Vai ai contenuti. | Spostati sulla navigazione | Spostati sulla ricerca | Vai al menu | Contatti | Accessibilità

| Crea un account

Furlanello, Tommaso (2011) Parametri eritrocitari e reticolocitari in corso di infiammazione sistemica nel cane. [Tesi di dottorato]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]
Anteprima
Documento PDF (Tesi di Dottorato) - Versione accettata
3157Kb

Abstract (inglese)

Erythrocyte and reticulocyte parameters during systemic inflammation in the dog

Background. Anemia of inflammation (AI), also known as anemia of chronic disease, is a complex multiorgan response to inflammatory disorders and related cytokine release. Three main mechanisms have been proposed: 1) retention of iron within the mononuclear phagocyte system caused by hepcidin action, 2) inhibition of erythropoiesis by cytokines, and 3) impaired response to erythropoietin. Although this response belongs to the innate immunity and is aimed to reduce the iron bioavailability for infectious agents or neoplastic cells, a detrimental effect for the patient can be observed. In canine medicine the occurrence of AI has been documented decades ago, but little information is available about the prevalence of AI in the clinical setting and on the hematopoietic response to the inflammation magnitude.

Aims. To classify the prevalence of anemia in a population of sick dogs, presented to a veterinary hospital, and to study the prevalence of variation in the erythron parameters (i.e., prevalence of anemia and related indexes) according to their degree of inflammation.

Methods. In order to assess the prevalence of anemia in sick dogs, complete blood counts obtained at the time of admission to the “Clinica Veterinaria San Marco” in one year period (January 2010 to December 2010) were analyzed. Anemia was defined when hemoglobin (Hgb) was < 13 g/dL. To assess how the presence of anemia was related to increased severity of inflammation four groups of dogs cross-matched for breed (or weight), age and sex, with different concentration of serum C reactive protein (CRP) were created. These groups were formed from the analysis of the clinical records of a five-years period (2005-2010). The first group of sick dogs (Group 0) had CRP within reference range, Group 1 included sick dogs with 1-10 fold increase in CRP; Group 2 included sick dogs with 11-30 fold increase in CRP; and Group 3 included sick dogs with > 31 fold increase in CRP. For all dogs full hematological and biochemical data were available for analysis.

Results: Anemia was present in 23.4% of the 3579 sick dogs admitted in the year 2010. From the search of 22,669 clinical records of the five-years period (2005-2010), 3452 dogs were included for analysis to assess how the degree of anemia is related to an increased in severity of inflammation. These dogs were divided in four cross-matched group of 864 dogs. Analysis of these sick dogs showed that higher level of inflammation was statistically associated to lower Hgb content. When present the anemia was most of the time mild, normocytic, normochromic, and non regenerative. Anemia was detected in 9.5% of the dogs in Group 0, in 18.8% of the dogs in Group 1, in 40.5% of the dogs in Group 2 and in 39.4% of the dogs in Group 3. Mean reticulocyte absolute count was showed no significant difference between the four groups of sick dogs with different level of inflammation, but in sick dogs with higher CRP concentration reticulocyte abnormalities in both volume and Hgb content were often present.

Conclusions: Severity of inflammation was positively associated to prevalence of anemia in sick dogs; the anemia was mild, normocytic, normochromic, and non regenerative. In severe inflammation reticulocytes were smaller in volume and with reduced Hgb content.

Abstract (italiano)

Parametri eritrocitari e reticolocitari in corso di infiammazione sistemica nel cane

Introduzione. L’anemia da infiammazione (Anemia of Inflammation, AI), conosciuta anche come anemia da malattia cronica, è una complessa risposta organica ad uno stato infiammatorio e all’associato rilascio di citokine. Sono stati proposti tre principali meccanismi patofisiologici per motivare la comparsa dell’anemia: 1) sequestro del ferro all’interno del sistema fagocitico-mononucleare conseguente alla secrezione di epcidina, 2) inibizione all’eritropoiesi indotta dall’epcidina e 3) insufficiente risposta all’eritropoietina. Nonostante le azioni prima elencate facciano parte della risposta immunitaria innata e siano finalizzate a ridurre la biodisponibilità del ferro per agenti infettivi e cellule neoplastiche, non è infrequente che l’anemia possa associarsi ad effetti negativi per il paziente. In medicina canina l’AI è nota da tempo, ma vi sono scarse informazioni relative alla prevalenza in ambito clinico e non sperimentale. Inoltre mancano informazioni relative alla risposta eritrocitaria e reticolocitaria in relazione all’intensità dello stato infiammatorio.

Obiettivi. Preliminarmente si vuole valutare la prevalenza dell’anemia in un ampio numero di cani portati per indagini cliniche ad una clinica veterinaria. Successivamente verrà indagato l’assetto ematologico in differenti popolazioni di animali, stratificati in base al grado di infiammazione.

Metodi. La prevalenza dell’anemia nei cani affetto da uno stato di malattia sono stati esaminati 3579 animali portati per prima visita alla Clinica Veterinaria San Marco nell’anno 2010. I pazienti sono classificati come anemici quando l’emoglobina (Hgb) era < 13 gr/dL. Per indagare correlare l’assetto ematologico in rapporto allo stato infiammatorio, sono stati creati 4 gruppi di cani, omogenei per razze (o peso), età e sesso, divisi in base ai livelli di proteina C reattiva (CRP). Questi gruppi sono stati creati analizzando i dati clinici raccolti in un periodo di 5 anni (2005-2010). Il primo gruppo (Gruppo 0) presentava concentrazioni sieriche di CRP comprese all’interno dell’intervallo di riferimento, nel Gruppo 1 era aumentata di 1-10 volte, nel Gruppo 2 di 11-30 e nel Gruppo 3 superava di almeno 31 volte il limite massimo dell’intervallo di riferimento. Per tutti cani erano disponibili numerosi esami emato-biochimici.

Risultati. Per quanto riguarda i cani visitati nell’anno 2010, l’anemia era presente nel 23,4% dei casi. Tra i 22.669 cani visitati nel periodo quinquennio 2005-2010 venivano estratti i dati di 3452 soggetti, divisi in 4 gruppi omogenei e differenziabili di 864 cani. Considerando l’entità dell’infiammazione, si è notata una diminuzione dell’Hgb al crescere dell’infiammazione stessa. L’anemia, quando presente, era mediamente lieve, normocromica e normocitica e non rigenerativa. L’anemia era presente nel 9,5% dei cani del Gruppo 0, nel 18,8% nel Gruppo 1, nel 40,5% del Gruppo 2 e nel 39,4% del Gruppo 3. La conta reticolocitaria non presentava differenze significative, ma nei pazienti che presentavano i maggiori livelli di CRP si osservava una tendenza alla microcitosi e all’ipocromia.

Conclusioni. La gravità dell’infiammazione presenta una correlazione diretta con la prevalenza dell’anemia; l’anemia è lieve, normocitica e normocromica, non rigenerativa. Nelle infiammazioni gravi si osserva una riduzione sia del volume che del contenuto emoglobinico dei reticolociti.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:BERNARDINI, DANIELE
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 22 > Scuole per il 22simo ciclo > SCIENZE VETERINARIE > SCIENZE CLINICHE VETERINARIE
Data di deposito della tesi:NON SPECIFICATO
Anno di Pubblicazione:25 Gennaio 2011
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):ANEMIA, INFLAMMATION, PROTEIN C REACTIVE, DOG, RETICULOCYTE
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > VET/08 Clinica medica veterinaria
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > pre 2012 - Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Veterinarie
Codice ID:3482
Depositato il:21 Lug 2011 08:50
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

1. Abbo AH, Lucroy MD, Assessment of anemia as an independent predictor of response to chemotherapy and survival in dogs with lymphoma: 96 cases (1993-2006), J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007, 231, 12: 1836-42 Cerca con Google

2. Adamson JW, The Anemia of Inflammation/Malignancy: Mechanisms and Management, Hematology, 2008, 8: 159-165 Cerca con Google

3. Arosio P, Levi S, Cytosolic and mitochondrial ferritins in the regulation of cellular iron homeostasis and oxidative damage, Biochim Biophys Acta, 2010, 1800, 8:783-92 Cerca con Google

4. Ashton N, Phisiology of red and white blood cells Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine, 2010, 11, 6: 236-241 Cerca con Google

5. Baker D, Gaunt S, Babin S, Anemia of Inflammation in Dogs Infected with Ehrlichia platys, Am J Vet Res 1988, 49: 1014-1016 Cerca con Google

6. Bauer N, Moritz A, Evaluation of three methods for measurement of hemoglobin and calculated hemoglobin parameters with the ADVIA 2120 and ADVIA 120 in dogs, cats, and horses, Vet Clin Pathol, 2008, 37,2: 173–179 Cerca con Google

7. Beautyman B, Bills T, Osmotic Error in Measurements of Red-Cell Volume, The Lancet, 1974, 10, 905-906 Cerca con Google

8. Beck ON, Diagnostic Hematology, Springer-Verlag, London, 2009, 199-244 Cerca con Google

9. Beutler E, Disorders of Iron Metabolism, in Williams Hematology, 8th Ed, Kaushansky K et al., (eds), McGraw-Hill Professional (CD), 2010 Cerca con Google

10. Bird KE, The Hematologic and Lymphoid Systems, in Small Animal Pediatrics- The First 12 Months of Life (Peterson ME & Kutzler MA Eds), Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, Missouri, 2011, 305-327 Cerca con Google

11. Bleackley MR, Wong AY, Hudson DM, Wu CH, Macgillivray RT, Blood Iron Homeostasis: Newly Discovered Proteins and Iron Imbalance, Transfusion Medicine Reviews, 2009, 23, 2: 103-123 Cerca con Google

12. Boccio J, Salgueiro J, Lysionek A, Zubillaga M, Weill R, Goldman C, Caro R., Current Knowledge of Iron Metabolism, Biological Trace element Research, 2003, 92, 3: 189-92 Cerca con Google

13. Boisvert AM, Tvedten HW, Scott MA, Artifactual effects of hypernatremia and hyponatremia on red cell analytes measured by the Bayer H1 Analyze, Vet Clin Pathol. 1999; 28, 3:91-96 Cerca con Google

14. Bolahyrli M et al., C-reactive protein as an acute phase protein in cancer patients, Med Oncol, 2007, 24: 338–344 Cerca con Google

15. Bovy C, Gothot A, Delanaye P, Warling X, Krzesinski JM, Beguin Y, Mature erythrocyte parameters as new markers of functional iron deficiency in haemodialysis: sensitivity and specificity, Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007, 22, 4: 1156-62 Cerca con Google

16. Briggs C, Quality counts: new parameters in blood cell counting, Int. Jnl. Lab. Hem. 2009, 31: 277–297 Cerca con Google

17. Caldin M, Furlanello T, Lubas G, Brigato L, 1999. Use of an automated Ferritin assay in normal dogs and its utility in the assessment of iron status, J of Veterinary Internal Medicine 13, 262 Cerca con Google

18. Caldin M, Furlanello T, Lubas G, Validation of an immunoturbidimetric D-dimer assay in canine citrated plasma, Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 2000, 29, 2: 51-54 Cerca con Google

19. Caldin M, Furlanello T, Lubas G., Use of an automated Ferritin assay in normal dogs and its utility in the assessment of iron status, J of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 1999, 13: 262 Cerca con Google

20. Caldin M, Tasca S, Carli E, Bianchini S, Furlanello T, Martinez-Subiela S, Ceron JJ, Serum acute phase protein concentrations in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism with and without concurrent inflammatory conditions, Vet Clin Pathol, 2009, 38, 1: 63–68 Cerca con Google

21. Caldin M, Zanella A, Furlanello T, Ferritina nell’emangiosarcoma, Atti del 65° Congresso Internazionale Multisala SCIVAC, Rimini, 2010, 291 Cerca con Google

22. Camaschella C, Pagani A, Iron and erythropoiesis: a dual relationship, Int J Hematol. 2010, in stampa Cerca con Google

23. Camaschella C, Strati P, Recent advances in iron metabolism and related disorders, Intern Emerg Med, 2010, in stampa Cerca con Google

24. Cartwright GE, Lauritsen MA, Humphreys S, Jones PJ, Merrill IM, Wintrobe MM. The anemia of infection. II. The experimental production of hypoferremia and anemia in dogs. J Clin Invest. 1946, 25:81–6. Cerca con Google

25. Ceron J, Ohno K, Caldin M, A seven-point plan for acute phase protein interpretation in companion animals, The Veterinary Journal, 2008, 177: 6–7 Cerca con Google

26. Chasis JA, Mohandas N, Erythroblastic islands: niches for erythropoiesis. Blood 2008, 112: 470–478 Cerca con Google

27. Chepelev NL, Willmore WG, Regulation of iron pathways in response to hypoxia, Free Radic. Biol. Med., 2011, in stampa Cerca con Google

28. Christian JA, Erythrokinetics and Erythrocyte Destruction, in Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology, 6th Ed., (Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ, Eds), Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, 2010, 136-143 Cerca con Google

29. Clark SF, Iron deficiency anemia: diagnosis and management, Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 2009, 25:122–128 Cerca con Google

30. Comazzi S, Pieralisi C, Bertazzolo W, Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in canine blood: frequency and associations in 1022 samples, J of Small Animal Practice, 2004, 45: 343-349 Cerca con Google

31. Cook JD, Diagnosis and management of iron-deficiency anaemia, Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology, 2005, 18, 2: 319–332 Cerca con Google

32. Couto CG, Anemia, in Small Animal Internal Medicine, 4th Ed, Nelson RW & Couto CG (Eds), Saunders, 2008, 1209-1223. Cerca con Google

33. Cowgill ES, Neel JA, Grindem CB, Clinical application of reticulocyte counts in dogs and cats, Vet Clin Small Anim, 2003, 33: 1223–1244 Cerca con Google

34. Cray C, Zaias J, Altman NH, Acute Phase Response in Animals: A Review, Comp Med, 2009, 59, 6: 517-26. Cerca con Google

35. Crisman MV, Scarratt WK, Zimmermann KL, Blood Proteins and Inflammation in the Horse, Vet Clin Equine 2008, 24: 285–297 Cerca con Google

36. Cui Y, Wu Q, Zhou Y, Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia: new molecular mechanisms, Kidney International, 2009, 76: 1137–1141 Cerca con Google

37. Delves P, Innate Immunity, in Roitt’s Essential Immunology, Wiley-Blackwell, 2006, 1-20 Cerca con Google

38. Doretto P, Cappelletti P, La diagnosi di laboratorio della carenza di ferro, RIMeL-IJLaM, 2008, 4, 166-177 Cerca con Google

39. Dunn LL, Rahmanto YS, Richardson DR, Iron uptake and metabolism in the new millennium, Trends Cell Biol., 2007, 2:93-100 Cerca con Google

40. Eckersall ED & Bell R, Acute phase proteins: Biomarkers of infection and inflammation in veterinary medicine, The Veterinary Journal, 2010, 185: 23–27 Cerca con Google

41. Eklund CM, Proinflammatory Cytokines in CRP Baseline Regulation, Advances in Clinical Chemistry, 2008, 48, 111-136 Cerca con Google

42. El-Khatib M, Duncan HJ, Kant KS Role of C-reactive protein, reticulocyte haemoglobin content and inflammatory markers in iron and erythropoietin administration in dialysis patients, Nephrology (Carlton). 2006, 11, 5: 400-4 Cerca con Google

43. El-Khatib M, The Role Of Inflammation On Iron And Erythropoietin Resistance, J of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, 2009, 2, 2: 45–54 Cerca con Google

44. Ervasti M, Evaluation of Iron Status Using Methods Based on the Features of Red Blood Cells and Reticulocytes, Doctoral dissertation, University of Kuopio, 2008, 1-106, [www.uku.fi/vaitokset/2008/isbn978-951-27-0956-4.pdf, con accesso 1-12-2009] Vai! Cerca con Google

45. Feldman BF, Kaneko J, Farver T, Anemia of inflammatory disease in the dog: Ferrokinetics of Adjuvant-Induced Anemia, Am J Vet Res, 1981a; 42, 4: 583-585 Cerca con Google

46. Feldman BF, Kaneko J, Farver T, Anemia of inflammatory disease in the dog: clinical characterization, Am J Vet Res 1981b; 42, 7: 1109-1113 Cerca con Google

47. Feldman BF, Nonregenerative Anemia, in Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 6th Ed (Ettinger SJ & Feldman EC, Eds), Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis, MI, 2005, 1908-1917 Cerca con Google

48. Franchini M, Montagnana M, Lippi G, Hepcidin and iron metabolism: From laboratory to clinical implications, Clin Chim Acta., 2010, 411, 21-22: 1565-9 Cerca con Google

49. Friedrichs KR, Thomas T, Plier M, Andrews GA, Chavey PS, Young KM, Evaluation of Serum Ferritin as a Tumor Marker for Canine Histiocytic Sarcoma, J Vet Intern Med 2010, 24:904–911 Cerca con Google

50. Fry MM, Anemia of Inflammatory, Neoplastic, Renal, and Endocrine Diseases, in Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology, 6th Ed. (Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ, Eds), Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, 2010, 246-250 Cerca con Google

51. Fry MM, Kirk CA. Reticulocyte indices in a canine model of nutritional iron deficiency. Vet Clin Pathol 2006; 35: 172-181 Cerca con Google

52. Fry MM, Liggett JL, Baek SJ, Molecular Cloning and Expression of Canine Hepcidin, Vet Clin Pathol 2004; 33: 223-227 Cerca con Google

53. Furlanello T, Caldin M, Fiorio F, Primary Hyperfibrinogenolysis in the dog, Vet Clin Pathol, 2005, 34 suppl, 293 Cerca con Google

54. Furlanello T, Tasca S, Caldin M, Carli E, Patron C, Tranquillo M, Lubas G, Solano-Gallego L, Artifactual changes in canine blood following storage, detected using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer, Vet Clin Pathol., 2006, 35, 1: 42-6 Cerca con Google

55. Ganz T & Nemeth E, Iron imports. IV. Hepcidin and regulation of body iron metabolism, Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2006, 199–203 Cerca con Google

56. Ganz T, Anemia of Chronic Disease, in Molecular Hematology, 3rd edition. Prvan D & Gribben J, Eds, Blackwell, London, 2010, 165-168 Cerca con Google

57. Ganz T, Iron in innate immunity: starve the invaders, Current Opinion in Immunology 2009, 21:63–67. Cerca con Google

58. Ganz T, Nemeth E, Iron Sequestration and Anemia of Inflammation, Semin Hematol 2009, 46: 387–393 Cerca con Google

59. Gebhardt C, Hirschberger J, Arndt G, Krainer K, Schweigert FJ, Brunnberg L, Kaspers B, Kohn B, Use of C-reactive protein to predict outcome in dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis, Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 2009, 19, 5: 450–458 Cerca con Google

60. Gomollon F, Gisbert JP, Anemia and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases,World J Gastroenterol, 2009, 7; 15, 37: 4659-4665 Cerca con Google

61. Goodfellow M, Papasouliotis K, Cue S, Crawford E, Hall E, Effect of storage on microcytosis observed in dogs with portosystemic vascular anomalies, Research in Veterinary Science, 2008, 84: 490–493. Cerca con Google

62. Handelman GJ, Levin NW, Iron and anemia in human biology: a review of mechanism, Heart Fail Rev., 2008, 13, 4: 393-404 Cerca con Google

63. Harvey JW, Iron Metabolism and Its Disorders, in Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals (6th Edition), Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW and Bruss ML (Eds), Elsevier, 2008a, 259-285 Cerca con Google

64. Harvey JW, The Erythrocyte: Physiology, Metabolism, and Biochemical Disorders, in Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals (6th Edition), Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW and Bruss ML (Eds), Elsevier, 2008b, 173-240 Cerca con Google

65. Hassan E, Anemia in the Critically Ill Patient, J of Pharmacy Practice, 2008, 21, 6: 405-410 Cerca con Google

66. Hentze MW, Muckenthaler MU, Galy B, Camaschella C, Two to Tango: Regulation of Mammalian Iron Metabolism, Cell, 2010, 142, 1: 24-38 Cerca con Google

67. Higgins T, Beutler E, Doumas BT., Hemoglobin, Iron, and Bilirubin, in Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, Burtis CA et al. (Eds), Elsevier, 2008, 509-527 Cerca con Google

68. Hillman RS, Ault KA, Rinder HM, Iron Deficiency Anemia, in Hematology in Clinical Practice, 4th Ed, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2005, 53-64 Cerca con Google

69. Jialal I, Devaraj S, Modulation of Biomarkers of Inflammation, in Clinical Lipidology, A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease Edited by: Christie M. Ballantyne, 2009, 396-409 Cerca con Google

70. Kemna EH, Tjalsma H, Willems HL, Swinkels DW, Hepcidin: from discovery to differential diagnosis, Haematologica, 2008, 93, 1:90-7 Cerca con Google

71. Kjelgaard-Hansen M & Jacobsen S, Assay Validation and Diagnostic Applications of Major Acute-phase Protein Testing in Companion Animals, Clin Lab Med, 2011, in stampa Cerca con Google

72. Kjelgaard-Hansen M, Jensen AL, Houser GA, et al. Use of serum C-reactive protein as an early marker of inflammatory activity in canine type II immune-mediated polyarthritis: case report. Acta Vet Scand 2006, 48, 1: 9–12 Cerca con Google

73. Kjelgaard-Hansen M, The Benefits of using Canine C-Reactive Protein Routinely – Diagnostic and Monitoring Aspects, Proceedings of the XX ECVIM Congress, 2010 (CD). Cerca con Google

74. Klenner S, Bauer N, Moritz A, Evaluation of three automated human immunoturbidimetric assays for the detection of C-reactive protein in dogs, J Vet Diagn Invest, 2010, 22: 544–552 Cerca con Google

75. Knovich MA, Storey M, Coffman LG, Torti SV, Torti FM., Ferritin for the clinician, Blood Reviews, 2009, 23, 3:95-104 Cerca con Google

76. Kohgo Y, Ikuta K, Ohtake T, Torimoto Y, Kato J, Body iron metabolism and pathophysiology of iron overload, Int J Hematol, 2008, 1, 88: 7–15 Cerca con Google

77. Kop WJ, Weinstein AA, C-Reactive Protein, in Encyclopedia of Stress (2nd Ed), Fink G (Ed), Elsevier, 2007, 653-658 Cerca con Google

78. Kovesdy CP, Lee GH, Kalantar-Zadeh K, Serum Ferritin: Deceptively Simple or Simply Deceptive? Lessons Learned From Iron Therapy in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease, Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 2008, 21, 6, 411-419 Cerca con Google

79. Kumar R, Gupta V, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: Current Concepts, Indian J Pediatr, 2008; 75, 7: 733-738 Cerca con Google

80. Kusuma D, Schultz TK, Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, Hospital Physician March/April 2009 35-43 Cerca con Google

81. Lankhorst CE, Wish JB, Anemia in renal disease: diagnosis and management, Blood Rev. 2010, 24, 1:39-47 Cerca con Google

82. Lubas G, Caldin M, Wiinberg B, Kristensen A, Laboratory Testing of Coagulation Disorders, in Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology, 6th ed. (Weiss DJS, Wardrop KJ Eds), Wiley, 2010, 1082-1100 Cerca con Google

83. Ludwig H, Prevalence and incidence of anemia and risk factors for anemia in patients with cancer, in Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhEPO) in Clinical Oncology, 2nd ed (Nowrousian MR ed), Springer, Wien, 2008, 198-206 Cerca con Google

84. Lynch S, Influence of Infection/Inflammation, Thalassemia and Nutritional Status on Iron Absorption, Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 2007, 77, 3: 217–223 Cerca con Google

85. March H, Barger A, McCullough S, Schaeffer D, Macwilliams P, Use of the ADVIA 120 for differentiating extracellular and intracellular hemoglobin, Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 2005, 34, 2: 106-109 Cerca con Google

86. Marković M, Majkić-Singh N, Ignjatović S, Singh S, Reticulocyte haemoglobin content vs. soluble transferrin receptor and ferritin index in iron deficiency anaemia accompanied with inflammation, Int. Jnl. Lab. Hem. 2007, 29, 341–346 Cerca con Google

87. Martínez-Subiela S, Caldin M, Parra MD, Ottolini N, Bertolini G, Bernal LJ, García-Martinez JD, Cerón JJ, Canine C-reactive protein measurements in cerebrospinal fluid by a time-resolved immunofluorimetric assay, J Vet Diagn Invest., 2011, 23, 1: 63-7 Cerca con Google

88. Mast AE, Blinder MA, Dietzen DJ., Reticulocyte hemoglobin content, Am. J. Hematol., 2008, 83, 4:307–310 Cerca con Google

89. Means RT, Anemias Secondary to Chronic Disease and Systemic Disorders, in Wintrobe’s Clinical Hematology, 12th Ed, Greer JP et al. (Eds), Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, 2009, 1221-1238 Cerca con Google

90. Means RT, Glader B, Anemia: General Considerations, in Wintrobe’s Clinical Hematology, 12th Ed, Greer JP et al. (Eds), Wolters Kluwer, Philadelphia, 2009, 779-809 Cerca con Google

91. Metha AB, Hoffbrand AV, Haematological aspects of systemic disease, in Postgraduate Haematology: 6th Edition (Hoffbrand AV et al. Eds), 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 940-955 Cerca con Google

92. Miconi L, L'anemia da malattie croniche, LigandAssay 2007, 12, 4: 285-290 Cerca con Google

93. Miller AG, Morley PS, Rao S, Avery AC, Lana SE, Olver CS, Anemia is associated with decreased survival time in dogs with lymphoma, J Vet Intern Med. 2009, 23, 1: 116-122 Cerca con Google

94. Moritz A, Fickenscher Y, Meyer K. Canine and feline hematology reference values for the ADVIA 120 hematology system. Vet Clin Pathol. 2004; 33:32–38. Cerca con Google

95. Nairz M, Schroll A, Sonnweber T, Weiss G, The struggle for iron - a metal at the host-pathogen interface, Cell Microbiol. 2010, 12, 12: 1691-702 Cerca con Google

96. Nakamura M, Takahashi M, Ohno K, Koshino A, Nakashima K, Setoguchi A, Fujino Y, Tsujimoto H, C-reactive protein concentration in dogs with various diseases. J Vet Med Sci, 2008, 70: 127–131 Cerca con Google

97. Nemeth E, Ganz T, Regulation of iron metabolism by hepcidin, Annu Rev Nutr. 2006, 26: 323-42 Cerca con Google

98. Neumann S, Serum iron level as an indicator for inflammation in dogs and cats, Comp Clin Path, 2003, 12: 90–94 Cerca con Google

99. Nowrousian MR, Definition, classification and characterization of anemia in cancer, in Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (rhRPO) in Clinical Oncology, 2nd Ed, Nowrousian MR (Ed.), Springer, Wien, 117-148, 2008 Cerca con Google

100. O’Meara E, de Denus S, Management of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure, Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2010, 12: 532–548 Cerca con Google

101. Olver CS, Erythropoiesis, in Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology, 6th Ed. (Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ, Eds), Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, 2010, 36-42 Cerca con Google

102. Orino K & Watanabe K. Molecular, physiological and clinical aspects of the iron storage protein ferritin, The Veterinary Journal, 2008, 178, 2: 191-201 Cerca con Google

103. Ottenjann M, Weingart C, Arndt G, Kohn B, Characterization of the Anemia of Inflammatory Disease in Cats with Abscesses, Pyothorax, or Fat Necrosis, J Vet Intern Med, 2006, 20, 5: 1143-1450 Cerca con Google

104. Price EA, Schrier SL, Unexplained Aspects of Anemia of Inflammation, Advances in Hematology, 2010, Article ID 508739, 5 pages Cerca con Google

105. Prins MM, van Leeuwen MW, Teske E, Stability and reproducibility of Advia 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency, Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 2009, 11: 272-278 Cerca con Google

106. Raj DSC, Role of Interleukin-6 in the Anemia of Chronic Disease, Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 2009, 38, 5: 382-388 Cerca con Google

107. Rebar AH, Red Blood Cell Responses in Disease: A Case Oriented Approach, AAHA Phoenix Yearly Conference Proceedings. 2009 (CD) Cerca con Google

108. Richardson DR, Kalinowski DS, Lau S, Jansson PJ, Lovejoy DB, Cancer cell iron metabolism and the development of potent iron chelators as anti-tumour agents, Bioch et Biophys Acta, 2009, 1790, 7:702-17 Cerca con Google

109. Riley RS, Ben-Ezra JM, Tidwell A, Reticulocyte Enumeration: Past & Present, Laboratory Medicine, 2001, 10, 32, 599-608 Cerca con Google

110. Riley RS, Ben-Ezra JM, Tidwell A, Romagnoli G., Reticulocyte analysis by flow cytometry and other techniques, Hematol Oncol Clin N Am, 2002, 16: 373–420 Cerca con Google

111. Robertson KA, Hutchison SMW, 2009, Assessment of iron status and the role for iron-replacement therapy in anaemic cancer patients under the care of a specialist palliative care unit, Palliative Medicine, 2009, 23, 5: 406-409 Cerca con Google

112. Ryan DH, Examination of Blood Cells, in Williams Hematology, 8th Ed, Kaushansky K et al., (eds), McGraw-Hill Professional (CD), 2010. Cerca con Google

113. Schulze KJ, Dreyfuss ML, Iron-Deficiency anemia, in Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (2nd Edition), Caballero B (Ed), 2005, Academic Press, New York, 101-109 Cerca con Google

114. Schwedler SB, Filep JG, Galle J, Wanner C, Potempa LA, C-Reactive Protein: A Family of Proteins to Regulate Cardiovascular Function, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 2006, 47, 2: 212-222 Cerca con Google

115. Shaefer DMW, Iron Metabolism and Laboratory Assessment of Iron Status, Proceedings ACVCP Annual Meeting, Chicago, 2009 (CD) Cerca con Google

116. Sihler KC, Napolitano LM, Anemia of inflammation in critically ill patients, J Intensive Care Med., 2008, 23, 5: 295-302 Cerca con Google

117. Soeters PB, Grimble RF, Dangers, and benefits of the cytokine mediated response to injury and infection, Clinical Nutrition, 2009, 28, 6: 583-596 Cerca con Google

118. Steinberg JD, Olver CS, Hematologic and biochemical abnormalities indicating iron deficiency are associated with decreased reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) and reticulocyte volume (rMCV) in dogs, Vet Clin Pathol. 2005, 34: 23–27 Cerca con Google

119. Steinmetz HT, Tsamaloukas A, Schmitz S, Wiegand J, Rohrberg R, Eggert J, Breuer F, Tessen HW, Eustermann H, Thomas L, A new concept for the differential diagnosis and therapy of anaemia in cancer patients, Support Care Cancer. 2010, 19, 2:261-269 Cerca con Google

120. Stokol T, Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation, in Schalm’s veterinary hematology. – 6th ed. (Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ, Eds), Wiley, 2010, 679-688 Cerca con Google

121. Thatchil J, 2008, Immature reticulocytes and its relevance to thrombosis, Ann Hematol, 2008, 87:1025–1026 Cerca con Google

122. Theurl I, Aigner E, Theurl M, Nairz M, Seifert M, Schroll A, Sonnweber T, Eberwein L, Witcher DR, Murphy AT, Wroblewski VJ, Wurz E, Datz C, Weiss G, Regulation of iron homeostasis in anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia: diagnostic and therapeutic implications, Blood, 2009, 113, 21: 5277-5286 Cerca con Google

123. Tvedten H, Laboratory and Clinical Diagnosis of Anemia, in Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology, 6th Ed. (Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ, Eds), Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, 2010, 152-161 Cerca con Google

124. Tvedten H, Moritz A, Reticulocyte and Heinz Body Staining and Enumeration, in Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology, 6th Ed., (Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ, Eds), Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, 2010, 1067-1073 Cerca con Google

125. van Gameren MM, Willemse PH, Mulder NH, Limburg PC, Groen HJ, Vellenga E, de Vries EG, Effects of recombinant human interleukin-6 in cancer patients: a phase I-II study. Blood 1994, 84: 1434-41. Cerca con Google

126. Viatte L, Vaulont S, Hepcidin, the iron watcher, Biochimie, 2009, 91: 1223–1228 Cerca con Google

127. Vicinanza P, Catalano L, Pollio G, Vicinanza M, Di Chiara P, Δ-CHr improves the identification of anemic syndromes and the evaluation of hemoglobin synthesis, Clin. Lab. Haem., 2005, 27, 217–220 Cerca con Google

128. Waner T, Harrus S, Anemia of Inflammatory Disease, in Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 5th Ed (Ettinger SJ &Feldman EC, Eds), WB Saunders, Philadelphia, 2000, 205-1917 Cerca con Google

129. Wang W, Knovich MA, Coffman LG, Torti FM, Torti SV, Serum ferritin: Past, present and future, Biochim Biophys Acta, 2010, 1800, 8: 760-9. Cerca con Google

130. Weiss D, Krehbiel J, Lund J, Studies of the Pathogenesis of Anemia of Inflammation: Mechanism of Impaired erythropoiesis, Am J Vet Res, 1983, 10, 44: 1832-1835 Cerca con Google

131. Weiss D, Krehbiel J. Studies of the Pathogenesis of Anemia of Inflammation: erythrocyte survival, Am J Vet Res, 1983, 44, 10: 1830-1831 Cerca con Google

132. Weiss D, Tvedten H, The Complete Blood Count and Bone Marrow Examination: General Comments and Selected Techniques, in Small Animal Clinical Diagnosis by Laboratory Methods, 4th Ed. (Willard MD, Tvedten H, Eds.), Saunders, Philadelphia, 14-37 Cerca con Google

133. Weiss DJ, Iron and Copper Deficiencies and Disorders of Iron Metabolism, in Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology, 6th Ed., (Weiss DJ, Wardrop KJ, Eds), Blackwell, Ames, Iowa, 2010, 167-171 Cerca con Google

134. Weiss G, Goonough LT, Anemia of Chronic Disease, N Engl J Med 2005, 352, 10: 1011-1123 Cerca con Google

135. Weiss G, Iron metabolism in the anemia of chronic disease, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 2009, 1790, 682–693 Cerca con Google

136. Weiss G, Modification of Iron Regulation by the Inflammatory Response, Best Practice & Research Clinical Haematology, 2005, 18, 2: 183–201 Cerca con Google

137. Wrighting DM, Andrews NC: Iron Homeostasis and Erythropoiesis, Current Topics in Developmental Biology, 2008, 82: 141-167 Cerca con Google

138. Yadav D, Chandra J, Iron Deficiency: Beyond Anemia, Indian J Pediatr, 2010, in press Cerca con Google

139. Yuile CL, Lucas FV, Jones CK, Chapin S, Whipple WH, J Exp Med 1953, 98: 173-194 Cerca con Google

140. Zandecki M, Genevieve F, Gerard J, Godon A, Spurious counts and spurious results on haematology analysers: a review. Part II: white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin, red cell indices and reticulocytes Int J Lab Hematol. 2007, 29, 1:21-41 Cerca con Google

141. Zarychanski R, Houston DS, Anemia of chronic disease: A harmful disorder or an adaptive, beneficial response ?, CMAJ, 2008, 12, 179, 4: 333-337 Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record