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Baldo, Silvia (2011) Innovative steels for structural and corrosion resistance applications. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

The attention towards innovative steels at limited cost increased significantly in the last years. The research focused mainly in the development of new high strength steels where a combination of elevated mechanical properties, good formability and weldability is required and of duplex stainless steels if high corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are demanded. The possibility to design new light components thanks to the higher strength of such steels, the substitution of expensive raw elements and the new specific production processing have permitted to achieve a global costs saving. However a deep knowledge about the critical aspects of these two classes of steels is of fundamental importance to avoid problems in service and eventually catastrophic failures.
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of metallurgical features and phase transformations on the properties of duplex stainless steels (DSS), high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels and advanced high strength dual phase (DP) steels. A detailed review on the state of art of the innovative steels considered has been carried out.
The experimental work has been organized into two sections dealing with the critical aspects of duplex stainless steels and high strength steels.
In the section concerning DSS, an overall study about secondary phase precipitation occurring during heat treatments of different DSS grades was performed. Then a deeper investigation on lower alloyed DSS, the so called Lean DSS, and their behavior was analyzed. In particular a relation between the morphology of intermetallics precipitation and the fracture toughness was found and compared for two Lean DSS. To reduce the costs, strong austenite phase stabilizers such as Ni are substituted with less stabilizing element as Mn, leading to a certain austenite phase (γ) instability which eventually transforms into ferromagnetic lath martensite (α') during plastic deformation. This phase transformation can potentially affect the properties of the material. Therefore the possible γ→α' evolution during cold rolling was evaluated mainly through magnetic and X-ray diffraction techniques.
The second section focused on the influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties and weldability of high strength and advanced high strength steels. Fatigue behavior and weldability are of extreme importance in these two types of steels, especially if designed for structural automotive applications. Hence the role of microllaoying elements and thermo-mechanical processing on fatigue properties and fracture was revealed for different micro-alloyied HSLA steels, whereas the influence of braze-welding parameters on microstructural and mechanical properties was highlighted in a DP steel.

Abstract (italiano)

Nel corso degli ultimi anni la ricerca si è focalizzata sulla messa a punto di acciai innovativi a costo contenuto. Grande interesse è stato posto sullo sviluppo di nuovi acciai alto resistenziali in grado di avere una buona combinazione di elevate proprietà meccaniche, formabilità e saldabilità, e sullo sviluppo di acciai inossidabili bifasici nelle applicazioni richiedenti alta resistenza a corrosione e proprietà meccaniche. Inoltre la possibilità di progettare con materiali più leggeri, grazie all’elevata resistenza meccanica che presentano, il risparmio dovuto alla sostituzione di elementi costosi e all’utilizzo di nuovi processi produttivi hanno permesso una riduzione globale dei costi. Al fine di evitare problemi in esercizio con eventuali rotture catastrofiche si è resa necessaria una approfondita conoscenza degli aspetti critici di queste tipologie di acciai di ultima generazione, considerato il potenziale ampio utilizzo di tali materiali anche in applicazioni di uso comune.
L’obiettivo di questa tesi è di analizzare gli effetti da un punto di vista metallurgico sulle proprietà principali caratterizzanti gli acciai inossidabili Duplex (DSS), gli acciai basso legati ad alto limite di snervamento (HSLA) e gli acciai alto resistenziali avanzati Dual Phase. Per una maggiore completezza della ricerca e una migliore interpretazione dei risultati ottenuti nello studio sperimentale è stata condotta una dettagliata ricerca bibliografica sullo stato dell’arte delle categorie di acciai considerati.
Il lavoro sperimentale è stato diviso in due parti nelle quali sono stati messi in luce gli aspetti critici degli acciai inossidabili duplex e degli acciai alto resistenziali.
La sezione riguardante gli acciai inossidabili duplex comprende uno studio completo sui fenomeni di precipitazione di fasi secondarie che hanno luogo durante trattamento termico di diverse tipologie di tali acciai. In una fase successiva lo studio si è concentrato sui cosiddetti “Lean” Duplex, caratterizzati da un minore contenuto di elementi in lega. In particolare è stata rilevata una certa relazione tra la presenza e distribuzione di fasi infragilenti e le proprietà di tenacità di due acciai inossidabili “Lean” Duplex. Negli acciai “Lean” Duplex il contenuto di elementi costosi e volatili quali il Ni è ridotto per mantenere contenuto il loro costo. Il Ni viene sostituito principalmente dal Mn, avente tuttavia un minore potere stabilizzante nei confronti della fase austenitica (γ), che potenzialmente può evolvere in “lath” martensite ferromagnetica (α') con la deformazione a freddo. L’introduzione di questa nuova fase nel materiale può indurre cambiamenti nelle proprietà del materiale stesso. Pertanto la possibile trasformazione γ→α' in seguito a laminazione a freddo è stata valutata mediante misure magnetica e diffrazione a raggi X.
La seconda parte del lavoro è stata incentrata sull’influenza della microstruttura sulle proprietà meccaniche e di saldabilità di acciai alto resistenziali. Le proprietà a fatica e la saldabilità sono di estrema importanza in questa classe di acciai, specialmente se destinati ad applicazioni nel campo auto motive. È stato quindi analizzato il ruolo che gli elementi microalliganti e gli specifici trattamenti termo meccanici rivestono sulle proprietà a fatica e sul relativo meccanismo di frattura in diverse tipologie di acciai HSLA. Inoltre sono stati valutati gli effetti della variazione dei parametri di saldobrasatura sulle proprietà microstrutturali e meccaniche di un acciaio DP.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Calliari, Irene
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 23 > Scuole per il 23simo ciclo > INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE > INGEGNERIA METALLURGICA
Data di deposito della tesi:NON SPECIFICATO
Anno di Pubblicazione:24 Gennaio 2011
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Acciai DUPLEX; Acciai HSLA; Acciai Dual phase; Trasformazioni microstrutturali; Proprietà meccaniche DUPLEX steels; HSLA steels; DP steels; Phase transformation; Mechanical properties
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 09 - Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione > ING-IND/21 Metallurgia
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Processi chimici dell'Ingegneria
Codice ID:3398
Depositato il:13 Lug 2011 10:15
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