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Bernardi, Erika (2009) Gestione della diversitĂ . Modelli ed evidenze empiriche. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

The importance of diversity management subjects is growing more and more in these last years, because migration phenomena, business internationalization and globalization create a diverse workforce. The main objective of this research is to identify which are the major and necessary requirements to implement diversity management policies in organizations successfully.
The research project is divided into four steps. First of all a preliminary and extensive literary review has been realized. It has allowed defining the subjects of biological, social and economic diversities and of diversity management, their main streams of research and their key characteristics. Then it has been possible to map and to classify the main models for diversity management. The models are characterized by the typology of diversity policies implemented and by the types of diversity managed (gender or cultural diversities). The analysis of models allows highlighting an important research gap: the all models analyzed study marginally the necessary requirements to manage diversity successfully. This gap draws this research in that direction.
In the second step of analysis it has been realized a second literary review dedicated to the major elements which are the main requirements to manage diversity efficiently. This second literary analysis allows identifying organizational culture, integration cultural values and the managerial skills as main requirements.
Afterwards the theoretical model of study for this research has been carried on. This model has guided the empirical research. The model is made up of three variables identified in literature: organizational culture, integration cultural values and managerial skills. Among these variables some causal relations have been hypothesized. Also the causal relations have been verified in the empirical research. The theoretical model of study is made up of other two variables – diversity integration instruments and organizational implementation of diversity. These last two variables haven’t been studied in this research because they are much more analyzed in the existent literature.
In order to verify the validity of the model, of its variables and of the causal hypothesized relations among variables, it has been conducted an empirical research. The research methodology is the multiple case studies, while the semi-structured interview and questionnaire are the instruments utilized for data collection. The companies involved in the research project are four important international and multinational ones. The research unit of case studies is the multicultural working groups, located in Italy or in foreign countries.
The empirical research was articulated into two phases. The fist one is a preliminary analysis realized by semi-structured interviews directed to human resource managers. It allows testing that organizational culture, integration cultural values and managerial skills are the major requirements for implementing diversity management policies successfully. The study of some multicultural working groups of companies was the second phase of empirical research; data collection instrument was the questionnaire. The data collected have been analyzed with SPSSÂŽ. In order to test the model, it has been developed a measurement model with the statistical techniques as linear bivariate correlation and linear multiple regression.
The two phases of empirical research allow obtaining important results of research with both theoretical and managerial implications:
from the theoretical point of view: it has been verified that organizational culture, integration cultural values and managerial skills are the major requirements to implement diversity management policies successfully and efficiently; the validity of theoretical model of study has been verified empirically as well;
from the managerial point of view: the research allows identifying the best organizational culture and managerial skills that facilitate the introduction of an organizational culture of integration.

Abstract (italiano)

Il tema della gestione della diversità sta acquistando sempre maggiore importanza in un momento come questo in cui fenomeni migratori, internazionalizzazione delle aziende e globalizzazione dei mercati rendono la forza lavoro caratterizzata da una notevole diversità. L'obiettivo principale della ricerca è stato individuare quali fossero i requisiti necessari per implementare con successo politiche di gestione della diversità all’interno delle organizzazioni.
Il progetto di ricerca è stato suddiviso in quattro fasi. Durante la prima fase è stata eseguita una ricerca bibliografica che ha permesso di realizzare un quadro di sintesi sui temi della diversità – biologica, sociale ed economica – e della gestione della diversità evidenziandone i principali filoni di studio e le caratteristiche più importanti. Inoltre in questa prima fase di analisi sono stati mappati e classificati i principali modelli per la gestione della diversità che si differenziano per le pratiche implementate e per le diversità affrontate (di genere e culturale). Lo studio dei modelli ha consentito di evidenziare un importante gap: tutti i modelli affrontano solo marginalmente lo studio dei requisiti necessari per una gestione efficace delle diversità. Tale incompletezza ha spinto a concentrare la ricerca proprio su questi aspetti.
Nella seconda fase della ricerca è stata eseguita una seconda analisi della letteratura maggiormente focalizzata sugli elementi che costituiscono i requisiti principali per un’efficace gestione delle diversità. L’analisi ha permesso di identificare nella cultura organizzativa, nei valori culturali di integrazione e nelle competenze del management tali requisiti.
Successivamente il progetto di ricerca si è esplicitato nell’elaborazione del modello teorico di studio che ha guidato tutta l’analisi empirica. Il modello elaborato è costituito dalle tre variabili individuate in letteratura: cultura organizzativa, valori culturali di integrazione e competenze manageriali. Tra queste sono stati ipotizzati nessi causali che sono stati verificati nella successiva fase empirica della ricerca. Infine il modello è completato da altre due variabili – strumenti per l’integrazione delle diversità e implementazione delle diversità. Queste ultime variabili e le loro relazioni non sono state studiate in questa ricerca in quanto ampiamente analizzate in letteratura.
Al fine di testare la validità del modello, delle variabili che lo costituiscono e dei nessi causali ipotizzati è stata condotta una ricerca empirica. La metodologia di ricerca utilizzata è quella dei casi studio multipli, mentre la raccolta dei dati è stata eseguita mediante interviste semi-strutturate e questionario. Le aziende coinvolte nel progetto di ricerca sono quattro importanti realtà industriali internazionali e multinazionali. I casi studio hanno avuto come unità di indagine i gruppi di lavoro multiculturali dislocati in Italia e all’estero.
La verifica empirica si è articolata in due fasi. Una prima indagine preliminare condotta mediante interviste semi-strutturate rivolte ai responsabili delle risorse umane ha permesso di verificare che effettivamente cultura organizzativa, valori culturali di integrazione e competenze manageriali sono dei fattori importanti su cui agire per implementare le politiche di gestione della diversità. La seconda parte della ricerca empirica si è focalizzata sullo studio di alcuni gruppi di lavoro multiculturali; la raccolta delle informazioni è avvenuta mediante questionario. I dati raccolti sono stati analizzati con l’ausilio del software statistico SPSS®. Per il test è stato sviluppato un modello di misura mediante l’utilizzo di tecniche statistiche quali la correlazione lineare e l’analisi di regressione lineare multipla.
Le due fasi della ricerca hanno permesso quindi di pervenire a importanti risultati che hanno sia implicazioni teoriche che manageriali:
da un punto di vista teorico: è stato verificato che cultura organizzativa, valori culturali di integrazione e competenze manageriali costituiscono i principali requisiti per una efficace implementazione di politiche di gestione della diversità; inoltre è stata verificata empiricamente la validità del modello teorico che lega tra loro tali variabili;
da un punto di vista pratico: la ricerca ha permesso di individuare la cultura organizzativa e le competenze manageriali che meglio di altre facilitano l’introduzione di una cultura organizzativa di integrazione.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:De Toni, Alberto Felice
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 22 > Scuole per il 22simo ciclo > INGEGNERIA GESTIONALE ED ESTIMO > INGEGNERIA GESTIONALE
Data di deposito della tesi:NON SPECIFICATO
Anno di Pubblicazione:31 Dicembre 2009
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):gestione della diversitĂ , cultura organizzativa, valori culturali, survey
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 09 - Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione > ING-IND/35 Ingegneria economico-gestionale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Tecnica e Gestione dei Sistemi Industriali
Codice ID:2281
Depositato il:21 Set 2010 13:03
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