ, 1995. A simple method for the analysis of particle size of forage and total mixed rations. J. Dairy Sci. 79: 922-928. Cerca con Google

76. Leonardi C, Armentano WJ, 2003. Effect of quantity, quality, and length of alfalfa hay on selective consumption by dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 557-564. Cerca con Google

77. Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, 1999. SAS System for Mixed Models. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc, 87-134. Cerca con Google

78. Maekawa M, Beauchemin KA,. Christensen DA, 2002. Effect of concentrate level and feeding management on chewing activities, saliva production, and ruminal pH of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85: 1165-1175. Cerca con Google

79. Marr CM, 1992. Microwave thermography: a non-invasive technique for investigation of injury of the superficial digital flexor tendon in the horse. Equine Veterinary Journal 24: 269-273. Cerca con Google

80. Martillotti F, Puppo S, 1985. Ann. Ist. Sper. Zootec. 11 Cerca con Google

81. Martin SA, Streeter MN, 1995. Effect of malate on in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 2141-2145. Cerca con Google

82. Martin SA, Streeter MN, Nisbet DJ, Hill GM, Williams SE, 1999. Effects of DL-malate on ruminal metabolism and performance of cattle fed a high-concentrate diet. J. Anim. Sci. 77: 1008-1015. Cerca con Google

83. Mbassa GK, Balemba O, Maselle RM, Mwaga NV, 1994. Severe anemie due to haematopoietic precursor cell dedestruction in field cases of East Coast Fever in Tanzania. Vet Parasitol 52: 243 - 256. Cerca con Google

84. McArthur JM, Miltmore JE, 1968. Continuous reading of the in vivo rumen pH in fistulated cattle. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 48: 237-240. Cerca con Google

85. Meglia GE, Johannisson A, Petersson L, Waller KP, 2001. Changes in some blood micronutrients, leukocytes and neutrophil expression of adhesion molecules in periparturient dairy cows. Acta Vet Scand 42: 139 - 150. Cerca con Google

86. Mertens DR, 1992. Nonstructural and structural carbohydrates. In Large Dairy Herd Management, pp. 219-235. Van Horn HH, Wilcox CJ, eds. ADSA, Champaign, IL. Cerca con Google

87. Mertens DR, 1997. Creating a system for meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows. Journal Dairy Science 80: 1463-1481. Cerca con Google

88. Midla LT, Hoblet KH, Weiss WP, Moeschberger ML, 1998. Supplemental dietary biotin for prevention of lesions associated with aseptic subclinical laminitis (pododermatitis aseptica diffusa) in primiparous cows. Am. J. Vet. Res. 59: 733-738. Cerca con Google

89. Mogg KC, Pollitt CC, 1992. Hoof and distal limb surface temperature in the normal pony under constant and changing ambient temperatures. Equine Veterinary Journal 24: 134-139. Cerca con Google

90. Møller PD, 1993. Acidosis in dairy cows. Acta Vet. Scand. 89(Suppl.): 111-112. Cerca con Google

91. Morgante M, Vescera F, 2000. Uso della ruminocentesi per la determinazione del pH ruminale nella bovina da latte: osservazioni preliminari. Large Animal Review 6: 21-24. Cerca con Google

92. Morgante M, Stelletta C, Tacchio G, Lettig I, Berzaghi P, 2004. Subclinical rumen acidosis in Italian dairy herds. 23rd World Buiatrics Congress, July 11-16, 2004-Québec (Canada); S. 566. Cerca con Google

93. Morgante M, Stelletta C, Berzaghi P, Gianesella M, Andrighetto I, 2007. Subacute rumen acidosis in lactating cows: an investigation in intensive Italian Dairy herds. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 91: 226-234. Cerca con Google

94. Muelling CKW, 2000. The use of nutritional factors in prevention of claw diseases'biotin as an example for nutritional influences on formation and quality of hoof horn. In Proc. III Inter. Conf. on Bovine Lameness, pp. 78-80. Mortellaro CM, De Vecchis L, Brizzi A, eds. Parma, Italy. Cerca con Google

95. Mutsvangwa T, Walton JP, Plaizier JC, Duffield TF, Bagg R, Dick P, Vessie G, McBride BW, 2002. Effects of a monensin controlled-release capsule or premix on attenuation of subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85: 3454-3461. Cerca con Google

96. Murphy M, Akerlind M, Holtenius K, 2000. Rumen fermentation in lactating cows selected for milk fat content fed two forage to concentrate ratios with hay or silage. J. Dairy Sci. 83: 756-764. Cerca con Google

97. Nagaraja TG, 2000. Liver abscesses in beef cattle - potential for dairy monitoring? Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Convention of the Americ. Assoc. of Bovine Pract, Rapid City. September 2000, pp. 65-68. Cerca con Google

98. Nagaraja TG, Avery TB, Bartley EE, Galitzer SJ, Dayton AD, 1981. Prevention of lactic acidosis in cattle by lasalocid and monensin. J. Anim. Sci. 53: 206-216. Cerca con Google

99. Nocek EJ, 1996. The link between nutrition, acidosis, laminitis and environment. http://www.afns.ualberta.ca/Hosted/WCDS/Proceedings/1996/wcd96049.htm Vai! Cerca con Google

100. Nocek JE, 1997. Bovine Acidosis: Implications on Laminitis. J. Dairy Sci. 80: 1005-1028. Cerca con Google

101. Nocek JE, Kautz WP, Leedle JAZ, Allman JG, 1999. The effect of ruminal supplementation of directfed microbials on diurnal pH variation and in situ digestion in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 82 (Suppl. 1): 69. Cerca con Google

102. Nordlund KV, Garrett EF, 1994. Rumenocentesis - a technique for collecting rumen fluid for the diagnosis of subacute rumen acidosis in dairy herds. The Bovine Prac. 28: 109-112. Cerca con Google

103. Nordlund K, 1995. Questions and answers regarding rumenocentesis and the diagnosis of herd-based subacute rumen acidosis. Proc. 4-State Applied Nutrition and Management Conference. La Crosse, WI, USA. Cerca con Google

104. Nordlund KV, Garrett EF, Oetzel GR, 1995. Herd-based rumenocentesis: a clinical approach to the diagnosis subacute rumen acidosis. Comp. Contin. Educat. Pract. Vet.-Food Animal 17: S48-S56 Cerca con Google

105. Nordlund K, 2001. Herd based diagnosis of subacute ruminal acidosis. Preconvention seminar 8: Dairy herd problem investigations American Association of Bovine Practitioners 34th Annual Convention, September 11-12, 2001-Vancouver, BC Cerca con Google

106. Oba M, Allen MS, 2000. Effects of brown midrib 3 mutation in corn silage on productivity of dairy cows fed two concentrations of dietary neutral detergent fiber: 1. Feeding behavior and nutrient utilization. J. Dairy Sci. 83: 1333-1341. Cerca con Google

107. Oetzel GR, Nordlund KV, Garrett EF, 1999. Effect of ruminal pH and stage of lactation on ruminal lactate concentration in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82(Suppl. 1): 38. Cerca con Google

108. Oetzel GR, 2000. Clinical aspects of ruminal acidosis in dairy cattle. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Convention of the Americn Association of Bovine Practitioner, Rapid City, pp. 46-53. Cerca con Google

109. Olsson G, Bergsten C, Wiktorsson H, 1998. The influence of diet before and after calving on the food intake, production and health of primiparous cows, with special reference to sole haemorrhages. Anim. Sci. 66: 75-86. Cerca con Google

110. Omer OH, El-Malik KH, Mahmoud OM, Haroun EM, Hawas A, Sweeney D, Magzoub M, 2002. Haematological profiles in pure bred cattle naturally infected with Theileria annullata in Saudi Arabia. Vet. Parasitol. 107: 161 - 168. Cerca con Google

111. Owens FN, Secrist DS, Hill WJ, Gill DR, 1998. Acidosis in cattle - a review. J. Anim. Sci. 76: 275-286. Cerca con Google

112. Patra RC, Lal SB, Swarup D, 1993. Physiochemical alterations in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine experimental lactic acidosis in sheep. Res Vet Sci 54: 217 - 220. Cerca con Google

113. Potzsch CJ, Collis VJ (nee Hedges), Blowey RW, Packington AJ, Green LE, 2003. The impact of parity and duration of biotin supplementation on white line disease lameness in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 2577-2582. Cerca con Google

114. Purohit RC, McCoy MD, 1980. Thermography in the diagnosis of inflammatory processes in the horse. American Journal of Veterinary Research 41: 1167-1174. Cerca con Google

115. Rogers JA, Davies CL, Clark JH, 1982. Alteration of rumen fermentation, milk fat synthesis, and nutrient utilization with mineral salts in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 65: 577-586. Cerca con Google

116. Radostits OM, Blood DC, Gay CC, 1994. Acute carbohydrate engorgement of ruminants (rumen overload). In: Radostits OW, Blood DC, Gay CC (Eds.), Veterinary Medicine. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, pp. 262-269. Cerca con Google

117. Rossow N, 1984. Erkrankungen der Vormägen und des Labmagens. In: Rossow N (ed.), Innere Krankheiten der landwirtschaftlichen Nutztiere, pp. 224-259. Fischer Verlag, Jena Cerca con Google

118. Rukkwamsuk T, 1999. Negative energy balance in postparturient dairy cows: consequences and adaptations. PhD Dissertation, Utrecht University, p. 17. Cerca con Google

119. Sarashina T, Ichijo S, Takahashi J, Osame S, 1990. Origin of abomasum gas in cow with displaced abomasum. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 52: 371-378. Cerca con Google

120. Scanlan CM, Hathcock TL, 1983. Bovine rumenitis-liver abscess complex: a bacteriological review. Cornell Vet. 73: 288-297. Cerca con Google

121. Schaefer AL, Cook N, Tessaro SV, Deregt D, Desroches G, Dubeski PL, Tong AK, Godson DL, 2004. Early detection and prediction of infection using infrared thermography. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 84: 73-80. Cerca con Google

122. Schwartzkopf-Genswein KS, Stookey JM, 1997. The use of infrared thermography to assess inflammation associated with hot-iron and freeze branding in cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 77: 577-583. Cerca con Google

123. Slyter LL, 1976. Influence of acidosis on rumen function. J. Anim. Sci. 43: 910-924. Cerca con Google

124. Smilie RH, Hoblet KH, Weiss WP, Eastridge ML, Rings DM, Schnitkey GL, 1996. Prevalence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis in first-lactation cows from herds with high milk production. JAVMA 208: 1445-1451. Cerca con Google

125. Smith VR, 1941. In vivo studies of hydrogen ion concentrations in the rumen of the dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 24: 659-665. Cerca con Google

126. Spire MF, Drouillard JS, Galland JC, Sargeant JM, 1999. Use of infrared thermography to detect inflammation caused by contaminated growth promotant ear implants in cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 215: 1320-1324. Cerca con Google

127. Staples CR, Lough DS, 1989. Efficacy of supplemental dietary neutralising agents for lactating dairy cows: a review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 23: 277-303. Cerca con Google

128. Stock R, 2000. Acidosis in cattle: an overview. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Convention of the American Association of Bovine Practitioner, Rapid City, pp. 30-37. Cerca con Google

129. Stone WC, 1999. The effect of subclinical rumen acidosis on milk components. In: Proceedings Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, pp. 40-46. Cerca con Google

130. Stone WC, Bulkley SL, Aneshansley DJ, Alcaraz AL, 2003. An evaluation of rumen papillae in Holstein heifers during the transition period. J. Dairy Sci. 86(Suppl. 1): 227. Cerca con Google

131. Stone WC, 2004. Nutritional approaches to minimize subacute ruminal acidosis and laminitis in dairy cattle. Journal Dairy Science 87 (E.supp.): E13-E26 Cerca con Google

132. Storry JE, Brumby PE, Hall AJ, Johnson VW, 1974. Response in rumen fermentation and milk fat secretion in cows receiving low-roughage diets supplemented with protected tallow. J. Dairy Res. 41: 165-173. Cerca con Google

133. Strabel D, Steiner A, Kaufmann T, Ewy A, Kirchhofer M, 2006. Evaluation of rumenocentesis for diagnostis of subacute rumen acidosis in dairy cows. XXIV World Buiatrics Congress, Nice - France Cerca con Google

134. Szazados I, Takacs J, 1978. Incidence of the ruminal parakeratosis/liver abscess syndrome of cattle in Hungary and its meat-inspection aspects. II: Bacterial flora of liver abscesses and the results of bacteriological examination. Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja 33: 523-528. Cerca con Google

135. Szemeredy G, Raul R, 1978. Alterations of the ruminal mucosa and its relation to the hepatic abscesses in bulls fed high energy and low fibre diets. Acta Vet. Acad. Sci. Hungaricae 26: 313-324. Cerca con Google

136. Tamate H, Yoneya S, Sakata T, Omori S, Kato M, 1978. Rumen parakeratosis and acute rumenitis in the calves fed on high-concentrate rations. An experimental survey. Tohoku-J. Agricult. Res. 29: 29-37. Cerca con Google

137. Turner TA, 1991. Thermography as an aid to the clinical lameness evaluation. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice 7: 311-338. Cerca con Google

138. Underwood WJ, 1992. Rumen lactic acidosis, Part I. Compend. Contin. Educ. Pract. Vet. 14: 1127-1133. Cerca con Google

139. Vaden MF, Purohit RC, McCoy MD, Vaughan JT, 1980. Thermography: a technique for subclinical diagnosis of osteoarthritis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 41: 1175-1179. Cerca con Google

140. Vagnoni DB, Oetzel GR,1998. Effects of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on the Acid-Base Status of Dry Cows. Journal of Dairy Science 81: 1643-1652. Cerca con Google

141. Van Beukelen P, Wensing T, Breukink HJ, 1985. Some experiments with the feeding of chopped roughage to high producing dairy cows. Zeitschr. Tierphys., Tierern., Futtermittelk. 53: 19-34. Cerca con Google

142. Van Beukelen P, Wensing T, Breukink HJ, 1986. The reliability of some ruminal parameters in predicting milk fat production. In: 4th International Symposium of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, pp. 338-341. Amsterdam, The Netherlands Cerca con Google

143. Van Saun RJ, Todd A, Varga GA, 2004. Serum mineral concentrations and periparturient disease in Holstein dairy cows. In: Production diseases in farm animals, ed. Joshi N, Herdt TH, pp. 221-222. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, the Netherlands. Cerca con Google

144. Van Saun RJ, Todd A, Varga GA, 2006. Serum mineral status and risk of periparturient disease. Proceedings XXIV World Buiatrics Congress, Nice, France, October 15-19. Cerca con Google

145. Van Winden SCL, Jorritsma R, Müller KE, Noordhuizen JPTM, 2003. Left displacement of the abomasums in dairy cattle: recent developments in epidemiological and etiological aspects. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 1465-1471. Cerca con Google

146. Verheiden JHM, M.vanMiert ASJPA, Schotman AJH, vanDuin CTM, 1981. De pathogenese van coliforme mastitis. Tijdschrift v. Diergeneeskunde 106: 501-507. Cerca con Google

147. Vermunt JJ, 1992. "Subclinical" laminitis in dairy cattle. N.Z. Vet. J. 40: 133-138. Cerca con Google

148. Vermunt JJ, 2000. Risk factors of laminitis - an overview. In Proc. III Int. Conf. on Bovine Lameness, pp. 34-45. Mortellaro CM, De Vecchis L, Brizzi A, eds. Parma, Italy. Cerca con Google

149. Von Schweinitz DG, 1999. Thermographic diagnostics in equine back pain. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice 15: 161-177. Cerca con Google

150. Warnick LD, Janssen D, Guard C, Gröhn YT. 2001. The effect of lameness on milk production in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84: 1988-1997. Cerca con Google

151. Webel DM, Finck BN, Baker DH, Johnson RW, 1997. Time course of increased plasma cytokines cortisol, and urea nitrogene in pigs following intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharides. J. Anim. Sci. 75: 1514-1520. Cerca con Google

152. Welch JG, 1982. Rumination, particle size and passage from the rumen. J. Anim. Sci. 54: 885-894. Cerca con Google

153. Wells SJ, Trent AM, Marsh WE, Robinson RA, 1993. Prevalence and severity of lameness in lactating dairy cows in a sample of Minnesota and Wisconsin herds. JAVMA 202: 78-82. Cerca con Google

154. Wells JE, Russell J, 1996. The effect of growth and starvation on the lysis of the ruminal cellulolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes. Appl Environ Microbiol 62: 1342-1346. Cerca con Google

155. Yun SK, Han JD, 1989. Effect of feeding frequency of concentrate to milking cows in early lactation on pH and VFA-concentration in rumen fluid and on milk composition and milk yield. Am. J. Animal Sci. 2: 418-420. Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record