Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Piccolotto, Zeljana (2008) Innovazione di prodotto User-Centred. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

Documento PDF

Abstract (english)

When managers think of product development, they all dream of the same thing: a stable stream of breakthrough products, the kind that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. Unfortunately, instead of breakthroughs, the development teams of many companies produce mainly line extensions and incremental improvements to existing products. Given the imperative to grow, why can't product developers come up with breakthroughs more regularly?

For incremental innovations a company can apply a variety of proven market research methods. For example, some "need assessment" methods can be used to generate promising ideas for innovations early in the process. Then, quantitative user questioning, focus group discussions and sophisticated conjoint analysis techniques can be applied to examine whether early product concepts meet general customer needs or not. But for breakthrough innovations the situation is very different. The results from conventional market research studies continually evoke dissatisfaction. It appears impossible to determine the demands of tomorrow's markets via traditional market research methods.

The most important limitations of proven market research methods seem to be the fact that market researchers are referring to a group of "typical" customers that represents the population of the target customers. The approaching of these customers into new product needs and potential solutions is constrained by their own real-world experience. Hence, it seems reasonable that the familiarity with existing market offers often inhibits to conceive substantial novel product attributes. Moreover, most of the market research techniques do not offer appropriate ways to discover new product attributes and ideas outside the well-known solution space. There are no mechanisms to induce involved customers to formulate emerging needs and to identify new solutions to those needs.

The research on Lead User shed some light on this noteworthy topic. It offers a scheme for achieving product, service and strategy breakthroughs. The process, proposed by Professor Eric von Hippel, is based on two major findings:

- First, there are a lot of empirical evidences on user innovation. In fact, many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by product users rather than manufacturers.
- Second, such products tend to be developed by "Lead Users" (companies, organizations or individuals) that are well ahead of market trends and have needs that cannot be filled by any product currently on the market; thus they are forced to develop solutions for themselves.

Taken together, these two discoveries transforms the difficult job of inventing breakthroughs from scratch into a systematic task of searching for and learning from lead users that have already developed elements of commercially attractive breakthroughs for themselves. This process was called by von Hippel as "User Centred Innovation" process and underlying theory was labeled as "Lead User Theory".

While the Lead User method is well explained in the literature and adopted with success by some companies, yet, little is known about critical success factors of the method's implementation in the fuzzy front-end phases of firm's innovation projects.

This research, then, aims to extend previous research by exploring the following issues:
- First, individuation of different aspects related to firms which can influence the process of adoption of User-Centred method and its final results. In particular the research focus was posed - Second, a better understanding of Customer Involvement Practices into Product Development Process. How currently customer needs are assessed and how this information is used within the firm?
- Finally, individuation of possible aspects related to User-Centred innovation and Lead User Theory in general which can provide better insights on possible improvement of proposed method.

For the purpose of this study, the multiple case study was chosen as the research method due primarily to the nature of the research question. Different researchers recommend this method as the most appropriate when contextual conditions are believed to be highly pertinent to the phenomenon of the study, or when the research question embodies an explanatory component, such as in this study.

- Chapter 1 illustrates the Lead User Theory and the User-Centred innovation process emphasizing the role of producers within such context.
- Chapter 2 gives a picture of theoretical framework, reference's constructs and research questions.
- Chapter 3 reports on methodology adopted in order to conduct this research and illustrates the research protocol.
- In the chapters 4-5-6-7 is explained within case analysis performed on four selected case studies, while in the chapter 8 is reported cross-case analysis.
- Finally, chapter 9 contains the main results of the research and provides insights for the further research.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Filippini, Roberto
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 20 > Scuole per il 20simo ciclo > INGEGNERIA GESTIONALE ED ESTIMO > INGEGNERIA GESTIONALE
Data di deposito della tesi:January 2008
Anno di Pubblicazione:January 2008
Key Words:innovazione di prodotto, lead users
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 09 - Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione > ING-IND/35 Ingegneria economico-gestionale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Tecnica e Gestione dei Sistemi Industriali
Codice ID:244
Depositato il:29 Oct 2008
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format


I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

1. Adams M.J, Day G.S., Dougherty D. (1998), “Enhancing New Product Development performance: an Organizational Learning Perspective”, Journal of Product Innovation management, 15:403-422 Cerca con Google

2. Adamson, R.E. (1954) “Functional fixedness as related to problem solving: repetition of three experiments”, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 288–291. Cerca con Google

3. Ahernathy, W.J. and Utterback, J.M., (1982),"Patterns of Industrial Innovation", in Tushman, M.L. and Moore, W.L. (Eds), Readings in the Management of Innovation, Pitman Publishing Inc., Marshfield, MA, pp. 97-108. Cerca con Google

4. Alam I (2002), “An exploratory Investigation of User Involvement in New Service development” , Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 30(3):250-261 Cerca con Google

5. Allen, R. C. (1983), “Collective Invention.” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 4, no. 1: 1–24. Cerca con Google

6. Amabile, T. M. (1996), Creativity in Context, Westview. Cerca con Google

7. Anderson, J.C., Haskansson H., Johanson, I. (1994), “Dyadic Business Relationships Within a Business Network Context”. Journal of Marketing 58: 115. Cerca con Google

8. Anderson, J.C., Narus, J.A. (1990) “A model of distributor firm and manufacturing firm working partnerships”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp.42-58. Cerca con Google

9. Anderson, J.C., Narus, J.A., (1990), “A Model of Distributor Firm and Manufacturer Firm Working Partnerships”, Journal of Marketing 54: 42–58. Cerca con Google

10. Antoncic, B and Hisrich, R D (2003). “Privatization, Corporate Entrepreneurship, and Performance: Testing a Normative Model,” Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 8(3), 197-218. Cerca con Google

11. Antoncic, B and Hisrich, R D (2004). “Corporate Entrepreneurship Contingencies and Organizational Wealth Creation,” Journal of Management Development, 23(6) Cerca con Google

12. Araujo, L. Dubois, A., Gadde, L.-E. (1999) “Managing interfaces with suppliers”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 28, No. September, pp.497-506. Cerca con Google

13. Arora, A., A. Fosfuri, A. Gambardella. (2001), Markets for Technology. MIT Press. Cerca con Google

14. Arundel, A. (2001). “The Relative Effectiveness of Patents and Secrecy for Appropriation.” Research Policy 30, no. 4: 611–624. Cerca con Google

15. Atuahene-Gima, K. (1995) “An exploratory analysis of the impact of market orientation on new product development performance”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 12, 4, 275–293. Cerca con Google

16. Bacon, G., Beckman, S., Mowery, D. and Wilson, E. (1994). “Managing Product Definition in High-Technology Industries”. California Management Review 36:32–56 Cerca con Google

17. Bagozzi R.P., Foxall G.R., (1996), "Construct Validation of a Measure of Adaptive-Innovative Cognitive Styles in Consumption", International Journal of Research in Marketing 13 201-213. Cerca con Google

18. Baker, N.R., Green, S.G., Bean, A.S., (1986). “Why R&D project succeed or fail”, Research Management 29 (6), 29–34. Cerca con Google

19. Barrett, H; Balloun, J L and Weinstein, A (2000). “Marketing Mix Factors as Moderators of the Corporate Entrepreneurship/Business Performance Relationship: A Multi-stage, Multi-variate Analysis,” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 8(2) Cerca con Google

20. Batten, F., (2002), “Out of the Blue and Into the Black,” Harvard Business Review, 80(4), 112-118. Cerca con Google

21. Becker, W. and Peters, J. (1998) “R&D-competition between vertical corporate networks: Market structure and strategic R&D-spillovers”. Economics of Innovation & New Technology , 6(1), 51–71. Cerca con Google

22. Bhattacherjee A. (1998) “Managerial influences on intra-organizational information technology use: a principal-agent model”, Decision Science 29:139– 62. Cerca con Google

23. Biemans, W.G. (1991), “User and Third-Party Involvement in Developing Medical Equipment Innovations”, Technovation 11: 163–182 Cerca con Google

24. Biemans, W.G. (1992) Managing Innovation within Networks, London & New York: Routledge. Cerca con Google

25. Blundell R., Griffith R., van Reenen J.,(1999), “Market share, market value and innovation in a panel of British manufacturing firms” Review of Economic Studies n°66 Cerca con Google

26. Boos, S.D. and Holmes, J.G. (1991) “The dynamics of interpersonal trust: resolving uncertainty in the face of risk”, in R.A. Hinde and J. Groebel, (Eds.), Cooperation and Prosocial Behaviour, Cambridge: Cambrigde University Press, pp. 190-211. Cerca con Google

27. Bouty I., (2000), “Interpersonal and interaction influences on informal resource exchanges between R&D researchers across organizational boundaries”, Academy of Management Review., 43(1), 50–65. Cerca con Google

28. Braha, D., Yaneer B.Y, (2007) “The Statistical Mechanics of Complex Product Development: Empirical and Analytical Results” Management Science, Vol. 53 Issue 7 Cerca con Google

29. Bristol, T. and Fern, E.F. (1996) “Exploring the atmosphere created by focus groups: comparing consumers feelings across qualitative techniques”, Journal of the Market Research Society, 38, 2, 185–195. Cerca con Google

30. Brockhoff, K. (2003) “Customers’ perspectives of involvement in new product development”, International Journal of Technology Management, 26, 5/6, 464–481. Cerca con Google

31. Brown, L.A., (1981) Innovation Diffusion, Methuen & Co., London/New York, NY, Cerca con Google

32. Bruce, M., Biemans, W.G. (1995) Product Development: Meeting the Challenge of the Design- Marketing Interface . John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. Cerca con Google

33. Brucks, M., (1985), "The effects of product class knowledge on information search behavior", Journal of Consumer Research. Cerca con Google

34. Burgelman, R.A., (1983) "Corporate Entrepreneurship and Strategic Management: Insights from a Process Study", Management Science, Vol. 29 No. 12, , pp. 1349-64. Cerca con Google

35. Burgelman, R.A., (1988),"An Evolutionary Perspective on Strategy Making", in Urabe, K., Child, J. and Kagono, T., Innovation and Management, Inernational Comparisons, De Gruyter & Co, Berlin, pp. 63-80. Cerca con Google

36. Burroughs J.E., Glen Mick D., (2004), “Exploring Antecedents and Consequences of Consumer Creativity in a Problem Solving Context”, Journal of Consumer Research. Cerca con Google

37. Camarinha-Matos, L. M., Abreu, A. (2007) “Performance indicators for collaborative networks based on collaboration benefits”, Production Planning & Control, 18(7) Cerca con Google

38. Chandler, A., (1962), Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, Cerca con Google

39. Chandy, R. K, Tellis, G. J. (2000), “The Incumbent's Curse? Incumbency, Size, and Radical Product Innovation” Journal of Marketing, 64 (3):1-17, Cerca con Google

40. Chesbrough, H. (2003) Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing. Cerca con Google

41. Chesbrough, H. (2003b) “The era of open innovation”, Sloan Management Review, 44, 3, 35–41. Cerca con Google

42. Chesbrough, H. and Schwartz K. (2007), “Innovating Business Models with co-development partnership” Research and Technology Management, 55- 59 Cerca con Google

43. Christensen C.H (1997) The Innovators Dilemma. Boston MA: Harvard Business School Cerca con Google

44. Clegg C, Carey N, Dean G, Hornby P, Bolden R. (1997) “User’s reactions to information technology: some multivariate models and their implications”, Journal of Information Technology 12:15–32. Cerca con Google

45. Cohen, W. M., Levinthal D. A., (1990). “The Implications of Spillovers for R&D Investment and Welfare: A New Perspective.” Administrative Science Quarterly 35: 128–152. Cerca con Google

46. Connell, J. L., Shafer L. B., (1989), Structured Rapid Prototyping. Prentice-Hall. Cerca con Google

47. Cooper, R.G. (1979) “The dimensions of industrial new product success and failure”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 43, No. Summer, pp.93-103. Cerca con Google

48. Cooper, R.G. (1979), “Identifying Industrial New Product Success: Project NewProd” Industrial Marketing Management 8 Cerca con Google

49. Cooper, R.G. (1980) “Project NewProd: Factors in New Product Success”, European Journal of Marketing , 14(5/6), 277–92 Cerca con Google

50. Cooper, R.G. (1993) Winning at New Products: Accelerating the Process from Idea to Launch. 2nd ed., Reading, MA: Addison Wesley,. Cerca con Google

51. Crawford, C.M. (1994) New Products Management, Burr Ridge IL: Irwin. Cerca con Google

52. Dahan, E. and Hauser, J.R. (2002) “The virtual customer”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 19, 5, 332–353. Cerca con Google

53. Damanpour F. (1991) “Organizational innovation: a meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators”, Academy of Management Journal, 34:555– 90. Cerca con Google

54. Davis FD, Bagozzi RP, Warshaw PR. (1989) “User acceptance of computer technology: a comparison of two theoretical models”, Management Science, 35 Cerca con Google

55. Day, G. S. (1994) “Continuous Learning about Markets”, California Management Review 36:9–31. Cerca con Google

56. Dodgson M., (1983), “Organizational Learning: A Review of Some Literatures”, Organizational Studies, 14: 375-394 Cerca con Google

57. Dodgson, M. (1993) “Learning, trust, and technological collaboration”, Human Relations,Vol. 43, No. 1, pp.77-95. Cerca con Google

58. Dodgson, M. (2002) “The intensification of Innovation”, International Journal of Innovation Management Vol. 6, No. 1, 53–83 Cerca con Google

59. Dumaine, B. (1989), “How Managers Can Succeed through Speed”, Fortune, 13 February. Cerca con Google

60. Dunphy S., Herbig P.A., Palumbo F.A, (1995), “Structure and Innovation”, Journal of Strategic Change, 4, 137-154 Cerca con Google

61. Duysters, G., Hagedorn, J. (1995) “Strategic groups and inter-firm networks in international high-tech industries”, Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp.359-381. Cerca con Google

62. Dwayer F.R, Lagace R.R., (1986) “On the Nature and Role of Buyer-Seller Trust” AMA Summer Conference Proceedings, Chicago p. 40-45 Cerca con Google

63. Eisenhardt, K. M.; Graebner, M. E., (2007), ”Theory Building from Cases: Opportunities and Challenges”. Academy of Management Journal, 50 (1): 25-32, Cerca con Google

64. Enkel E., Kausch C., Gassmann O. (2005) “Managing the risk of customer integration” Europena Management Journal, 23(2):203-213 Cerca con Google

65. Enkel E., Perez-Freije P. Gassmann O., (2005) “Minimizing Market Risk Through Customer Integration in New Product Development: Learning from Bed Practice” Creativity and innovation Management, 14 (4) Cerca con Google

66. Etgar M. (1979) “Source and Types of Interchannel Conflict”, Journal of Retailing, 55 Cerca con Google

67. Fichman, R.G. (1992). "Information Technology Diffusion: A Review of Empirical Research," in J.l. DeGross, J.D. Becker, and J.J. Elam (Eds.), Proceedings of the 13th International on Information Systems, Dallas, TX, pp. 195- 206. Cerca con Google

68. Fiol, C. M. and Lyles, M.A. (1985). “Organizational Learning”. Academy of Management Review 10:803–813 Cerca con Google

69. Flagestad A., Hope C. A., Svensson B., Nordin S., (2005), “The Tourist Destination: a local innovation system? The Creation of a Model”. Paper prepared for the 55t AIEST Congress 28/8-1/9, 2005. Cerca con Google

70. Frambach R.T. and Schillewaert N. (2002) “Organizational innovation adoption: A multi-level framework of determinants and opportunities for future research” Journal of Business Research 164 55 : 163–176 Cerca con Google

71. Frambach RT, Barkema HG, Nooteboom B, Wedel M. (1998) “Adoption of a service innovation in the business market: the influence of supplier variables”, Journal of Business Research, 41:161– 74 Cerca con Google

72. Franke N., Shah S., (2002), “How Communities Support Innovative Activities: An Exploration of Assistance and Sharing Among End-Users”, Sloan Working Paper # 4164, pp. 157-178. Cerca con Google

73. Franke N., Von Hippel E., Schreier M. (2005), “Finding commercially attractive user innovations: a test of Lead Users theory”. Sloan Working Paper Cerca con Google

74. Franke, N., Shah. S. (2003) “How Communities Support Innovative Activities: An Exploration of Assistance and Sharing Among End-Users.” Research Policy 32, no.1 pp:157–178. Cerca con Google

75. Franke, N., von Hippel E. (2003), “Satisfying Heterogeneous User Needs via Innovation Toolkits: The Case of Apache Security Software.” Research Policy 32, no. 7: 1199–1215. Cerca con Google

76. Franke, N., von Hippel, E. (2003), “Satisfying heterogeneous user needs via innovation toolkits: the case of Apache security software”. Research Policy, 32 (7) Cerca con Google

77. Freeman, C. (1991) “Networks of innovators: A synthesis of Research issues”, Research Policy, 20, 499–514 Cerca con Google

78. Freeman, C., Clark, J., Soete, L. (1992), Unemployment and Technical Innovation, Frances Pinter, London. Cerca con Google

79. Garvin, D. A. (1998), “The Process of Organization and Management”. MIT Sloan Management Review, 39 (4):33-50, Cerca con Google

80. Gemunden, H.G., Heydebreck P., Herden, R. (1992) “Technological Interweavement: A Means of Achieving Innovation Success” R&D Management 22: 359–376. Cerca con Google

81. Gemunden, H.G., Ritter, T., Heydebreck, P. (1996) “Network configuration and innovation success: an empirical analysis in German high-tech industries”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp.449-462. Cerca con Google

82. Glynn M.A (1996), “Innovative Genius:a framework for relating Individual and Organizational Intelligence to Innovation”, Academy of management Review, 21(4) 1081-1111 Cerca con Google

83. Graves, S.B. (1989), “Why Costs Increase when Projects Accelerate”, Research and Technology Management, March-April, 16-18. Cerca con Google

84. Gronhaug, K., Kaufmann, G., (1988), Innovation: A Cross-disciplinary Perspective, Oslo, Norway: Norwegian University Press. Cerca con Google

85. Gruner, K.E. and Homburg, C. (2000) “Does Customer Interaction Enhance New Product Success?”, Journal of Business Research , 49(1), 1–14. Cerca con Google

86. Gupta S., Cadeaux J., Dubelaar C (2006), “Uncovering multiple champion roles in implementing new-technology ventures”, Journal of Business Research 59 549–563 Cerca con Google

87. Gupta, A.S.K., Wileman, D.L. (1990), “Accelerating the Development of Technology-based New Products”, California Management Review, Vol. 32 No. 2, Winter, 24-44. Cerca con Google

88. Hagedoorn, J. (2003) “Sharing intellectual property rights – an exploratory study of joint patenting amongst companies”. Industrial Corporate Change 12, 1035–1050. Cerca con Google

89. Hakansson, H. (1987) Industrial Technological Development: A Network Approach, Croom Helm: London. Cerca con Google

90. Harhoff, D., J. Henkel, von Hippel E. (2003), “Profiting from Voluntary Information Spillovers: How Users Benefit by Freely Revealing Their Innovations.” Research Policy 32, no. 10: 1753–1769. Cerca con Google

91. Hayes, R., Abernathy, W.J. (1980), “Managing Our Way to Economic Decline”, Harvard Business Review, July-August. Cerca con Google

92. Hayvaert, C.H. (1973), Innovation Research and Product Policy: Clinical Research in 12 Belgian Industrial Enterprises, Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium. Cerca con Google

93. Heide, J.B., and Stump, R.L. (1995), “Performance Implications of Buyer-Supplier Relationships in Industrial Markets”, Journal of Business Research 32: 57–66. Cerca con Google

94. Heide, J.B., John, G. (1990) “Alliances in Industrial Purchasing: The Determinants of Joint Action in Buyer-Supplier Relationships”, Journal of Marketing Research 27 Cerca con Google

95. Herstatt, C., Geschka, H. (2002) “Need assessment in practice. Theory, methods and experiences”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 2, 6, 56–70. Cerca con Google

96. Hertel, G., S. Niedner, and S. Herrmann. (2003), “Motivation of Software Developers in Open Source Projects: An Internet-Based Survey of Contributors to the Linux Kernel.” Research Policy 32, no. 7: 1159–1177. Cerca con Google

97. Hienerth C., (2006), "The Commercialization of User Innovations: The Development of the Rodeo Kayak Industry", R&D Management, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 273-294. Cerca con Google

98. Hikansson, H. (1982) International Marketing and Purchasing of Industrial Goods: An Interaction Approach. John Wiley & Sons: Chichester. Cerca con Google

99. Holt, K., (1988), “Market-oriented product innovation at Høyang and Jøtul”, Technovation 8 (4), 249–254. Cerca con Google

100. Hurley RF, Hult TG. (1998) “Innovation, market orientation, and organizational learning: an integration and empirical examination” Journal of Marketing 62:42–54 Cerca con Google

101. Im, S.B., Barry L., Mason, C.H., (2003), “An Empirical Study of Innate Consumer Innovativeness, Personal Characteristics, and New-Product Adoption Behavior”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 31(1):61-72. Cerca con Google

102. Ives B, Olson MH. (1984) “User involvement and MIS success: a review of research”, Management Science 30:586–603. Cerca con Google

103. Jarvenpaa S.L.,Staples, D.S., (2001), “Exploring perceptions of organizational ownership of information and expertise”. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 151–183. Cerca con Google

104. Jaworski, B., Kohli, A.K. (1993) “Market orientation: antecedents and consequences”, Journal of Marketing, 57, 3, 53–70. Cerca con Google

105. Kamath, R.R., Liker, J.K. (1990) “Supplier dependence and innovation: a contingency model of suppliers' innovative activities”, Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, Vol. 7, No., pp.111-127. Cerca con Google

106. Kanter, R. M. (1983).The Change Masters: Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the American Corporation. New York: Simon and Schuster, Cerca con Google

107. Katz M, Shapiro C. (1994) “Systems competition and network effects”, Journal of Economic Perspective Cerca con Google

108. Kemelgor, B H (2002). “A Comparative Analysis of Corporate Entrepreneurial Orientation between Selected Firms in the Netherlands and the USA,” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 14(1), 67-87. Cerca con Google

109. Kennedy AM. (1983) “The adoption and diffusion of new industrial products: a literature review” European Journal of Marketing Cerca con Google

110. Kessler E.H., Chakrabarti A. K., (1996), “Innovation speed: a conceptual model of context, antecedents and outcomes” Academy of Management Review 21(4) Cerca con Google

111. Kim, J., Wilemon, D. (2002a) “Focusing the fuzzy front-end in new product development” R&D Management, 32, 4, 269–279. Cerca con Google

112. Kim, J., Wilemon, D. (2002b) “Strategic issues in managing innovation’s fuzzy front-end” European Journal of Innovation Management, 5, 1, 27–39. Cerca con Google

113. Kimberly J.R, Evanisko M.J., (1981) “Organizational Innovation: the influence of individual, organizational and contextual factors on hospital adoption of technological and administrative innovations” Academy of Management Journal 24(4), 689-713 Cerca con Google

114. Knudsen, M.P., (2007), “The Relative Importance of Interfirm Relationships and Knowledge Transfer for New Product Development Success”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 24 Issue 2, p117-138 Cerca con Google

115. Kohli, A. K. and Jaworski, B. (1990) “Market Orientation: The Construct, Research Propositions and Managerial Implications”. Journal of Marketing 54:1–18. Cerca con Google

116. Kollock, P. (1999), “The Economies of Online Cooperation: Gifts and Public Goods in Cyberspace.” In M. A. Smith and P. Kollock, eds., Communities in Cyberspace. Cerca con Google

117. Kristensen, P. S. (1992), “Flying Prototypes: Production Departments’ Direct Interaction with External Customers.” International Journal of Operations and Production Management 12 (2): 195–211. Cerca con Google

118. Kuhrani A., Rosenthal, S.R (1998) “Toward holistic Front-End in new product development”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 15(1):57-74 Cerca con Google

119. Kuratko, D F, Ireland, R. D., Hornsby, J. S., (2001). “Improving Firm Performance through Entrepreneurial Actions: Acordia’s Corporate Entrepreneurship Strategy,” Academy of Management Executive, 15(4), 60-71. Cerca con Google

120. Lakhani K., von Hippel E., (2003), “How Open Source Software Works: “Free” User-to-User Assistance”, Research Policy, vol.32, no.6: pp. 923-943. Cerca con Google

121. Lakhani, K. R., B. Wolf. (2005), “Why Hackers Do What They Do: Understanding Motivation and Effort in Free/Open Source Software Projects.” In J. Feller, B. Fitzgerald, S. Hissam, and K. R. Lakhani, eds., Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software. MIT Press. Cerca con Google

122. Langrish, J., Gibbons, M., Evans, W.G., Jevons, F. R., (1972), Wealth from Knowledge, Macmillan, London. Cerca con Google

123. Larzeler R.E, Huston T.L, (1980), “The Dyadic Trust Scale: Toward Understanding Interpersonal trust in Close relationship” Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42 Cerca con Google

124. Leonard, D. (2002) “The limitations of listening”. Harvard Business Review 80, 93. Cerca con Google

125. Leonard, D. and Rayport, J. F. (1997) “Spark Innovation through Empathic Design”. Harvard Business Review 75:102–113. Cerca con Google

126. Leonard-Barton D, Deschamps I. (1988) “Managerial influence in the implementation of new technology”, Management Science 31:1252–65. Cerca con Google

127. Lilien, G.L., Morrison, P.D., Searls, K., Sonnack, M., von Hippel, E. (2002), “Performance Assessment of the Lead User Idea-Generation Process for New Product Development”. Management Science, 48(8): 1042-1059, Cerca con Google

128. Lim, K. (2000), “The Many Faces of Absorptive Capacity”. Working paper, MIT Sloan School of Management. Cerca con Google

129. Lind M.R, Zmud R.W. (1991) “The influence of a convergence in understanding between technology providers and users on information technology innovativeness” Organizational Science 2:195 – 217 Cerca con Google

130. Lukas, B.A. and Ferrell, O.C. (2000) “The effect of market orientation on product innovation”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 28, 239. Cerca con Google

131. Luthje C., Herstat C. (2004) “The lead user method: an outline of empirical findings and issues for future research” R&D Management 34 (5) Cerca con Google

132. Lüthje, C. (2003), “Customers as Co-Inventors: An Empirical Analysis of the Antecedents of Customer-Driven Innovations in the Field of Medical Equipment.” In Proceedings of the 32th EMAC Conference, Glasgow. Cerca con Google

133. Lynn, G.S., Morone, J.G., Paulson, A.S. (1996) “Marketing and discontinious innovation: the probe and learn process”, California Management Review, 38, 3, 8–37. Cerca con Google

134. Mahajan, V. and Wind, J.. (1992) “New Product Models: Practices, Shortcomings and Desired Improvements”, Journal of Product Innovation Management 9:128–139. Cerca con Google

135. Maidique, M. and Zirger, B.J. (1984), “A Study of Success and Failure in Product Innovation: The Case of the U.S. Electronics Industry”, IEEE Transactions in Engineering Management EM-31(4):192–203 Cerca con Google

136. Maidique, M.A., Zirger, B.J. (1985) “The New Product Learning Cycle”, Research Policy 14: 299–313. Cerca con Google

137. Mansfield, E. (1985), “How Rapidly Does New Industrial Technology Leak Out?” Journal of Industrial Economics 34: 217–223. Cerca con Google

138. Mansfield, E. (1993) “The diffusion of flexible manufacturing systems in Japan, Europe and the United States”, Management Science 39: 149 – 59 Cerca con Google

139. March, J.G. (1991) “Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning” Organization Science 2:71–87. Cerca con Google

140. Markus L. (1990).Toward a critical mass theory of interactive media: universal access, interdependence and diffusion. In: Fulk J, Steinfeld C, editors. Organizations and communication technology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, Cerca con Google

141. Martin C.R, Horne D.A, (1995) “Levels of success for service Innovation in the same firms” International Journal of Service Industry management 6(4):40-56 Cerca con Google

142. McKenzie, J., (2000), “Serving suggestions”. Financial Management Cerca con Google

143. Mecacci L., (2001), Manuale di Psicologia Generale, Giunti(Ed), Firenze. Cerca con Google

144. Menon, A., Varadarajan, P. R. (1992) “A Model of Marketing Knowledge Use Within Firms” Journal of Marketing 56:53–71 Cerca con Google

145. Meredith, J., Vineyard, M. (1993), “A longitudinal study of the role of manufacturing technology in business strategy”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 13 No. 12, pp. 4-24. Cerca con Google

146. Metcalfe, J.S., (1988), “The Diffusion of Irmovation: An Interpretative Survey", in Dosi, G. et al. (Eds.), Technical Change and Economic Theory, Pinter Publishers, London/New York, NY, Cerca con Google

147. Miles, H. and Huberman, M. (1994), Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA. Cerca con Google

148. Mintzberg, H. and Mintzberg, Y, (1988),"Strategy Making as Craft", in Urabe, K., Child, J. and Kagono, T (Eds), Innovation and Management, International Comparisons, De Gruyter & Co, Berlin, pp. 167-96. Cerca con Google

149. Mirvis PH, Sales AL, Hackett EJ. (1991) “The implementation and adoption of new technology in organizations: the impact on work, people, and culture” Human Resource Management 30:113– 39. Cerca con Google

150. Mitchell, A.A., Dacin P.A., (1996), “The Assessment of Alternative Measures of Consumer Expertise”, Journal of Consumer Research. Cerca con Google

151. Mohr, J. Spekman, R. (1994) “Characteristics of partnership success: partnership attributes, communication behaviour, and conflict resolution techniques”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp.135-152. Cerca con Google

152. Mollering G., (2003) “Ideal-types of trust and the role of suspension”, in Proceedings of the European Academy of Management, Track on trust, Milan, 3–5 April 2003 Cerca con Google

153. Moorman, C. and Miner, A. S. (1997) “The Impact of Organizational Memory on New Product Performance and Creativity”, Journal of Marketing Research 34:91–106. Cerca con Google

154. Moorman, C. Zaltman, G., Deshpande, R. (1992) “Relationships between providers and users of market research: the dynamics of trust within and between organisations”, Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 29, No. August, pp.314-328. Cerca con Google

155. Morgan, R.M. Hunt, S.D. (1994) “The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 3, No. 58, pp.20-44. Cerca con Google

156. Morrison, P. D., J. H. Roberts, von Hippel E., (2000). “Determinants of User Innovation and Innovation Sharing in a Local Market.” Management Science 46, no. 12 Cerca con Google

157. Mowery, D.C., Rosenberg, N. (1978), “The Influence of Market Demand upon Innovation: A Critical Review of Some Recent Empirical Studies”, Research Policy, 8. Cerca con Google

158. Murphy, S.A. and Kumar, V. (1997) “The front end of new product development: A Canadian survey”, R & D Management , 27(1), 5–15. Cerca con Google

159. Myers, S., Marquis, D.G. (1969), “Successful Industrial Innovation”, National Science Foundation, Washington DC. Cerca con Google

160. Nakamura, M., Vertinsky, I., Zietsma, C. (1997) “Does culture matter in Inter-Firm cooperation? research consortia in Japan and the USA”, Managerial and Decision Economics, 18, 2, 153–175. Cerca con Google

161. Narus, J.A., Anderson, J.C. (1995) “Using teams to manage collaborative relationships in business markets”, Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 2(3) Cerca con Google

162. Narver, J. C. and Slater, S.F. (1990) “The Effect of a Market Orientation on Business Profitability”, Journal of Marketing 54:20–35. Cerca con Google

163. Newton K., (2001), “Trust, social capital, civil society, and democracy”, International. Political Science Review, 22(2), 201–214. Cerca con Google

164. Nonaka, I (1994), “A Dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation”. Organization Science, Vol. 5 Issue 1, 14-38; Cerca con Google

165. Nonaka I. e Takeuchi H., (2001) The knowledge-creating company, Guerrini e Associati Cerca con Google

166. Nooteboom B. (1989) “Diffusion, uncertainty, and firm size”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 6:109– 28. Cerca con Google

167. Nuvolari, A. 2004. “Collective Invention during the British Industrial Revolution: The Case of the Cornish Pumping Engine.” Cambridge Journal of Economics 28, no. 3. Cerca con Google

168. O’Connor, G.C. (1998) “Market learning and radical innovation: a cross case comparison of eight radical innovation projects”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 15, 2, 151–166. Cerca con Google

169. Olson E.L and Bakke G., (2001), “Implementing the Lead User Method in High technology Firm: a longitudinal study of intentions versus actions”, Journal of Product Innovation Management 18(6):388-395 Cerca con Google

170. Parkinson S.T. (1982), “The Role of the User in Successful New Product Development” R&D Management 12: 123–131. Cerca con Google

171. Parkinson, S.T. (1985) “Factors influencing buyer-seller relationships in the market for high-technology products”, Journal of Business Research, Vol. , No. 13, pp.49-60. Cerca con Google

172. Partington, D. (2000), “Building grounded theories of management action”, British Journal of Management, Vol. 11, pp. 91-102. Cerca con Google

173. Pedler M., Aspinwalk K., (1996), Perfect plc?: The purpose and practice of organizational learning. McGraw-Hill. Cerca con Google

174. Pfeffer, Jeffrey, Salancik, Gerald R. (1978), The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective, Harper & Row, New York. Cerca con Google

175. Piller, F.T., Walcher, D., (2006), “Toolkits for idea competitions: a novel method to integrate users in new product development”. R&D Management, Vol. 36 Issue 3 Cerca con Google

176. Polanyi, M. (1958), Personal Knowledge. University of Chicago Press. Cerca con Google

177. Prahalad, C. K., Hamel, Gary. (1990), “The Core Competence of the Corporation”. Harvard Business Review, 68 (3):79-91, Cerca con Google

178. Prahalad, C.K. and Ramaswamy, V. (2000) “Co-opting customer competence”. Harvard Business Review 78, 79. Cerca con Google

179. Prahald C.K., Ramaswami V. (2004) “The Future of Competition: Co-Creating Unique Value with Customers” Harvard Business School Press, Boston MA Cerca con Google

180. Roberts, J., (2000), “From know-how to show-how? Questioning the role of information and communication technologies in knowledge transfer”. Technol.. Anal. Strat. Manag., 12(4), 429–443. Cerca con Google

181. Robertson T.S, Wind Y. (1980) “Organizational psychographics and innovativeness” Journal of Consumer Research 7:24–31 Cerca con Google

182. Robertson, P.L. and Langlois, R.N. (1995) “Innovation, networks and vertical integration”. Research Policy , 24(4), 543–62. Cerca con Google

183. Robinson WT. (1990) “Product innovation and start-up business market share performance” Management Science 36:1279– 89. Cerca con Google

184. Rogers EM. (1995) Diffusion of innovations. 4th ed. New York: The Free Press, NY Cerca con Google

185. Rogers, E.M., (1983) Diffusion of Innovations, 3rded., The Free Press, NY Cerca con Google

186. Rogers, E.M., (1986), "Three Decades of Research on the Diffusion of Innovations: Progress, Problems, Prospects", paper presented at the Conference on Innovation Diffusion, Venice, 18-22 March Cerca con Google

187. Rolland, N. and Chauvel, D. (2000), Knowledge transfer in strategic alliances. In Knowledge Horizons: The Present and the Promise of Knowledge Management, Butterworth Heinemann: Boston, MA). Cerca con Google

188. Rosenberg, N. (1982). Inside the Black Box: Technology and Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Cerca con Google

189. Rothwell, R. (1994) “Towards the Fifth-generation innovation process” International Marketing Review, Vol. 11 No. 1, 1994, 7-31 Cerca con Google

190. Rothwell, R. (1992a), “Industrial Innovation and Environmental Regulation: Some Lessons from the Past”, Technovation, Vol. 12 No. 7, 447-58. Cerca con Google

191. Rothwell, R. (1992b), “Successful Industrial Innovation: Critical Factors for the 1990s”, R&D Management, Vol. 22 No. 3, 221-38. Cerca con Google

192. Rothwell, R., Dodgson, M. (1992), “European Technology Policy Evolution: Convergence Towards SMEs and Regional Technology Transfer”, Technovation, Vol. 12 No. 4, 223–38. Cerca con Google

193. Rothwell, R., Freeman, C., Horlsey, A., Jervis, V. T. P., Robertson, A. B., Townsend, J. (1974), “Sappho Updated: Project Sappho Phase II”, Research Policy Cerca con Google

194. Rothwell, R., Zegveld, W., (1985), Reindustrialization and Technology, Longman, Harlow. Cerca con Google

195. Rotter, J., (1967) “A new scale for the measurement of interpersonal trust”. J. Person., 35, 651–665. Cerca con Google

196. Rousseau, D.M., Sitkin, S.B., Burt, R.S., Camerer, C., (1998), “Not so different after all: a cross discipline view of trust” Academy of Management Review, Cerca con Google

197. Rubenstein, A.H., Chakrabarti, A.K., O’Keefe, R.D., Sonder, W.E., Young, H.C. (1976), “Factors Influencing Success at the Project Level”, Research Management, Vol. XIX No. 3, 15-20. Cerca con Google

198. Santoro, M.D., Chakrabarti, A.K. (2001) “Corporate strategic objectives for establishing relationships with university research centers”, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 48, 2, 157–163. Cerca con Google

199. Sattler, H. (2003), “Appropriability of Product Innovations: An Empirical Analysis for Germany.” International Journal of Technology Management 26, no. 5–6: 502–516. Cerca con Google

200. Schock, G. (1974), “Innovation Processes in Dutch Industry, TNO, Policy Studies and Information Group”, Apeldoorn. Cerca con Google

201. Schrage, M. (2000), Serious Play. Harvard Business School Press. Cerca con Google

202. Scott, W. Richard (1992) Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.. Cerca con Google

203. Shaw, B. (1985) “The Role of the Interaction Between the User and the Manufacturer in Medical Equipment Industry”, R&D Management 15: 283–292. Cerca con Google

204. Shaw, B., (1986). “Appropriation and transfer of innovation benefit in the U.K. medical equipment industry”. Technovation 6 (4), 45–65. Cerca con Google

205. Siggelkow, N. (2007). “Persuasion with case studies”, Academy of Management Journal, 50: 20–24. Cerca con Google

206. Sinkula, J. M. (1993) “Market Information Processing and Organizational Learning”. Journal of Marketing 58:35–45. Cerca con Google

207. Sinkula, J. M.. (1994), “Market information processing and organizational learning”. Journal of Marketing, 58 (1): 35-46 Cerca con Google

208. Slater, S. F.; Narver, J.C., (1994), “Does competitive environment moderate the market orientation-performance relationship?” Journal of Marketing, 58 (1): 46-56 Cerca con Google

209. Smeds, R., (1991),"Innovative Computerization and Organizational Culture", Conference publication of the 10th EGOS Colloquium, Societal Change between Market and Organization, Vienna, pp. 95-8. Cerca con Google

210. Smeds, R.,(1994), “Managing Change towards lean enterprises” International Journal of Operations & Production Management Vol. 14. No. 3°.: 66-82 Cerca con Google

211. Sousa, R. (2003), “Linking quality management to manufacturing strategy: An empirical investigation of customer focus practices”, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1-18. Cerca con Google

212. Sousa, R. and Voss, C.A. (2001), “Quality management: universal or context dependent? An empirical investigation across the manufacturing strategy spectrum”, Production and Operations Management, forthcoming. Cerca con Google

213. Srinivasan R, Lilien GL, Rangaswami A. (1999) The role of technological opportunism in the adoption of radical technologies by firms: an application to E-business. Institute for Study in Business Marketing Report 26. Cerca con Google

214. Stake, R. (1995). The art of case research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Cerca con Google

215. Steinmueller, W. E. (2000) Will new information and communication technologies improve the “codification of knowledge”, Industrial and Corporate Change, 9, 361 –376 Cerca con Google

216. Strauss, A. , Corbin, J. (1990), Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA. Cerca con Google

217. Strauss, A., Glaser, B. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine. Cerca con Google

218. Subramanian A, Nilakanta S., (1996), “Organizational Innovativeness: exploring the relationship between organizational determinants of innovation, types of innovations, and measures of organizational performance” Omega, International Journal of management Science, 24(6): 631-647 Cerca con Google

219. Szakasitz, G.D. (1974), “The Adoption of the SAPPHO Method in the Hungarian Electronics Industry”, Research Policy, Vol. 3. Cerca con Google

220. Tang J., (2006) “Competition an Innovation Behaviour” Research Policy 35: 68-82 Cerca con Google

221. Thomke, S. H. (1998), “Managing Experimentation in the Design of New Products.” Management Science 44, no. 6: 743–762. Cerca con Google

222. Thomke, S. H. (2003), Experimentation Matters. Harvard Business School Press. Cerca con Google

223. Thomke, S. H., von Hippel E. (2002), “Customers as Innovators: A New Way to Create Value.” Harvard Business Review 80, no. 4: 74–81. Cerca con Google

224. Thomson, N., McNamara, P (2001). “Achieving Postacquisition Success: The Role of Corporate Entrepreneurship,” Long Range Planning, 34(6), 669-697. Cerca con Google

225. Tidd, J., Bessant J., Pavitt K., (2001) Managing innovation. New York: John Wiley Cerca con Google

226. Tyre, M., von Hippel E., (1997), “Locating Adaptive Learning: The Situated Nature of Adaptive Learning in Organizations.” Organization Science 8, no. 1: 71–83. Cerca con Google

227. Ulrich K T., Eppinger S.D., Filippini R., (2007) Progettazione e sviluppo di prodotto 1ª ed. McGraw-Hill Companies Cerca con Google

228. Ulrich, D., Barney, J.B., (1984) “Perspectives in Organizations: Resource Dependence, Efficiency and Population”, Academy of Management Review 9: 471–481. Cerca con Google

229. Urabe, K., (1988) "Innovation and the Japanese Management System", in Urabe, K., Child, J. and Kagono, T. (Eds), Innovation and Management, International Comparisons, De Gruyter & Co., Berlin, pp. 3-25. Cerca con Google

230. Urban, G. L., von Hippel E., (1988), “Lead User Analyses for the Development of New Industrial Products.” Management Science 34, no. 5: 569–82. Cerca con Google

231. Utterback, J.M. (1975), “The Process of Innovation in Five Industries in Europe and Japan”, Centre for Policy Alternatives, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Cerca con Google

232. Utterback, J.M., Allen, T.J., Hollomon, J.H., Sirbu, M.A., (1976), “The process of innovation in five industries in Europe and Japan” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 23 (1), 3–9. Cerca con Google

233. Van Maanen J., (1973), “Observation on the making of policemen”, Human Organization, 32: 407-417. Cerca con Google

234. van Maanen J., (1998) Qualitative Studies of Organizations. The Administrative Science Quarterly Series in Organizational Theory and Behavior. SAGE Publications Cerca con Google

235. VanderWerf, P., (1990). “Product tying and innovation in U.S. wire preparation equipment”, Research Policy 19, 83–96. Cerca con Google

236. Veryzer, R.W. (1998) “Discontinuous innovation and the new product development process”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 15, 4, 304–321. Cerca con Google

237. von Hippel E. (2005), “Democratizing Innovation” , The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. Cerca con Google

238. von Hippel E., (2005), Democratizing Innovation , The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. Cerca con Google

239. von Hippel, E. (1986) "Lead Users: A Source of Novel Product. Concepts," Management Science 32, no. 7 (July):791-805 Cerca con Google

240. von Hippel, E. (1988) “The Sources of Innovation”, Oxford: Oxford University Press Cerca con Google

241. von Hippel, E. (1998), “Economics of Product Development by Users: The Impact of Sticky Local Information.” Management Science 44, no. 5: 629–644. Cerca con Google

242. von Hippel, E., Finkelstein S. N. (1979), “Analysis of Innovation in Automated Clinical Chemistry Analyzers.” Science and Public Policy 6, no. 1: 24–37. Cerca con Google

243. von Hippel, E., Thomke, S., Sonnack, M., (1999), “Creating breakthroughs at 3M”. Harvard Business Review (May), 3–9. Cerca con Google

244. von Hippel, E., Tyre M., (1995), “How ‘Learning by Doing’ is Done: Problem Identification in Novel Process Equipment.” Research Policy 24, no. 1: 1–12. Cerca con Google

245. Voss C., Tsikriktsis N., Frohlich M., (2002), “Case research in Operations management”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management, (22) 2: 195-219. Cerca con Google

246. Voss, C.A. (1985b) “Determinants of Success in the Development of Applications Software”, Journal of Product Innovation Management , 2(2), 122–29. Cerca con Google

247. Voss, C.A., (1985). 2The role of users in the development of applications software”. Journal of Product Innovation Management 2 (1), 113–121. Cerca con Google

248. Walters D., Rainbird M., (2007) “Cooperative Innovation: a value chain approach”, Journal of Enterprise Information Management Vol. 20 No. 5, pp. 595-607 Cerca con Google

249. Wenger, E., McDermott, R., Snyder, W.M. (2002), Cultivating Communities of Practice: A Guide to Managing Knowledge, Harvard Business School Press Books, Cerca con Google

250. West J., Gallagher S. (2006) “Challenges of open innovation: the paradox of firm investment in open-source software”, R&D Management 36(3) Cerca con Google

251. Williamson, O.E., (1993), “Calculativeness, trust and economic organization” Journal of Law Econ., 36(2), 453–486. Cerca con Google

252. Wilson, D.T. (1995) “An integrated model of buyer-seller relationships”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp.335-345. Cerca con Google

253. Wynstra, F. and Pierick, E.T. (2000) “Managing supplier involvement in new product development: a portfolio approach”. European Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management 6, 49–57. Cerca con Google

254. Yin, R.K (1989a). Case study research: Design and methods (Rev. ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing. Cerca con Google

255. Yin, R.K (1993). Applications of case study research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing. Cerca con Google

256. Yin, R.K. (1994) Case Study Research: Design and methods. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA. Cerca con Google

257. Zahra, S.A., Garvis, D.M (2000). “International Corporate Entrepreneurship and Firm Performance: The Moderating Effect of International Environmental Uncertainty,” Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5/6), 469-492. Cerca con Google

258. Zaltman G., Wallendorf M., (1983), Consumer Behavior, Wiley(Ed), New York. Cerca con Google

259. Zemud R.W (1982), “Diffusion of modern software practices: Influence of centralization and formalization” Management Science 28(12):1421-1431 Cerca con Google

260. Zucker, L.G., (1986), “Production of trust: institutional sources of economic structure”, 1840–1920. Res. Organiz. Behav., 8, 53–111. Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record