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Frascheri, Silvana (2010) L'atteggiamento degli studenti delle scuole secondarie nei confronti dell'imprenditorialitĂ : il ruolo della formazione imprenditoriale. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Numerous authors assign an important role to entrepreneurship in local area socio-economic development and claim that decline in many local areas is due to a lack of entrepreneurial resources. Any society that is unable to generate entrepreneurs or one that sees a downward trend in entrepreneurship becomes impoverished and enters into decline. As a result, initiatives that promote entrepreneurship must be developed and undertaken. Various and diverse proposals at both national and international levels exist, ranging from streamlining administrative paperwork to promoting financing and incentives. Over the past two decades, a growing number of authors and international institutions have emphasized the importance of Entrepreneurship Education (EE). Relevant literature supports the need to promote EE in school-age young people; some even recommend starting this type of education in elementary school. However, it is in secondary schools where the greatest potential benefits of EE are more widely recognized. In spite of this fact, there is little research on this topic in the extant literature, whereas there are numerous studies on EE in a University and Business School setting. Research in the Italian secondary school setting is particularly lacking. A review of the scant research on this topic reveals that EE has the effect of changing young people’s opinions on entrepreneurship rather than prompting entrepreneurial behavior. Indeed, in the specific case of secondary school students, results indicate that it is premature to consider behavior since students rarely start up new businesses during or shortly after their studies. Therefore, it is important to understand students’ opinions on entrepreneurship before planning and implementing effective EE. According to many authors, it is also necessary to evaluate the effects of EE after courses have been planned and delivered. This type of evaluation – whether through subjective or objective means – has been practically ignored by the literature.
The importance of this topic and the current gap in the literature have driven me to choose the following objectives for my thesis. The local area selected for study is the Province of Genoa in Northern Italy. This area was chosen due to the fact that a study by Centro Studi Sintesi (2006), which will be described in the thesis, indicates it as the most pertinent area.
The present research objectives are:
1) to detect and register the opinions of secondary school students in the Province of Genoa with respect to entrepreneurship through a quantitative survey.
2) to detect and register any significant differences in opinions among those secondary school students who have and have not attended EE courses; to analyze causes of these differences and identify implications for EE; and to pinpoint different targets of students to whom EE courses can be delivered.
3) to detect and register the degree of satisfaction among students and teachers with regards to EE through qualitative research methods; to analyze the causes of the degree of satisfaction.
4) to provide a tool useful for planning effective EE in secondary schools.
In line with the aforementioned objectives, the following research questions were formulated which this thesis aims to answer.
RQ1_What opinions do secondary school students in the province of Genoa have towards entrepreneurship?
RQ2A_Are there significant differences between secondary school students who have attended EE courses and those who have not attended EE courses? If so, what are these differences?
RQ2B_How can any differences be explained?
RQ3A_How satisfied are students and teachers with EE?
RQ3B_What does this depend on?
RQ4_How can effective EE courses be structured in secondary schools?
To answer RQ1 and RQ2A quantitative research was undertaken and examined with factor analysis, cluster analysis and ANOVAs. To answer RQ2B, RQ3A, RQ3B and RQ4, qualitative research methods were employed, including focus groups, interviews and written documents made available.
This thesis is divided into 9 chapters.
Chapter 1 describes the relevant literature on EE both in general terms and in terms of EE in secondary schools.
Chapter 2 describes the main EE initiatives in secondary schools in Europe and in Italy.
Chapter 3 presents the chosen investigative framework. The research questions are explained, as are the research boundaries involved.
Chapter 4 presents the research methods adopted.
Chapter 5 relates and discusses the results relative to the first research question.
Chapter 6 relates and discusses the results relative to the second research question.
Chapter 7 relates and discusses the results relative to the third research question.
Chapter 8 relates and discusses the results relative to the forth and final research question.
Lastly, chapter 9 describes the main conclusions that can be drawn from this research, lays out its limits and indicates directions for future research.


Abstract (italiano)

Sono numerosi gli autori che sostengono l’importanza dell’imprenditorialità per lo sviluppo socio-economico di un territorio e attribuiscono il declino di molte zone al venir meno delle loro risorse imprenditoriali. Una società incapace di generare imprenditori, o nella quale il flusso di nuova imprenditoria tende a rallentare, si impoverisce e si avvia alla decadenza. Occorre dunque sviluppare iniziative atte a promuovere l’imprenditorialità. Esistono diverse proposte sia a livello nazionale che internazionale, esse sono variegate e vanno dallo snellimento delle pratiche amministrative alla promozione di finanziamenti ed incentivi. Negli ultimi due decenni, in particolare, un numero crescente di autori e contributi di istituzioni internazionali ha messo in evidenza l’importanza della formazione imprenditoriale (FI). La letteratura sottolinea l’importanza e la necessità di promuovere la FI già in età scolare, addirittura a partire dalla scuola primaria. E’ comunque nelle scuole secondarie di secondo grado (di seguito denominate scuole secondarie) che viene riconosciuta alla FI una grande potenzialità. Nonostante ciò, i contributi e le ricerche presenti in letteratura relativi a tale ambito sono pochi, mentre sono numerosi quelli relativi alla diffusione della FI nelle Università e nelle Business Schools. La carenza è particolarmente marcata per quanto riguarda le scuole secondarie italiane. Esaminando la scarsa letteratura in proposito, appare comunque evidente che la FI dovrebbe cambiare le opinioni dei giovani nei confronti dell’imprenditorialità piuttosto che indurre comportamenti imprenditoriali. Nel caso di giovani che frequentano le scuole secondarie, infatti, è ritenuto prematuro parlare di comportamenti anche perché raramente gli studenti daranno vita a nuove imprese durante o appena terminati gli studi. Al fine di progettare corsi di FI efficaci diventa così importante conoscere le opinioni degli studenti in merito all’imprenditorialità, prima della loro partecipazione alla FI. Una volta che i corsi sono stati progettati ed erogati diventa altresì necessario, secondo numerosi autori, valutarne gli effetti. Anche la valutazione degli effetti – sia attraverso tecniche oggettive che soggettive – risulta particolarmente trascurata sia nella pratica che in letteratura.
L’importanza del tema e i gap riscontrati in letteratura mi hanno quindi spinta ad individuare, per il mio progetto di tesi, gli obiettivi descritti nel seguito. Il perimetro d’indagine scelto è la provincia di Genova poiché, come si evince da un’indagine del Centro Studi Sintesi (2006), che verrà descritta nella tesi, la provincia sembra essere il perimetro d’indagine più pertinente.
Gli obiettivi della ricerca sono:
1) Rilevare, attraverso un’indagine quantitativa, le opinioni degli studenti delle scuole secondarie della provincia di Genova nei confronti dell’imprenditorialità.
2) Rilevare le differenze di opinione significative tra studenti delle scuole secondarie che non hanno seguito corsi di FI e studenti che hanno seguito corsi di FI. Analizzare il perché di tali differenze e capire quali possono essere le implicazioni per la FI. Individuare target diversi di studenti ai quali erogare corsi di FI.
3) Rilevare, attraverso un’indagine qualitativa, il grado di soddisfazione di studenti ed insegnanti nei confronti della FI. Analizzare il perché di tale grado di soddisfazione.
4) Fornire uno strumento per progettare corsi di FI efficaci all’interno delle scuole secondarie.
Coerentemente con gli obiettivi sopra esposti, sono state formulate le seguenti domande di ricerca, alle quali questa tesi si propone di dare risposta:
RQ1_Quali sono le opinioni degli studenti delle scuole secondarie della provincia di Genova in merito all’imprenditorialità?
RQ2A_Esistono differenze significative tra studenti delle scuole secondarie che hanno seguito corsi di FI e studenti che non hanno seguito corsi di FI? Se sì, quali?
RQ2B_Come possono essere spiegate tali differenze?
RQ3A_Qual è il livello di soddisfazione degli studenti e degli insegnanti in merito alla FI?
RQ3B_Da cosa dipende?
RQ4_Come strutturare corsi di FI efficaci all’interno delle scuole secondarie?
Per rispondere a RQ1 e RQ2A è stata svolta un’analisi quantitativa, sviluppata attraverso un’analisi fattoriale, una cluster analisys e un’ANOVA. Per rispondere a RQ2B, nonché RQ3A, RQ3B e RQ4, è stata svolta un’analisi qualitativa, per mezzo di focus group, interviste e analisi dei documenti messi a disposizione.
Per quanto riguarda la struttura del presente lavoro di tesi, esso è articolato in nove capitoli.
Il capitolo 1 descrive quanto riportato in letteratura sul tema della FI, sia in termini generali sia relativamente alla FI all’interno delle scuole secondarie.
Il capitolo 2 descrive le principali iniziative di FI nell’ambito delle scuole secondarie, in Europa e in Italia.
Il capitolo 3 presenta il quadro investigativo. In tale capitolo vengono spiegate le domande di ricerca, oltre al perimetro d’indagine.
Il capitolo 4 presenta le metodologie di ricerca adottate per lo svolgimento del presente lavoro.
Il capitolo 5 riporta i risultati e la discussione relativa alla prima domanda di ricerca.
Il capitolo 6 riporta i risultati e la discussione relativa alla seconda domanda di ricerca.
Il capitolo 7 riporta i risultati e la discussione relativa alla terza domanda di ricerca.
Il capitolo 8 riporta i risultati e la discussione relativa alla quarta ed ultima domanda di ricerca.
Il capitolo 9, infine, descrive le principali conclusioni alle quali il presente lavoro di ricerca è giunto, evidenziandone i limiti e indicando le opportunità di ricerca futura.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Testa, Stefania
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 23 > Scuole per il 23simo ciclo > INGEGNERIA GESTIONALE ED ESTIMO > INGEGNERIA GESTIONALE
Data di deposito della tesi:NON SPECIFICATO
Anno di Pubblicazione:25 Gennaio 2010
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):imprenditorialitĂ , formazione imprenditoriale, scuole secondarie, atteggiamento, analisi quantitativa, analisi qualitativa
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 09 - Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione > ING-IND/35 Ingegneria economico-gestionale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Tecnica e Gestione dei Sistemi Industriali
Codice ID:3433
Depositato il:21 Lug 2011 08:46
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