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Steriotis , Alexandros Klavdios (2011) Ventricular arrhythmias at risk of sudden cardiac death in young athletes. Non invasive cardiac examinations during preparticipation screening for sport eligibility. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Background: the pre-participation screening program of athletes has the goal of the early identification of previously unsuspected cardiovascular diseases with a prompt disqualification of the athletes from competitive physical activity. The most frequent disqualifying condition consists of rhythm and conduction abnormalities (nearly 40%).
Aim of the study and methods: the study of non-invasive cardiac examinations of young athletes discovered to have ventricular arrhythmias during the preparticipation screening program. A total of 145 young (<35 years) competitive athletes (M/F=106/39=2.7, mean age 17.3±5.3 years) were evaluated in the outpatient clinic of the department of Cardiology of Padua University from years 2007 to 2010. All subjects were referred to our laboratory due to ventricular arrhythmias detected during preparticipations screening, through 12 lead-ECG or during exercise stress test or ECG-Holter monitoring. The study protocol included family and personal history, 12-lead basal ECG, echocardiography-Doppler, ECG-Holter monitoring, exercise stress test, signal-averaged ECG, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Moreover in selected cases invasive examination and genetic study were performed. When available, follow-up was also reported.
Results: In 15% of athletes ECG was pathologic. Negative T-waves beyond V2 were present in 2.1% and were associated with the presence of cardiac disease. Late potentials were present in 6.8%. Frequent echocardiographic findings were right and left ventricular enlargement, mitral valve prolapse and mild atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Congenital diseases were detected in 2.7%. Moreover a possible form of cardiomyopathy was identified in 2.1%. Premature ventricular beats (PVBs) were more frequently monomorphic (88%) and isolated (57%). Rapid ventricular tachycardia was rare (2.7%). During exercise stress test PVBs disappeared in 55.7%, were present only during recovery in 11.5%, persisted in 8.6% and in were exercise-induced in 13.7%. Most frequent PVBs morphology was LBBB with inferior axis deviation. The presence of segmental abnormalities on CMR, present in almost half of the athletes in which it was performed, is not always easy to interpretate and follow-up is needed. Overall 30% of athletes were judged to have potentially dangerous arrhythmias and in 10% of athletes antiarrhythmic therapy was initiated. A total of 44% athletes were put on detraining or disqualified.
Conclusion: pre-participation screening program identifies athletes with ventricular arrhythmias, of which 30% are judged to be potentially dangerous. ECG and submaximal exercise stress test are important tools that allow identification of arrhythmias in competitive sports, thus submaximal exercise stress test should always accompany ECG in the first level of evaluation of an athlete. Cardiologic screening with non-invasive techniques is fundamental for the study of young athletes with no previously known organic heart disease, suspected channelopathy or potentially dangerous idiopathic arrhythmias, as exercise may be harmful either as progression of disease or as arrhythmic death. Follow-up study demonstrated that the identification of arrhythmias in athletes, pharmacologic therapy or sport squalification, can prevent adverse outcomes. Collaboration of sports medicine and cardiology permits the identification of athletes with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden death. Risk stratification of athletes with ventricular arrhythmias remains difficult even after a thorough investigation of the heart with all the techniques available.

Abstract (italiano)

Introduzione: Il programma dello screening di preparticipazione per gli atleti ha il ruolo dell’identificazione precoce di malattie cardiovascolari non prima sospettate e la squalificazione dell’atleta dall’attività competitive. La più frequente condizione di squalifica sono le anomalie di ritmo e conduzione (circa 40%.)
Scopo e metodi lo studio con esami non invasivi cardiaci, i giovani atleti che sono scoperti di avere aritmie ventricolari durante il programma dello screening di preparticipazione. Un totale di 145 giovani atleti (>35 anni) sono studiati (età media 17.3±5.3 anni, M/F=106/39=2.7), valutati nell’ambulatorio “genetica clinica e molecolare delle cardiomiopatie” del Dipartimento della Cardiologia del Università di Padova dagli anni 2007-2010. Tutti i soggetti sono stati rivolti al nostro ambulatorio per aritmie ventricolari rilevate durante lo screening preparticipazione per la presenza di BEV all’ECG, durante la prova da sforzo o all’ECG-Holter delle 24 ore. Il protocollo di studio comprendeva: storia familiare e personale, ECG a 12 derivazioni, ecocardiogramma-Doppler, ECG-Holter, prova da sforzo, ricerca dei potenziali tardivi (SAECG), risonanza magnetica (RMC). In casi selezionati esami invasivi e studio genetico è stato eseguito. Quando disponibile è stato eseguito anche il follow-up.
Risultati Nel 15% degli atleti l’ECG era patologico. Onde T negative dopo V2 erano presenti in 2.1% ed erano associate con cardiopatia organica. I potenziali tardivi erano presenti solo nel 6.8%. Frequenti alterazioni ecocardiografiche erano la dilatazione del ventricolo destro e sinistro, il prolasso valvolare mitralico e lieve insufficienza delle valvole atrioventricolari. Cardiopatie congenite sono identificate nel 2.7%. Inoltre forme sospette di cardiomiopatia sono identificate nel 2.1%. I battiti ectopici ventricolari (BEV) erano più frequentemente monomorfi (88%), isolati (57%). Tachicardia ventricolare veloce era rara (2.7%). Durante la prova da sforzo i BEV scomparivano nel 55.7%, erano presenti solo nel recupero nel 11.5%, persistevano nel 8.6% ed erano indotti dall’esercizio nel 13.7%. La più frequente morfologia era tipo BBsn con asse inferiore. La presenza di anomalie segmentarie nella RMC, presenti in circa la metà degli atleti sottoposti all’esame, non è sempre facile d’interpretare e serve follow-up. Il 30% degli atleti sono stati giudicati di avere potenzialmente pericolose aritmie e nel 10% terapia antiaritmica è stata instaurata. Un totale di 44% atleti sono messi in defaticamento o sono stati squalificati.
Conclusione: Lo screening preparticipazione identifica atleti con aritmie ventricolari, dei quali il 30% sono giudicate potenzialmente pericolose. L’ECG e la prova da sforzo sotto massimale sono dei test fondamentali per l’identificazione di aritmie per gli sport competitivi e la prova da sforzo sottomassimale dovrebbe sempre accompagnare l’ECG come valutazione di primo livello negli atleti. Lo screening cardiologico con esami non invasivi è fondamentale per lo studio di atleti giovani con cardiopatia organica misconosciuta, il sospetto di cannalopatia o aritmie idiopatiche potenzialmente pericolose, dove l’esercizio può essere dannoso o come progressione di malattia o come morte aritmica. Lo studio di follow-up ha dimostrato che l’identificazione delle aritmie negli atleti, la terapia farmacologica o la squalificazione può prevenire la morte improvvisa. La collaborazione della medicina dello sport e della cardiologia permette l’identificazione di atleti con aritmie ventricolari e la prevenzione della morte improvvisa. La stratificazione del rischio rimane difficile anche dopo uno studio cardiaco approfondito con tutte le tecniche a disposizione.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Nava, Andrea - Bauce, Barbara
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 23 > Scuole per il 23simo ciclo > SCIENZE MEDICHE, CLINICHE E SPERIMENTALI > SCIENZE CARDIOVASCOLARI
Data di deposito della tesi:NON SPECIFICATO
Anno di Pubblicazione:28 Gennaio 2011
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):atleti, aritmie ventricolari, morte impovvisa cardiaca athletes, ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/11 Malattie dell'apparato cardiovascolare
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > pre 2012 - Dipartimento di Scienze Medico Diagnostiche e Terapie Speciali
Codice ID:3709
Depositato il:21 Lug 2011 12:42
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