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Petech, Erika (2010) Socio-emotional development within the family system: trends and outcomes from birth to the preschool age. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Recently a growing interest has been devoted to the study of the development of early triadic interactive competencies and to the definition and validation of triadic observational paradigms (Nadel, & Tremblay-Leveau, 1999; Tremblay-Leveau, 1999). Among these, the theoretical and methodological framework provided by Fivaz-Depeursinge and Corboz-Warnery (1999) in the study of the quality of family interactions seems to give the chance for a new view on these issues by moving the focus of the research towards the triadic (mother-father-child) interactive system as the main object of investigation. Family interactions is thus considered as a primary developmental context for child socio-emotional development as well as a privileged unit of observation of parenting skills. Taking a theoretical and methodological triadic and systemic approach to the study of mother-father-child interactive competences during infancy and the preschool age draws interest to the role of individual, dyadic and contextual-relational factors that might influence their developmental trajectories. In this perspective the aims of the research were: a) to analyze the development of triadic interactions within the family system from infant’s first months of life to the preschool age; b) to investigate the relationship between individual characteristics of parents and the child (gender, parents’ affective-relational history and mothers’ postnatal depressive symptoms), contextual sources of stress and support (the quality of the marital and coparental relationship, the degree of father involvement) and the development of socio-emotional competencies expressed during triadic mother-father-child interactions and children’s outcomes at the preschool age.
31 non-referred primiparous families participated in the study and were recruited at child-birth classes. All the families have been seen during pregnancy, at the 4th , 9th , 12th and at the preschool age. Measures included: self-report (Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Questionnaire on Father Involvement, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and parents’ report (Symptom Checklist modified) questionnaires, interviews (Adult Attachment Interview) and observational procedures (Prenatal and Postnatal Lausanne Trilogue Play).
Results showed a partial stability of the quality of family triadic interactions from pregnancy to the child’s preschool age: indeed only the overall quality of triadic interactions assessed at the baby's 9th month of life correlates significantly with that assessed at the child's preschool age. Moreover, a significant increase in the quality of mother-father-child interactions during this period was observed. Triadic interactive competences at the preschool age were predicted by the degree of father involvement at the infant’s 4 months and mothers’ inferred experiences of involvement and preoccupation for their parents’ well-being during childhood, both exerting a positive effect on the later quality of mother-father-child interactions. Finally fathers’ perception of marital adjustment was found significantly associated to children’s sleeping difficulties, mothers’ and fathers’ marital adjustment and father involvement were found significantly and negatively related to children’s regulation problems whereas mothers’ experiences of neglect during childhood were positively associated with children’s outcomes in this area. Moreover, marital adjustment reported by mother at the infant’s 4 and 12 months and mothers’ experiences of neglect during childhood were found predictive of children’s behavioural problems at the preschool age.
Summarizing these data, different pathways of family interactive and socio-emotional skills can be observed from baby's birth to the child's preschool age: while during the first year of infant's life, the overall and specific dimensions of the quality of triadic interactions show no stability and, at the same time a significant discontinuity between the 4th and the 9th month, the succeeding period presents an higher stability and continuity in the family triadic competences. These results seem to stress the importance of early interactions, in this case within the mother-father-child triad, in shaping later interactions and relationships as well as the possibility to look at the first year of the baby's life as a developmental window for the family interactive system, during which family triads can significantly improve their interactive competences. Strong cross-sectional and longitudinal association have been also revealed between the overall quality of triadic competencies and the degree of father involvement: these observations seem to provide a first evidence of the close relationship between the two constructs during early childhood and their mutual interdependence in fostering a relational context functional to the well-being and the development of the child. Moreover, mothers’ early experiences of involvement and preoccupation for their parents well-being seem to foster later quality of family interactions. On the other hand, children’s psycho-functional outcomes at the preschool age seem to be predicted mainly by marital adjustment, father involvement and mothers’ experiences of neglect: the first two, predicting more favourable outcomes for children, the latter exerting a negative influence on children’s regulation and behavioural problems.

Abstract (italiano)

Recentemente si è assistito ad un interesse crescente verso lo studio dello sviluppo delle competenze interattive precoci manifestate dal bambino in contesti interattivi che prevedevano la compresenza di due partner interattivi che ha portato alla definizione e validazione di paradigmi osservativi triadici (Nadel, Tremblay-Leveau, 1999; Tremblay-Leveau, 1999). Tra questi, la cornice teorica e metodologica proposta da Fivaz-Depeursinge and Corboz-Warnery (1999) per lo studio della qualità delle interazioni familiari sembra poter fornire una nuova prospettiva spostando il focus della ricerca verso il sistema interattivo triadico costituito dalla triade madre-padre-bambino, considerate come oggetto di indagine privilegiato. Le interazioni familiari sono quindi considerate come un contesto evolutivo primario per lo sviluppo socio-emotivo del bambino e un’unità di osservazione privilegiata delle competenze genitoriali. L’assunzione di una prospettiva teorica e metodologica di tipo triadico-sistemico nello studio delle competenze interattive del sistema madre-padre-bambino nel corso dell’infanzia e dell’età prescolare promuove l’interesse verso il ruolo di fattori individuali, relazionali e contestuali che ne possono influenzare le traiettorie evolutive.
In questa prospettiva gli obiettivi dello studio sono stati di: a) analizzare lo sviluppo delle interazioni triadiche familiari nel periodo che va dai primi mesi di vita del bambino all’età prescolare; b) di analizzare la relazione tra caratteristiche individuali dei genitori (in particolare la storia affettivo-relazionale e la presenza nelle madri di sintomatologia depressiva nel periodo postnatale) e del bambino (il genere), e fonti di stress o supporto per il sistema famiglia (la qualità della relazione coniugale e cogenitoriale e il coinvolgimento paterno nella cura del bambino) sullo sviluppo delle competenze interattive triadiche e gli esiti psicofunzionali del bambino in età prescolare.
Alla ricerca hanno partecipato 31 famiglie appartenenti ad una popolazione non clinica, reclutati presso i corsi di preparazione al parto. Lo studio ha previsto un disegno longitudinale in 5 tappe per cui tutte le famiglie sono state incontrate al 7° mese di gravidanza, al 4°, 9° e 12° mese di vita del bambino e durante l’età prescolare (3-4 anni del bambino). Gli strumenti utilizzati includono: questionari self-report (Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Questionario sul Coinvolgimento Paterno, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) e parents’ report (Symptom Checklist adattata), interviste (Adult Attachment Interview) e procedure osservative (Lausanne Trilogue Play Prenatale e Postnatale).
I risultati hanno evidenziato: a) una parziale stabilità delle competenze interattive triadiche familiari dalla gravidanza all’età prescolare: infatti solo la qualità globale delle interazioni triadiche al 9° mese del bambino è risultata correlare significativamente e positivamente con quella valutata in età prescolare. Inoltre si è rilevato un incremento significativo della qualità delle interazioni madre-padre-bambino tra il 4° e il 9° mese e una progressiva stabilizzazione tra il 9° mese e l’età prescolare che coinvolge la maggior parte delle sottostanti competenze considerate nel sistema di codifica del LTP. b) I fattori risultati predittivi delle competenze interattive triadiche osservate in età prescolare sono il coinvolgimento paterno al 4° mese del bambino e le esperienze di coinvolgimento e preoccupazione per il benessere dei propri genitori nell’infanzia riportato dalle madri: entrambi questi fattori sono risultati associati in modo positivo alla successiva qualità delle interazioni madre-padre-bambino. c) Per quanto riguarda gli esiti psicofunzionali del bambino in età prescolare, la qualità della relazione di coppia percepita dai padri è risultata negativamente associata alla difficoltà dei bambini nell’addormentamento; anche per quanto riguarda le difficoltà nella regolazione, si sono rilevate associazioni significative negative con l’adattamento coniugale percepito dai genitori nel tempo e il coinvolgimento paterno al 9° mese e positive con le esperienze di neglect nella relazione con i genitori nell’infanzia riportati dalle madri. Infine, l’adattamento coniugale riportato dalle madri al 4° e 12° mese del bambino e le esperienze di neglect nella relazione con i genitori nell’infanzia riportati dalle madri sono risultati predittivi dei problemi comportamentali dei bambini nella tappa prescolare. In sintesi quindi si sono rilevati percorsi evolutivi differenti delle competenze socio-emotive ed interattive familiari nel periodo che va dai primi mesi di vita del bambino all’età prescolare: in particolare, mentre nel primo anno di vita del bambino la qualità complessiva delle interazioni familiari e le sue sottostanti e specifiche competenze sembrano caratterizzate da instabilità e da una significativa discontinuità tra il 4° e il 9° mese, il periodo successivo, dal 9° mese all’età prescolare presenta invece una maggiore stabilità e continuità di tali competenze. In linea con le ricerche condotte secondo paradigmi diadici, questi risultati sembrano sottolineare l’importanza delle interazioni precoci, in questo caso quelle co-costruite dalla triade madre-padre-bambino, nel formare le interazioni e relazioni successive e parallelamente, sembrano evidenziare la possibilità di guardare al primo anno del bambino come una finestra evolutiva per il sistema interattivo familiare, durante il quale la triade familiare può migliorare ed aumentare le proprie competenze interattive secondo un percorso non deterministico. Le significative associazioni trasversali e longitudinali tra il coinvolgimento paterno e le competenze interattive triadiche sembrano confermare la stretta relazione tra questi due aspetti durante la prima infanzia e la loro reciproca interdipendenza nel promuovere un contesto relazionale funzionale al benessere e allo sviluppo del bambino. Inoltre le precoci esperienze di coinvolgimento e preoccupazione per il benessere delle figure di attaccamento riportate dalle madri sono risultate a loro volta favorire la qualità degli scambi interattivi triadici osservati all’età prescolare del bambino. Viceversa, non si sono rilevate associazioni significative tra la qualità delle interazioni familiari e gli esiti psicofunzionali del bambino, che sembrano essere influenzati principalmente dall’adattamento coniugale, dal coinvolgimento paterno e dalle esperienze materne di neglect: i primi due sembrano predire esiti evolutivi più favorevoli mentre il terzo aspetto sembra esercitare un effetto negativo in particolare sulle difficoltà di regolazione e i problemi comportamentali del bambino in età prescolare.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Fava Vizziello, Grazia Maria
Correlatore:Simonelli, Alessandra
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 22 > Scuole per il 22simo ciclo > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PSICOLOGIA DELLO SVILUPPO E DEI PROCESSI DI SOCIALIZZAZIONE
Data di deposito della tesi:NON SPECIFICATO
Anno di Pubblicazione:01 Febbraio 2010
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Socio-emotional development, mother-father-child interactions, triadic interactive competences, father involvement, marital adjustment
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/07 Psicologia dinamica
Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/04 Psicologia dello sviluppo e psicologia dell'educazione
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione
Codice ID:2942
Depositato il:26 Ott 2010 15:46
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