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Junyent, Andrea Anahi (2011) Individual differences in Specific Language Impairment: profiles of preschoolers exposed to Italian. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

This dissertation explores Specific Language Impairment (SLI) through a single case
and a group study aimed to define language profiles in children with SLI compared to
typically developing children having the same chronological age or the same mean
length of utterance (MLU).
The single case study compared the morpho-syntactic characteristics of elicited and
spontaneous production of a child with SLI to information provided by the literature
about children with equivalent MLU. Results were scrutinised in the light of hypotheses
which conceive SLI as an originally grammatical deficit. Delay was found in production
of inflected verbs, in line with MLU, and was consistent with linguistic accounts. Delay
found in production of direct and indirect object clitic pronouns as well as articles was
unexpected based on the MLU and could only partially be explained by the linguistic
hypotheses considered.
The group study examined lexical, morpho-syntactic and textual skills in
comprehension and production as well as phonological memory in 50 children with SLI
(SLI group). In order to identify profiles, their performance was compared to age- and
MLU-matched typically developing children (TD group); and subgroups of children
with SLI were identified and compared. Moreover, relationships among language
abilities and phonological memory were scrutinised in the overall group of children
(SLI and TD groups).
Statistical comparisons between the SLI group and the TD group revealed a complex
pattern of impaired lexical and morpho-syntactic abilities as well as phonological
memory; and partially preserved textual skills. Subgroups (in the SLI group) with the
following characteristics were compared: both lexical and morpho-syntactic production
mildly impaired; both lexical and morpho-syntactic production severely impaired;
mildly impaired lexical production and severely impaired morpho-syntactic production.
Results evinced different profiles in these subgroups regarding phonological memory,
depending on the severity of the impairment in morpho-syntactic production exhibited
by subgroups. This suggests a strong relationship between phonological memory and
morpho-syntax in production.
The specific relationships among language and phonological memory abilities were
examined through regression analyses. Results showed phonological memory as the
best predictor for language comprehension and production in the overall group of
children, while belonging to the SLI or the TD group did not account for any extra
variability. This suggested a strong relationship between phonological memory and
language, independently of belonging to one group or the other. The second predictor
was lexical comprehension, which predicted both morpho-syntactic and text
comprehension in the overall group, while belonging to the SLI or the TD group did not
explain any extra variability. These results suggested that language abilities in
comprehension are hierarchically structured in SLI as in typical development, regardless
belonging to one group or the other.

Abstract (italiano)

La seguente ricerca esplora i profili del Disturbo Specifico del Linguaggio (DSL)
attraverso lo studio di un caso singolo e uno studio di gruppo, confrontandoli con quelli
di bambini aventi la stessa età cronologica o la stessa lunghezza media dell‘enunciato
(LME).
Nello studio di caso singolo sono state comparate le caratteristiche morfosintattiche
della produzione spontanea ed elicitata di un bambino con DSL con i dati in letteratura
sulla produzione di bambini con LME equivalente. I risultati sono stati esaminati alla
luce di ipotesi che concepiscono il DSL come un deficit di origine grammaticale. È stato
trovato un ritardo nella produzione di verbi flessi, come atteso in base al livello di LME
e in accordo con le spiegazioni linguistiche. Un ritardo inatteso per livello di LME è
stato trovato nella produzione di pronomi clitici di oggetto diretto e indiretto e articoli, i
quali hanno potuto essere spiegati solo parzialmente alla luce delle ipotesi considerate.
Nello studio di gruppo, sono state esaminate la comprensione e produzione lessicale
morfosintattica e testuale insieme alla memoria fonologica in 50 bambini con DSL
(gruppo DSL). Allo scopo di identificare profili, le prestazioni del gruppo DSL sono
state comparate con la performance di bambini con sviluppo tipico (gruppo ST) appaiati
per età e per LME e sono stati identificati e confrontati sottogruppi di bambini con DSL.
Inoltre, i rapporti fra le abilità linguistiche e la memoria fonologica sono stati esaminati
nel gruppo totale di bambini (gruppi DSL e ST).
Il confronto tra il gruppo DSL e TD ha mostrato, per il primo, un pattern complesso in
cui le abilità lessicali, morfosintattiche e di memoria fonologica sono compromesse
mentre le capacità testuali sono parzialmente preservate.
Sono stati comparati sottogruppi (del gruppo DSL) con le seguenti caratteristiche:
produzione lessicale e morfosintattica lievemente compromessa, produzione lessicale e
morfosintattica severamente compromessa, e produzione lessicale lievemente
compromessa e produzione morfosintattica severamente compromessa. I risultati per i
sottogruppi hanno evidenziato diversi profili in relazione alla memoria fonologica,
imputabili alla severità del deficit in produzione morfosintattica dei sottogruppi. Ciò
suggerisce una forte relazione fra memoria fonologica e morfosintassi.
I rapporti specifici fra abilità linguistiche e di memoria sono stati esaminati con analisi
di regressione. I risultati hanno indicato che la memoria fonologica è il miglior
predittore della comprensione e produzione linguistica nel gruppo totale di bambini,
mentre l‘appartenenza al gruppo DSL or al gruppo TD non ha spiegato ulteriore
variabilità. Ciò suggerisce una forte relazione fra memoria fonologica e linguaggio,
indipendentemente dalla appartenenza a un gruppo o all‘altro. Il secondo migliore
predittore è stato la comprensione lessicale, che ha predetto la comprensione
morfosintattica e testuale nel gruppo totale, mentre l‘appartenenza al gruppo DSL o TD
non ha spiegato ulteriore variabilità. Questi risultati suggeriscono abilità linguistiche
gerarchicamente strutturate in comprensione a prescindere del gruppo di appartenenza.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Levorato, Maria Chiara
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 23 > Scuole per il 23simo ciclo > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PSICOLOGIA DELLO SVILUPPO E DEI PROCESSI DI SOCIALIZZAZIONE
Data di deposito della tesi:NON SPECIFICATO
Anno di Pubblicazione:31 Gennaio 2011
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Disturbo Specifico del Linguaggio, DSL, Specific Language Impairment, SLI
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/04 Psicologia dello sviluppo e psicologia dell'educazione
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione
Codice ID:3476
Depositato il:29 Lug 2011 13:25
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