Mastromatteo, Massimo (2010) Mechanism of fluorine redistribution and incorporation during solid phase epitaxial regrowth of pre-amorphized silicon. [Ph.D. thesis]
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The redistribution of impurities during phase transitions is a widely studied phenomenon that has a great relevance in many fields and especially in microelectronics for the realization of Ultra Shallow Junctions (USJs) with abrupt profiles and high electrical activation. The redistribution of fluorine during solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPER) of pre-amorphized Si has been experimentally investigated, explained and simulated, for different F concentrations and temperatures. We demonstrate, by a detailed analysis and modelling of F secondary ion mass spectrometry chemical concentration profiles, that F segregates in amorphous Si during SPER by splitting in three possible states: i) a diffusive one that migrates in amorphous Si; ii) an interface segregated state evidenced by the presence of a F accumulation peak at the amorphous-crystal interface; iii) a clustered F state. The interplay among these states and their roles in the F incorporation into crystalline Si are fully described in this thesis. It is shown that diffusive F moves by a trap limited diffusion and interacts with the advancing interface by a sticking-release dynamics that regulates the amount of F segregated at the interface. We demonstrate that this last quantity regulates the regrowth rate by an exponential law. On the other hand we show that nor the diffusive F nor the one segregated at the interface can directly incorporate into the crystal but clustering has to occur in order to have incorporation. This is in agreement with the element specific structural information on the F incorporated in crystalline Si given by a specific X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis performed in this thesis, and also with recent experimental observations, reported in literature. The trends of the model parameters as a function of the temperature are shown and discussed obtaining a clear energetic scheme of the F redistribution in pre-amorphized Si. The above physical understanding and the model could have a strong impact on the use of F as a tool for optimising the doping profiles in the fabrication of ultra-shallow junctions.
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La redistribuzione di impurezze durante le transizioni di fase è un fenomeno ampiamente studiato che ha una grande rilevanza in molti campi di ricerca e specialmente nella microelettronica per la realizzazione di giunzioni ultra sottili (USJs) caratterizzate da profili di drogante ben confinati e da un’alta attivazione elettrica.
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