Vai ai contenuti. | Spostati sulla navigazione | Spostati sulla ricerca | Vai al menu | Contatti | Accessibilità

| Crea un account

Pilla, Tommaso (2011) Studio della farmacocinetica del Propofol, progettazione e validazione di un sistema di target controlled infusion nel gatto. [Tesi di dottorato]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]
Anteprima
Documento PDF
4Mb

Abstract (inglese)

Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is an actual topic and a still developing research area. Technological progress makes equipment for infusion increasingly sophisticated, reliable and safe. Latest infusion systems have been developed incorporating microprocessors and algorithms based on the drug’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for the population involved.
The aim of this research project was to develop and validate a system for target-controlled infusion (TCI) for administering propofol to domestic cats.
Knowledge on behavior of propofol, administered as a continuous infusion in cats are, at present, still few and sometimes contradictory.
It is well known that cats differ substantially from other animals in the ability to form glucuronide conjugates of some xenobiotics, particularly low molecular weight phenolic derivatives. A system for propofol infusion, allowing to predict as accurately as possible, the actual behavior of the drug and the concentrations at any time-point of anesthesia, may help reducing perianesthetic risk and improve quality of anesthesia.
As no publications could be found reporting three-compartment pharmacokinetics for propofol in cats, the first part of the this work was dedicated to the development of a pharmacokinetic model, on 7 cats, premedicated with medetomidine, ketamine and methadone, anesthetized with propofol and maintained with isoflurane anesthesia, during gonadectomy.
A two-compartment and a three-compartment pharmacokinetic linear model were obtained, the latter being considered the most appropriate to describe plasma concentration-time profile, based on appearance of observed and predicted concentrations and determined by least square linear regression and applying Akaike's information criterion.
The tri-compartmental pharmacokinetic data obtained in the first part of the project were used for implementation of a TCI system prototype (TCI-1), based on the free software, Computer Control Infusion Pump (CCIP) Ver 2.0E, available online (http: / / www.cuhk.edu.hk / med / ans / softwares.htm).
We analyzed the performance of the TCI-1 system during the course of anesthesia for gonadectomy in 9 premedicated cats, and target concentrations for induction, maintenance and extubation were reported.
The mean concentration, as measured by HPLC, in venous blood, two minutes after intubation was 4.92 ± 2.43 μg ml-1 and for maintenance, 4.74 ± 2.70 μg ml-1.
The indices for system prediction error, MDPE%, MDAPE%, divergence (% / hour) and wobble, calculated as described by Varvel et al. (1992), reported as median [10 / 90 percentile], were 63.50 [31.24 / 151.93], 63.50 [32.28 / 151.93], -22.77 [- 331 / 26.57], 20.32 [9.8 / 43.10], respectively. Despite it has demonstrated to be manageable in its clinical use, the system has significantly underestimated the actual concentrations, as expected for a single bolus derived pharmacokinetic model.
The next step was to optimize the TCI-1 system, modifying the pharmacokinetic data set through computer simulations. The new system (TCI-2.0) was assessed for predictive performance, in 6 cats, calculating MDPE%, MDAPE%, divergence (%/hours) and wobble, and it was compared to the results obtained with the TCI-1 system.
Mean concentration, measured by HPLC, in venous blood of cats, two minutes after intubation was 3.23 ± 0.87 μg kg-1.
Mean maintenance target concentration, calculated as the mean of targets set introduced in the system, during anesthesia, was 6.44 ± 1.27 μg ml-1, while average concentrations measured by HPLC during the same time period , was 5.56 ± 2.46 μg ml-1. Values of MDPE%, MDAPE%, divergence and wobble, reported as median [10 / 90 percentile], were -1.85 [-35.19 / 31.08], 29.67 [16.85 / 43.93], -39.08 [-50.02 / 8.23], 18.93 [10.49 / 25.01], respectively. Prediction curves, obtained by the system TCI-2.0 were similar to actually measured plasma concentrations. The resulting values for MDPE and MDAPE fall within the range described in human and veterinary literature for the validation of TCI systems in the clinical setting (MDPE <± 20% and MDAPE <30-40%). Difference in accuracy and bias observed between the two systems, TCI-1 and TCI-2.0 were statistically significant. Timing and dose of induction, maintenance, and extubation were also compared. Differences between the two systems, for doses and timing of administration and extubation, were not found to be statistically significant.
Obtained results are, in the author’s opinion, of significant scientific relevance, as they provide:
• A three-compartment pharmacokinetic model for propofol in cats, never described previously in the literature.
• A TCI system for propofol administration in cats, validated for prediction performance and easy to use in a clinical setting.
• reference values for plasma concentrations of propofol required for intubation, maintenance of anesthesia and extubation, in cats premedicated with medetomidine, ketamine and methadone, anesthetized with target infusion of propofol.

Abstract (italiano)

L’anestesia totalmente endovenosa (TIVA) è ancora un campo in via di sviluppo. Il progresso tecnologico rende le apparecchiature per infusione sempre più sofisticate, affidabili e sicure. I sistemi infusionali più recenti sono sviluppati incorporando in un microprocessore i parametri farmacocinetici e farmacodinamici dell’anestetico impiegato, per la popolazione in oggetto.
Il fine di questo progetto di ricerca è stato quello di sviluppare e validare un sistema di infusione controllata a target (TCI) per il propofol nel gatto domestico.
In questa specie, le conoscenze relative al comportamento del propofol nell’ambito dell’infusione continua sono ancora poche e spesso contraddittorie.
È noto che il gatto differisca sostanzialmente dagli altri animali nell’abilità di formare coniugati glucuronidi di alcuni xenobiotici ed in particolare dei derivati fenolici a basso peso molecolare. Un metodo di infusione del propofol in TIVA, che permetta di prevedere in modo più accurato possibile l’effettivo comportamento del farmaco e la concentrazione in ogni istante, può permettere di ridurre i rischi perianestetici e di migliorare la qualità dell’anestesia.
Non esistendo nella letteratura una farmacocinetica tricompartimentale del propofol nel gatto, la prima parte del lavoro è stata dedicata allo studio del modello farmacocinetico su 7 gatti sottoposti a gonadectomia, premedicati con medetomidina, ketamina e metadone, anestetizzati con propofol e mantenuti in anestesia con isofluorano.
È stato possibile ottenere un modello farmacocinetico bi-compartimentale ed uno tri-compartimentale. Il modello più appropriato per rappresentare la curva di concentrazione plasmatica nel tempo è stato quello tri-compartimentale, sulla base dell’aspetto delle concentrazioni osservate e predette, della riduzione della somma dei quadrati residui e dell’applicazione del test di verifica delle informazioni di Akaike.
I dati di farmacocinetica tri-compartimentale estrapolati nella prima parte del progetto sono stati utilizzati per programmare il sistema di TCI prototipo (TCI-1), basato sul software gratuito Computer Control Infusion Pump (CCIP) Ver 2.0E, disponibile in rete (http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/med/ans/softwares.htm).
È stata analizzata la performance del sistema TCI-1 durante l’anestesia per interventi chirurgici di gonadectomia, su 9 gatti premedicati, e sono state studiate le concentrazioni target di induzione, mantenimento e risveglio.
La concentrazione plasmatica, misurata con HPLC, nel sangue venoso, due minuti dopo l’intubazione è stata in media di 4,92 ± 2,43 μg ml-1, quella di mantenimento 4,74 ±2,70 μg ml-1.
Gli indici di errore del sistema, MDPE%, MDAPE%, divergenza (%/ora) e wobble, calcolati secondo quanto descritto da Varvel et al. (1992), riportati come mediana [10 / 90 percentile], sono stati pari a 63,50 [31,24 / 151,93], 63,50 [32,28 / 151,93], -22,77 [-331 / 26,57], 20,32 [9,8 / 43,10] , rispettivamente. Il sistema, nonostante si sia rivelato maneggevole nell’utilizzo clinico, ha sensibilmente sottostimato le concentrazioni effettive, come previsto per una farmcocinetica derivata da bolo singolo.
La fase successiva è stata quella di ottimizzazione del sistema TCI-1, modificando il set farmacocinetico attraverso simulazioni al computer. Il nuovo sistema (TCI-2.0) è stato sottoposto a valutazione delle performances predittive, su 6 gatti, calcolando MDPE%, MDAPE%, divergenza (%/ora) e wobble ed è stato messo a confronto, per i risultati ottenuti, con al sistema TCI-1.
La concentrazione plasmatica, misurata con HPLC, nel sangue venoso dei gatti, due minuti dopo l’intubazione è stata in media di 3,23 ± 0,87 μg kg-1.
La concentrazione plasmatica target media di mantenimento, calcolata come la media dei target impostati nel sistema durante l’anestesia, è stata pari a 6,44 ±1,27 μg ml-1, la media delle concentrazioni misurate con HPLC, nello stesso periodo temporale, è risultata pari a 5,56 ±2,46 μg ml-1. I valori di MDPE%, MDAPE%, divergenza e wobble, riportati come mediana [10 / 90 percentile], sono stati pari a -1,85 [-35,19 / 31,08], 29,67 [16,85 / 43,93], -39,08 [-50,02 / 8,23], 18,93 [10,49 / 25,01], rispettivamente. Le curve di predizione ottenute dal sistema TCI-2.0 sono state vicine a quelle relative ai valori di concentrazione plasmatica realmente misurati. I valori ottenuti per MDPE e MDAPE rientrano nei range descritti in medicina umana e veterinaria, per la validazione di sistemi TCI in ambito clinico (MDPE < ±20% e MDAPE < 30-40%). La differenza di accuratezza e deviazione osservata tra i due sistemi TCI-1 e TCI-2.0 è stata significativa. Sono stati confrontati anche i tempi e le dosi di induzione, mantenimento ed estubazione. Non sono risultate esserci, tra i due sistemi differenze significative per dosi e tempi di somministrazione ed estubazione.
I risultati ottenuti sono, secondo il parere degli autori, di significativa rilevanza scientifica, poiché forniscono:
• Un modello farmacocinetico tri-compartimentale del propofol nel gatto, non descritto prima in letteratura.
• Un sistema TCI con propofol nel gatto, validato per performances di predizione , facilmente fruibile in ambito clinico.
• Dei valori di riferimento per le concentrazioni plasmatiche di propofol, necessarie per l’intubazione, il mantenimento e l’estubazione in gatti premedicati con medetomidina, ketamina e metadone, anestetizzati con infusione di propofol a target.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Busetto, Roberto
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 23 > Scuole per il 23simo ciclo > SCIENZE VETERINARIE > SCIENZE CLINICHE VETERINARIE
Data di deposito della tesi:NON SPECIFICATO
Anno di Pubblicazione:2011
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Propofol, TCI, Infusione controllata a Target, TIVA, Gatto, Anestesia, Farmacocinetica, modello tri-compartimentale / Propofol, TCI, Target controlled infusion, TIVA, Cats, anesthesia, pharmacokinetics, tri-compartment model
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > VET/09 Clinica chirurgica veterinaria
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Veterinarie
Codice ID:4023
Depositato il:01 Ago 2011 10:43
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

1. Absalom A, Amutike D, Lal A, White M, Kenny GN. (2003) Accuracy of the 'Paedfusor' in children undergoing cardiac surgery or catheterization. Br J Anaesth, 91(4):507-13. Cerca con Google

2. Adachi YU, Watanabe K, Higuchi H, Satoh T. (2001) The determinants of propofol induction of anesthesia dose. Anesth Analg, 92(3):656-61. Cerca con Google

3. Adam HK, Glen JB, Hoyle PA. (1980) Pharmacokinetics in laboratory animals of ICI 35 868, a new i.v. anaesthetic agent, British Journal of Anaesthesia, 52:743-746 Cerca con Google

4. Adam HK, Glen JB, Hoyle PA. (1980) Pharmacokinetics in laboratory animals of ICI 35 868, a new i.v. anaesthetic agent. Br J Anaesth, 52(8):743-6. Cerca con Google

5. Al-Jahdari WS, Yamamoto K, Hiraoka H, Nakamura K, Goto F, Horiuchi R. (2006) Prediction of total propofol clearance based on enzyme activities in microsomes from human kidney and liver. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 62(7):527-33. Cerca con Google

6. Anderson BJ. (2010) Pediatric models for adult target-controlled infusion pumps. Paediatr Anaesth, 20(3):223-32. Cerca con Google

7. Anderson BJ. (2010) Pediatric models for adult target-controlled infusion pumps. Paediatr Anaesth, 20(3):223-32. Cerca con Google

8. Andress JL, Day TK, Day D. (1995) The effects of consecutive day propofol anesthesia on feline red blood cells. Vet Surg, 24(3):277-82. Cerca con Google

9. Auckburally A, Pawson P, Flaherty D. (2008) A comparison of induction of anaesthesia using a target-controlled infusion device in dogs with propofol or a propofol and alfentanil admixture. Vet Anaesth Analg, 35(4):319-25. Cerca con Google

10. Avram MJ, Krejcie TC. (2003) Using front-end kinetics to optimize target-controlled drug infusions. Anesthesiology, 99(5):1078-86. Cerca con Google

11. Aydin N, Aydin N, Gultekin B, Ozgun S, Gurel A. (2002) Bacterial contamination of propofol: the effects of temperature and lidocaine. Eur J Anaesthesiol, 19(6):455-8. Cerca con Google

12. Bailey JM, Mora CT, Shafer SL. (1996) Pharmacokinetics of propofol in adult patients undergoing coronary revascularization. The Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group, Anesthesiology, 84(6):1288-97. Cerca con Google

13. Barcroft J, Poole LT. (1972) The blood in the spleen pulp. J Physiol, 64: 23–29. Cerca con Google

14. Beier SL, de Araujo Aguiar AJ, Vianna PT, Mattoso CR, Massone F. (2009) Effect of remifentanil on requirements for propofol administered by use of a target-controlled infusion system for maintaining anesthesia in dogs. Am J Vet Res, 70(6):703-9. Cerca con Google

15. Bennett R A. (1998) Reptile anestesia. Sem Av Exot Pet Med, 7(1):30-40. Cerca con Google

16. Bennett RA, Schumacher J, Hedjazi-Haring K, Newell SM. (1998) Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of propofol administered intraosseously to green iguanas. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 212(1):93-8. Cerca con Google

17. Berry CB, Gillespie T, Hood J, Scott NB. (1993) Growth of micro-organisms in solutions of intravenous anaesthetic agents. Anaesthesia, 48(1):30-2. Cerca con Google

18. Beths T, Glen JB, Reid J, Monteiro AM, Nolan AM. (2001) Evaluation and optimisation of a target-controlled infusion system for administering propofol to dogs as part of a total intravenous anaesthetic technique during dental surgery. Vet Rec, 148(7):198-203. Cerca con Google

19. Beths T. (2008) Total intravenous anaesthesia in dogs: development of a target controlled infusion (TCI) scheme for propofol. PhD thesis, University of Glasgow. Cerca con Google

20. Bettschart-Wolfensberger R, Bowen MI, Freeman SL, Feller R, Bettschart RW, Nolan A, Clarke KW. (2001) Cardiopulmonary effects of prolonged anesthesia via propofol-medetomidine infusion in ponies. Am J Vet Res, 62(9):1428-35. Cerca con Google

21. Bettschart-Wolfensberger R, Freeman SL, Jäggin-Schmucker N, Clarke KW. (2001) Infusion of a combination of propofol and medetomidine for long-term anesthesia in ponies. Am J Vet Res, 62(4):500-7. Cerca con Google

22. Bettschart-Wolfensberger R, Kalchofner K, Neges K, Kästner S, Fürst A. (2005) Total intravenous anaesthesia in horses using medetomidine and propofol. Vet Anaesth Analg, 32(6):348-54. Cerca con Google

23. Bley CR, Roos M, Price J, Ruess-Melzer K, Buchholz J, Poirier V, Kaser-Hotz B. (2007) Clinical assessment of repeated propofol-associated anesthesia in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 231(9):1347-53. Cerca con Google

24. Boer F. (2003) Drug handling by the lungs. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 91:50-60. Cerca con Google

25. Borgeat A, Wilder-Smith OH, Suter PM. (1994) The nonhypnotic therapeutic applications of propofol. Anesthesiology, 80(3):642-56. Cerca con Google

26. Branson KR. (2007) Injectable and Alternative Anesthetic Techniques. In Lumb and Jones' Veterinary Anesthesia, 4a ed. Thurmon JC, Tranquilli W, Benson GJ, edrs. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 273-291. Cerca con Google

27. Braun C, Hofmeister EH, Lockwood AA, Parfitt SL. (2007) Effects of diazepam or lidocaine premedication on propofol induction and cardiovascular parameters in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc, 43(1):8-12. Cerca con Google

28. Brearley JC, Kellagher REB, Hall LW. (1988) Propofol anaesthesia in cats. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 29:315–322. Cerca con Google

29. Breslin DS, Mirakhur RK, Reid JE, Kyle A. (2004) Manual versus target-controlled infusions of propofol. Anaesthesia, 59(11):1059-63. Cerca con Google

30. Briggs LP, Clarke RS, Watkins J. (1982) An adverse reaction to the administration of disoprofol (Diprivan). Anaesthesia, 37:1099-101. Cerca con Google

31. Bufalari A, Short CE, Giannoni C, Vainio O. (1996) Comparative responses to propofol anaesthesia alone and with alpha 2-adrenergic medications in a canine model. Acta Vet Scand, 37(2):187-201. Cerca con Google

32. Cagnardi P, Zonca A, Gallo M, Pravettoni D, Morandi N, Villa R, Carli S. (2009) Pharmacokinetics of propofol in calves undergoing abdominal surgery. Vet Res Commun, 33(1):177-9. Cerca con Google

33. Cassidy MK, Houston JB. (1984) In vivo capacity of hepatic and extrahepatic enzymes to conjugate phenol, Drug Metabolism & Disposition, 12:619-624. Cerca con Google

34. Chaudhri S, White M, Kenny GN. (1992) Induction of anaesthesia with propofol using a target-controlled infusion system. Anaesthesia, 47(7):551-3. Cerca con Google

35. Chen G, Buell O, Gruenewald M, Fudickar A, Scholz J, Bein B. (2009) A comparison between target-controlled and manually controlled propofol infusions in patients undergoing routine surgical procedures. Eur J Anaesthesiol, 26(11):928-35. Cerca con Google

36. Chen YZ, Zhu SM, He HL, Xu JH, Huang SQ, Chen QL. (2006) Do the lungs contribute to propofol elimination in patients during orthotopic liver transplantation without veno-venous bypass? Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int, 5(4):511-4. Cerca con Google

37. Cheng SS, Yeh J, Flood P. (2008) Anesthesia matters: patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain than those anesthetized with isoflurane. Anesth Analg, 106(1):264-9. Cerca con Google

38. Chiou WL. (1979) Potential pitfalls in the conventional pharmacokinetic studies: Effects of the initial mixing of drug in blood and the pulmonary first- pass elimination, Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, 7:527-536. Cerca con Google

39. Chiou WL. (1980) Potential effect of early blood sampling schedule on calculated pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs after intravenous administration. J Pharm Sci, 69(7):867-9. Cerca con Google

40. Cleale RM, Muir WW, Waselau AC, Lehmann MW, Amodie DM, Lerche P. (2009) Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of propofol administered to cats in a novel, aqueous, nano-droplet formulation or as an oil-in-water macroemulsion. J Vet Pharmacol Ther, 32(5):436-45 Cerca con Google

41. Cockshott ID, Briggs LP, Douglas EJ, White M. (1987) Pharmacokinetics of propofol in female patients. Studies using single bolus injections. Br J Anaesth, 59(9):1103-10. Cerca con Google

42. Cockshott ID, Douglas EJ, Plummer GF, Simons PJ (1992) The pharmacokinetics of propofol in laboratory animals. Xenobiotica, 22(3):369-75. Cerca con Google

43. Cockshott ID. (1985) Propofol ('Diprivan') pharmacokinetics and metabolism - an overview. - Postgrad Med J, 61 (3): 45-50 Cerca con Google

44. Coetzee JF, Glen JB, Wium CA, Boshoff L. (1995) Pharmacokinetic model selection for target controlled infusions of propofol. Assessment of three parameter sets. Anesthesiology, 82(6):1328-45. Cerca con Google

45. Constant I, Rigouzzo A. (2010) Which model for propofol TCI in children. Paediatr Anaesth, 20(3):233-9. Cerca con Google

46. Correia D, Nolan AM, Reid J. (1996) Pharmacokinetics of propofol infusions, either alone or with ketamine, in sheep premedicated with acepromazine and papaveretum. Res Vet Sci, 60(3):213-7. Cerca con Google

47. Correia D, Nolan AM, Reid J. (1996) Pharmacokinetics of propofol infusions, either alone or with ketamine, in sheep premedicated with acepromazine and papaveretum. Res Vet Sci, 60(3):213-7. Cerca con Google

48. Cortínez LI, Anderson BJ, Penna A, Olivares L, Muñoz HR, Holford NH, Struys MM, Sepulveda P. (2010) Influence of obesity on propofol pharmacokinetics: derivation of a pharmacokinetic model. Br J Anaesth, 105(4):448-56. Cerca con Google

49. Coskun D, Celebi H, Karaca G, Karabiyik L. (2010) Remifentanil versus fentanyl compared in a target-controlled infusion of propofol anesthesia: quality of anesthesia and recovery profile. J Anesth, 24(3):373-9. Cerca con Google

50. Costela JL, Jiménez R, Calvo R, Suárez E, Carlos R. (1996) Serum protein binding of propofol in patients with renal failure or hepatic cirrhosis. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 40(6):741-5. Cerca con Google

51. Court MH, Duan SX, Hesse LM, Venkatakrishnan K, Greenblatt DJ. (2001) Cytochrome P-450 2B6 is responsible for interindividual variability of propofol hydroxylation by human liver microsomes. Anesthesiology, 94(1):110-9. Cerca con Google

52. Court MH, Greenbladt DJ. (1997) Molecular Basis for Deficient Acetominophen Glucuronidation in Cats. Biochemical Pharmacology, 53:1041-1047. Cerca con Google

53. Court MH, Greenblatt DJ. (2000) Molecular genetic basis for deficient acetaminophen glucuronidation by cats: UGT1A6 is a pseudogene, and evidence for reduced diversity of expressed hepatic UGT1A isoforms. Pharmacogenetics, 10:355-369. Cerca con Google

54. Court MH, Hay-Kraus BL, Hill DW, Kind AJ, Greenblatt DJ. (1999) Propofol hydroxylation by dog liver microsomes: assay development and dog breed differences. Drug Metab Dispos, 27(11):1293-9. Cerca con Google

55. Cullen LK, Reynoldson JA. (1993) Xylazine or medetomidine premedication before propofol anaesthesia. Vet Rec, 132(15):378-83. Cerca con Google

56. Cummings GC, Dixon J, Kay NH, Windsor JP, Major E, Morgan M, Sear JW, Spence AA, Stephenson DK. (1984) Dose requirements of ICI 35,868 (propofol, “Diprivan”) in a new formulation for induction of anaesthesia. Anaesthesia, 39:1168-71. Cerca con Google

57. Daunt DA, Dunlop CI, Chapman PL, Shafer SL, Ruskoaho H, Vakkuri O, Hodgson DS, Tyler LM, Maze M. (1993) Cardiopulmonary and behavioral responses to computer-driven infusion of detomidine in standing horses. Am J Vet Res, 54(12):2075-82. Cerca con Google

58. Davidson JA, Macleod AD, Howie JC, White M, Kenny GN. (1993) Effective concentration 50 for propofol with and without 67% nitrous oxide. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 37(5):458-64. Cerca con Google

59. Davies B. (1993) Physiological parameters in laboratory animals and humans, Pharmaceutical Research, 10: 1093-1095. Cerca con Google

60. Davies C, Hall LW. (1991) Propofol and excitatory sequelae in dogs. Anaesthesia, 46(9):797-8. Cerca con Google

61. Davis LE, Westfall BA. (1972) Species differences in biotransformation and excretion of salicylate. Am J Vet Res, 33:1253-62. Cerca con Google

62. Davis PJ, Cook DR. (1986) Clinical pharmacokinetics of the newer intravenous anaesthetic agents. Clin Pharmacokinet, 11(1):18-35. Cerca con Google

63. Dawidowicz AL, Fornal E, Mardarowicz M, Fijalkowska A. (2000) The role of human lungs in the biotransformation of propofol. Anesthesiology, 93(4):992-7. Cerca con Google

64. De Gasperi A, Mazza E, Noè L, Corti A, Cristalli A, Prosperi M, Sabbadini D, Savi MC, Vai S. (1996) Pharmacokinetic profile of the induction dose of propofol in chronic renal failure patients undergoing renal transplantation. Minerva Anestesiol, 62(1-2):25-31. Cerca con Google

65. Dixon J, Roberts FL, Tackley RM, Lewis GT, Connell H, Prys-Roberts C. (1990) Study of the possible interaction between fentanyl and propofol using a computer-controlled infusion of propofol. Br J Anaesth, 64(2):142-7. Cerca con Google

66. Du Souich P, Verges J, Erill S. (1993) Plasma protein binding and pharmacological response. Clin Pharmacokinet, 24(6):435-40. Cerca con Google

67. Duke T, Egger CM, Ferguson JG, Frketic MM. (1997) Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol infusion in llamas. Am J Vet Res, 58(2):153-6. Cerca con Google

68. Dutta S, Ebling WF. (1998) Formulation-dependent pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol in rats. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 50(1):37-42. Cerca con Google

69. Dutta, S , Matsumoto, Y. and Ebling, W. F. (1997) Propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics assessed from a cremophor EL formulation. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 86: 967–969. Cerca con Google

70. Ebert TJ, Muzi M, Berens R, Goff D, Kampine JP. (1992) Sympathetic responses to induction of anesthesia in humans with propofol or etomidate. Anesthesiology. 76(5):725-33. Cerca con Google

71. Egan TD. (1996) Intravenous drug delivery systems: toward an intravenous "vaporizer". J Clin Anesth, 8:8S-14S. Cerca con Google

72. Egan TD. (2003) Target-controlled drug delivery: progress toward an intravenous "vaporizer" and automated anesthetic administration. Anesthesiology, 99(5):1214-9. Cerca con Google

73. Favetta P, Degoute CS, Perdrix JP, Dufresne C, Boulieu R, Guitton J. (2002) Propofol metabolites in man following propofol induction and maintenance, British Journal of Anaesthesia, 88(5):653-8. Cerca con Google

74. Fisher DM. (1996) (Almost) everything you learned about pharmacokinetics was (somewhat) wrong! Anesth Analg, 83(5):901-3. Cerca con Google

75. Flecknell PA. (2009) Special tecniques. In: Laboratory animal anaesthesia. Elsevier Ed. Amsterdam, 117. Cerca con Google

76. Fragen RJ. Infusions of intravenous anaesthetics. In Drug Infusions in Anaesthesiology. Ed. RJ Fragen. New York, Raven Press. 1991:63-84. Cerca con Google

77. Geel JK. (1991) The effect of premedication on the induction dose of propofol in dogs and cats. J S Afr Vet Assoc, 62(3):118-23. Cerca con Google

78. Gepts E. (1998) Pharmacokinetic concepts for TCI anaesthesia. Anaesthesia, 53(1):4-12. Cerca con Google

79. Glass PS, Doherty D, Jacobs JR, Quill TJ. (1991) Pharmacokinetic basis of intravenous drug delivery. Baill. Clin. Anaesth, 5(3):735-775. Cerca con Google

80. Glen JB, Hunter SC. (1984) "Diprivan": an update, Journal of the Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland, 12:40-47. Cerca con Google

81. Glen JB, Hunter SC. (1984) Pharmacology of an emulsion formulation of ICI 35 868. Br J Anaesth, 56(6):617-26. Cerca con Google

82. Glen JB. (1980) Animal studies of the anaesthetic activity of ICI 35 868. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 52:731-742 Cerca con Google

83. Glen JB. (1998) The development of 'Diprifusor': a TCI system for propofol. Anaesthesia, 53 Suppl 1:13-21. Cerca con Google

84. Glen JB. The Development and Future of TCI. In “Advances in modelling and clinical application of intravenous anaesthesia”. Ed. VuyK e Schraag, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York 2003; 123-134. Cerca con Google

85. Glowaski MM, Wetmore LA. (1999) Propofol: application in veterinary sedation and anestesia. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, 14(1):1-9. Cerca con Google

86. Gómez-Villamandos RJ, Palacios C, Benítez A, Granados MM, Domínguez JM, López I, Ruiz I, Aguilera E, Santisteban JM. (2006) Dexmedetomidine or medetomidine premedication before propofol-desflurane anaesthesia in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther, 29(3):157-63. Cerca con Google

87. Gómez-Villamandos RJ, Redondo JI, Martín EM, Domínguez JM, Granados MM, Estepa JC, Ruiz I, Aguilera E, Santisteban JM. (2005) Romifidine or medetomidine premedication before propofol-sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther, 28(5):489-93. Cerca con Google

88. Goodchild CS, Serrao JM. (1989) Cardiovascular effects of propofol in the anaesthetized dog. Br J Anaesth, 63(1):87-92. Cerca con Google

89. Gray PA, Park GR, Cockshott ID, Douglas EJ, Shuker B, Simons PJ. (1992) Propofol metabolism in man during the anhepatic and reperfusion phases of liver transplantation, Xenobiotica, 22: 105-114. Cerca con Google

90. Greenway C.V , Oshiro G. (1972) Comparison of the effects of hepatic nerve stimulation on arterial flow, distribution of arterial and portal flows and blood content in the live of anaesthetized cats and dogs. Journal of Physiology, 227:487-501. Cerca con Google

91. Guntheroth WG, Mullins GL. (1963) Liver and spleen as venous reservoirs. Am J Physiol, 204: 35–41 Cerca con Google

92. Hacker SO, White CE, Black IH. (2008) Target-controlled infusion versus manually-controlled infusion of propofol for general anaesthesia or sedation in adults. Leslie K, Clavisi O, Hargrove J. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (3):CD006059. Review. Cerca con Google

93. Hall LW, Lagerweij E, Nolan AM, Sear JW. (1994) Effect of medetomidine on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in dogs. Am J Vet Res, 55(1):116-20. Cerca con Google

94. Hans GA, Lauwick SM, Kaba A, Bonhomme V, Struys MM, Hans PC, Lamy ML, Joris JL. (2010) Intravenous lidocaine infusion reduces bispectral index-guided requirements of propofol only during surgical stimulation. Br J Anaesth, 105(4):471-9. Cerca con Google

95. Harvey W. (1628) Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis. Francoforte-The Warnock Library. Da: http://www.rarebookroom.org/Control/hvyexc/index.html. Vai! Cerca con Google

96. Hawkins MG, Wright BD, Pascoe PJ, Kass PH, Maxwell LK, Tell LA. (2003) Pharmacokinetics and anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of propofol in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus). Am J Vet Res, 64(6):677-83. Cerca con Google

97. Hay-Kraus BL, Greenblatt DJ, Venkatakrishnan K, Court MH. (2000) Evidence for propofol hydroxylation by cytochrome P4502B11 in canine liver microsomes: breed and gender differences. Xenobiotica, 30(6):575-88. Cerca con Google

98. He YL, Ueyama H, Tashiro C, Mashimo T, Yoshiya I. (2000) Pulmonary disposition of propofol in surgical patients. Anesthesiology, 93(4):986-91. Cerca con Google

99. Heldmann E, Holt DE, Brockman DJ, Brown DC, Perkowski SZ. (1999) Use of propofol to manage seizure activity after surgical treatment of portosystemic shunts. J Small Anim Pract, 40(12):590-4. Cerca con Google

100. Hiraoka H, Yamamoto K, Miyoshi S, Morita T, Nakamura K, Kadoi Y, Kunimoto F, Horiuchi R. (2005) Kidneys contribute to the extrahepatic clearance of propofol in humans, but not lungs and brain. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 60(2):176-82. Cerca con Google

101. Hiraoka H, Yamamoto K, Okano N, Morita T, Goto F, Horiuchi R. (2004) Changes in drug plasma concentrations of an extensively bound and highly extracted drug, propofol, in response to altered plasma binding. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 75(4):324-30. Cerca con Google

102. Hughes MA, Glass PS, Jacobs JR. (1992) Context-sensitive half-time in multicompartment pharmacokinetic models for intravenous anesthetic drugs. Anesthesiology, 76(3):334-41. Cerca con Google

103. Ilkiw JE, Pascoe PJ, Fisher LD. (1997) Effect of alfentanil on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats. Am J Vet Res, 58(11):1274-9. Cerca con Google

104. Ilkiw JE, Pascoe PJ, Haskins SC, Patz JD. (1992) Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of propofol administration in hypovolemic dogs. Am J Vet Res, 53(12):2323-7. Cerca con Google

105. Ilkiw JE, Pascoe PJ. (2003) Cardiovascular effects of propofol alone and in combination with ketamine for total intravenous anesthesia in cats. Am J Vet Res, 64(7):913-7. Cerca con Google

106. Irwin MG, Trinh T, Yao CL. (2009) Occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases: a role for TIVA. Expert Opin Drug Saf, 8(4):473-83. Cerca con Google

107. James R, Glen JB. (1980) Synthesis, biological evaluation, and preliminary structure-activity considerations of a series of alkylphenols as intravenous anesthetic agents. J Med Chem, 23:1350-7. Cerca con Google

108. JE Ilkiw, PJ Pascoe. (2003) Cardiovascular effects of propofol alone and in combination with ketamine for total intravenous anesthesia in cats. Am J Vet Res, 64:913-7. Cerca con Google

109. Johnson LR, Drazenovich TL. (2007) Flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage in 68 cats (2001-2006). J Vet Intern Med, 21(2):219-25. Cerca con Google

110. Joubert KE, Picard J, Sethusa M. (2005) Inhibition of bacterial growth by different mixtures of propofol and thiopentone. J S Afr Vet Assoc, 76(2):85-9. Cerca con Google

111. Kanto J, Gepts E. (1989) Pharmacokinetic implications for the clinical use of propofol. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, 17(5):308-326. Cerca con Google

112. Kanto JH. (1988) Propofol, the newest induction agent of anestesia. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol, 26(1):41-57. Cerca con Google

113. Kay B, Rolly G. (1977) ICI 35868, a new intravenous induction agent. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg, 28:303–16 Cerca con Google

114. Kay NH, Sear JW, Uppington J, Cockshott ID, Douglas EJ. (1986) Disposition of propofol in patients undergoing surgery. A comparison in men and women. Br J Anaesth, 58(10):1075-9. Cerca con Google

115. Kay NH, Uppington J, Sear JW, Douglas EJ, Cockshott ID. (1985) Pharmacokinetics of propofol ('Diprivan') as an induction agent. Postgrad Med J, 61:55-7. Cerca con Google

116. Kazama T, Ikeda K, Morita K, Ikeda T, Kikura M, Sato S. (2001) Relation between initial blood distribution volume and propofol induction dose requirement. Anesthesiology, 94(2):205-10. Cerca con Google

117. Kazama T, Ikeda K, Morita K, Katoh T, Kikura M. (1998) Propofol concentration required for endotracheal intubation with a laryngoscope or fiberscope and its interaction with fentanyl. Anesth Analg, 86(4):872-9. Cerca con Google

118. Kazama T, Ikeda K, Morita K, Kikura M, Ikeda T, Kurita T, Sato S. (2000) Investigation of effective anesthesia induction doses using a wide range of infusion rates with undiluted and diluted propofol. Anesthesiology, 92(4):1017-28. Cerca con Google

119. Kazama T, Ikeda K, Morita K, Kikura M, Ikeda T, Kurita T, Sato S. (2000) Investigation of effective anesthesia induction doses using a wide range of infusion rates with undiluted and diluted propofol. Anesthesiology, 92(4):1017-1028. Cerca con Google

120. Kinabo LD, McKellar QA. (1989) Current models in pharmacokinetics: applications in veterinary pharmacology. Vet Res Commun, 13(2):141-57. Cerca con Google

121. Kirkpatrick T, Cockshott ID, Douglas EJ, Nimmo WS. (1988) Pharmacokinetics of propofol (diprivan) in elderly patients. Br J Anaesth, 60(2):146-50 Cerca con Google

122. Kirvelä M, Olkkola KT, Rosenberg PH, Yli-Hankala A, Salmela K, Lindgren L. (1992) Pharmacokinetics of propofol and haemodynamic changes during induction of anaesthesia in uraemic patients. Br J Anaesth, 68(2):178-82. Cerca con Google

123. Klement W, Arndt JO (1991) Pain on injection of propofol, effects of concentration and diluent. Br J Anaesth, 67:281-284. Cerca con Google

124. Ko YP, Hsu YW, Hsu K, Tsai HJ, Huang CJ, Chen CC. (2007) Simulation analysis of the performance of target-controlled infusion of propofol in Chinese patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan, 45(3):141-7. Cerca con Google

125. Korman B, Jennings LS, Rigg JR. (1998) Rapid attainment of steady state plasma drug concentrations within precise limits. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm, 26(3):319-28. Cerca con Google

126. Krejcie TC, Avram MJ. (1999) What determines anesthetic induction dose? It's the front-end kinetics, doctor! Anesth Analg, 89(3):541-4. Cerca con Google

127. Krejcie TC, Henthorn TK, Niemann CU, Klein C, Gupta DK, Gentry WB, Shanks CA, Avram MJ. (1996) Recirculatory pharmacokinetic models of markers of blood, extracellular fluid and total body water administered concomitantly. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 278:1050-7. Cerca con Google

128. Kreuer S, Schreiber JU, Bruhn J, Wilhelm W. (2005) Impact of patient age on propofol consumption during propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol, 22(2):123-8. Cerca con Google

129. Krüger-Thiemer E. (1968) Continuous intravenous infusion and multicompartment accumulation. Eur J Pharmacol, 4(3):317-24. Cerca con Google

130. Kuipers JA, Boer F, Olieman W, Burm AG, Bovill JG. (1999a) First-pass lung uptake and pulmonary clearance of propofol: assessment with a recirculatory indocyanine green pharmacokinetic model. Anesthesiology, 91(6):1780-7. Cerca con Google

131. Kuipers JA, Boer F, Olofsen E, Olieman W, Vletter AA, Burm AG, Bovill JG. (1999b) Recirculatory and compartmental pharmacokinetic modeling of alfentanil in pigs: the influence of cardiac output. Anesthesiology, 90(4):1146-57. Cerca con Google

132. Langley MS, Heel RC. (1988) Propofol. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and use as an intravenous anaesthetic. Drugs, 35(4):334-72. Cerca con Google

133. Larsen JA. (1963a) Elimination of ethanol as a measure of the hepatic blood flow in the cat. I. Experiments with single injection of ethanol. Acta physiol. Scand, 57:201-208. Cerca con Google

134. Larsen JA. (1963b) Elimination of ethanol as a measure of the hepatic blood flow in the cat. II. The significance of the extrahepatic elimination of ethanol. Acta physiol. Scand, 57:209-223. Cerca con Google

135. Lascelles BD, Court MH, Hardie EM, Robertson SA. (2007) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cats: a review. Vet Anaesth Analg, 34(4):228-50. Cerca con Google

136. Le Guellec C, Lacarelle B, Villard PH, Point H, Catalin J, Durand A. (1995) Glucuronidation of propofol in microsomal fractions from various tissues and species including humans: effect of different drugs. Anesth Analg, 81(4):855-61. Cerca con Google

137. Levionnois OL, Mevissen M, Thormann W, Spadavecchia C. (2010) Assessing the efficiency of a pharmacokinetic-based algorithm for target-controlled infusion of ketamine in ponies. Res Vet Sci, 88(3):512-8. Cerca con Google

138. Levitt DG, Schnider TW (2005) Human Physiological Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Propofol, BMC Anesthesiology. Cerca con Google

139. Li YH, Rui JZ, Zhou YG, Wang LQ, Fu SE, Yang JJ, Liu FK, Hu SY, Wen Q, Xu JG. (2003) Population pharmacokinetics of propofol in Chinese patients. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 24(6):581-8. Cerca con Google

140. Li YH, Xu JH, Yang JJ, Tian J, Xu JG. (2005) Predictive performance of 'Diprifusor' TCI system in patients during upper abdominal surgery under propofol/fentanyl anesthesia. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B, 6(1):43-8. Cerca con Google

141. Liehmann L, Mosing M, Auer U. (2006) A comparison of cardiorespiratory variables during isoflurane-fentanyl and propofol-fentanyl anaesthesia for surgery in injured cats. Vet Anaesth Analg, 33(3):158-68. Cerca con Google

142. Lorenz IH, Kolbitsch C, Lass-Flörl C, Gritznig I, Vollert B, Lingnau W, Moser PL, Benzer A. (2002) Routine handling of propofol prevents contamination as effectively as does strict adherence to the manufacturer's recommendations. Can J Anaesth, 49(4):347-52. Cerca con Google

143. Ludbrook GL, Upton RN, Grant C, Grépinet A. (1996) Brain and blood concentrations of propofol after rapid intravenous injection in sheep, and their relationships to cerebral effects. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care, 24:445-452. Cerca con Google

144. Ludbrook GL, Upton RN. (1997) A physiological model of induction of anaesthesia with propofol in sheep. 2. Model analysis and implications for dose requirements. Br J Anaesth, 79(4):505-13. Cerca con Google

145. Luo AL, Yi J, Guo XY, Ren HZ, Huang YG, Ye TH. (2004) Concentrations of propofol in cerebral spinal fluid: target-controlled infusion. Chin Med J (Engl), 117(2):231-4. Cerca con Google

146. Machin KL, Caulkett NA. (1998) Cardiopulmonary effects of propofol and a medetomidine-midazolam-ketamine combination in mallard ducks. Am J Vet Res, 59(5):598-602. Cerca con Google

147. Macquaire V, Cantraine F, Schmartz D, Coussaert E, Barvais L. (2002) Target-controlled infusion of propofol induction with or without plasma concentration constraint in high-risk adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 46(8):1010-6. Cerca con Google

148. Mair AR, Pawson P, Courcier E, Flaherty D. (2009) A comparison of the effects of two different doses of ketamine used for co-induction of anaesthesia with a target-controlled infusion of propofol in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg, 36(6):532-8. Cerca con Google

149. Mama KR, Steffey EP, Pascoe PJ. (1995) Evaluation of propofol as a general anesthetic for horses. Vet Surg, 24(2):188-94. Cerca con Google

150. Mandsager RE, Clarke CR, Shawley RV, Hague CM. (1995) Effects of chloramphenicol on infusion pharmacokinetics of propofol in greyhounds. Am J Vet Res, 56(1):95-9. Cerca con Google

151. Mangar D, Holak EJ. (1992) Tourniquet at 50 mm Hg followed by intravenous lidocaine diminishes hand pain associated with propofol injection. Anesth Analg, 74(2):250-252. Cerca con Google

152. Masui K, Upton RN, Doufas AG, Coetzee JF, Kazama T, Mortier EP, Struys MM. (2010) The performance of compartmental and physiologically based recirculatory pharmacokinetic models for propofol: a comparison using bolus, continuous, and target-controlled infusion data. Anesth Analg, 111(2):368-79. Epub 2009 Oct 27. Cerca con Google

153. Matot I, Neely CF, Katz RY, Marshall BE. (1994) Fentanyl and propofol uptake by the lung: effect of time between injections. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 38(7):711-5. Cerca con Google

154. Matot I, Neely CF, Katz RY, Neufeld GR. (1993) Pulmonary uptake of propofol in cats. Effect of fentanyl and halothane. Anesthesiology, 78(6):1157-65. Cerca con Google

155. Matthews NS, Hartsfield SM, Hague B, Carroll GL, Short CE. (1999) Detomidine-propofol anesthesia for abdominal surgery in horses. Vet Surg, 28(3):196-201. Cerca con Google

156. Mazoit JX, Samii K. (1999) Binding of propofol to blood components: implications for pharmacokinetics and for pharmacodynamics. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 47:35-42. Cerca con Google

157. McCormack J, Mehta D, Peiris K, Dumont G, Fung P, Lim J, Ansermino JM. (2010) The effect of a target controlled infusion of propofol on predictability of recovery from anesthesia in children. Paediatr Anaesth, 20(1):56-62. Cerca con Google

158. McCulloch MJ, Lees NW. (1985) Assessment and modification of pain on induction with propofol (Diprivan). Anaesthesia, 40(11):1117-20. Cerca con Google

159. Mendes GM, Selmi AL. (2003) Use of a combination of propofol and fentanyl, alfentanil, or sufentanil for total intravenous anesthesia in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 223(11):1608-13. Cerca con Google

160. Merin RG, Hoffman WL, Kraus AL. (1977) The role of the canine spleen in cardiovascular homeostasis during halothane anesthesia. Circ Shock, 4:241-246. Cerca con Google

161. Miller DR. (1994) Intravenous infusion anaesthesia and delivery devices. Can J Anaesth, 41(7):639-51. Cerca con Google

162. Miller JJ, Powell GM, Olavesen AH, Curtis CG. (1973) The metabolism and toxicity of phenols in cats. Biochem Soc Trans, 1:1163-65. Cerca con Google

163. Miller RS, Peterson GM, McLean S, Möller C. (1997) Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on the plasma concentrations of fentanyl and alcuronium. J Clin Pharm Ther, 22(3):197-205. Cerca con Google

164. Milne SE, Kenny GN. (1998a) Future applications for TCI systems. Anaesthesia, 53(1):56-60. Cerca con Google

165. Milne SE, Kenny GN. (1998b) Target controlled infusions. Curr. Anaesth. Crit. Care, 9:174-179. Cerca con Google

166. Mirakhur RK. (1988) Induction characteristics of propofol in children: comparison with thiopentone. Anaesthesia, 43(7):593-598. Cerca con Google

167. Morey TE, Modell JH, Shekhawat D, Shah DO, Klatt B, Thomas GP, Kero FA, Booth MM, Dennis DM. (2006) Anesthetic properties of a propofol microemulsion in dogs. Anesth Analg, 103(4):882-7. Cerca con Google

168. Morgan DW, Legge K. (1989) Clinical evaluation of propofol as an intravenous anaesthetic agent in cats and dogs. The Veterinary Record, 124:31-33. Cerca con Google

169. Morgan M. (1983) Total intravenous anaesthesia. Anaesthesia, 38:1-9. Cerca con Google

170. Muir WW 3rd, Gadawski JE. (1998) Respiratory depression and apnea induced by propofol in dogs. Am J Vet Res, 59(2):157-61. Cerca con Google

171. Murayama T, Sato Y, Wainai T, Enomoto A, Seo N, Yoshino H, Kobayashi E. (2005) Effect of continuous infusion of propofol on its concentration in blood with and without the liver in pigs. Transplant Proc, 37(10):4567-70. Cerca con Google

172. Musk GC, Flaherty DA. (2007) Target-controlled infusion of propofol combined with variable rate infusion of remifentanil for anaesthesia of a dog with patent ductus arteriosus. Vet Anaesth Analg, 34(5):359-64. Cerca con Google

173. Musk GC, Pang DS, Beths T, Flaherty DA. (2005) Target-controlled infusion of propofol in dogs--evaluation of four targets for induction of anaesthesia. Vet Rec, 157(24):766-70. Cerca con Google

174. Nathan N, Debord J, Narcisse F, Dupuis JL, Lagarde M, Benevent D, Lachatre G, Feiss P. (1993) Pharmacokinetics of propofol and its conjugates after continuous infusion in normal and in renal failure patients: a preliminary study. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg, 44(3):77-85. Cerca con Google

175. Nolan A, Reid J, Welsh E, Flaherty D, McCormack R, Monteiro AM. (1996) Simultaneous infusions of propofol and ketamine in ponies premedicated with detomidine: a pharmacokinetic study. Res Vet Sci, 60(3):262-6. Cerca con Google

176. Nolan A, Reid J. (1993) Pharmacokinetics of propofol administered by infusion in dogs undergoing surgery. Br J Anaesth, 70(5):546-51. Cerca con Google

177. Nolan AM, Hall LW. (1985) Total intravenous anaesthesia in the horse with propofol. Equine Vet J, 17(5):394-8. Cerca con Google

178. Nolan AM, Reid J, Grant S. (1993) The effects of halothane and nitrous oxide on the pharmacokinetics of propofol in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther, 16(3):335-42. Cerca con Google

179. Novello L, Carobbi B. (2010) Survey of the current use of pharmacokinetic model-driven drug delivery in small animal anaesthesia and analgesia in Italy. Vet Rec, 167:784788. Cerca con Google

180. Oei-Lim VL, White M, Kalkman CJ, Engbers FH, Makkes PC, Ooms WG. (1998) Pharmacokinetics of propofol during conscious sedation using target-controlled infusion in anxious patients undergoing dental treatment. Br J Anaesth, 80(3):324-31. Cerca con Google

181. Oku K, Ohta M, Yamanaka T, Mizuno Y, Fujinaga T. (2005) The minimum infusion rate (MIR) of propofol for total intravenous anesthesia after premedication with xylazine in horses. J Vet Med Sci, 67(6):569-75. Cerca con Google

182. Ouattara A, Boccara G, Lemaire S, Kockler U, Landi M, Vaissier E, Leger P, Coriat P. (2003) Target-controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil in cardiac anaesthesia: influence of age on predicted effect-site concentrations. Br. J. Anaesth, 90(5):617-622. Cerca con Google

183. Padfield NL. (2000a) Introduction, history and development. In Total Intravenous Anaesthesia. NL Padfield edr, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 68-86. Cerca con Google

184. Padfield NL. (2000b) Administration of intravenous anaesthesia/total intravenous anaesthesia. In Total Intravenous Anaesthesia. NL Padfield edr, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 3-12. Cerca con Google

185. Pagel PS, Warltier DC. (1993) Negative inotropic effects of propofol as evaluated by the regional preload recruitable stroke work relationship in chronically instrumented dogs. Anesthesiology, 78(1):100-8. Cerca con Google

186. Pascoe PJ, Steffey EP, Black WD, Claxton JM, Jacobs JR, Woliner MJ. (1993) Evaluation of the effect of alfentanil on the minimum alveolar concentration of halothane in horses. Am J Vet Res, 54(8):1327-32. Cerca con Google

187. Pascoe PJ. (2006) The effect of the duration of propofol administration on recovery from anestesia in cats. Veterinary Anaesthesia & Analgesia, 33:2-7. Cerca con Google

188. Péan D, Floch H, Beliard C, Piot B, Testa S, Bazin V, Lejus C, Asehnoune K. (2010) Propofol versus sevoflurane for fiberoptic intubation under spontaneous breathing anesthesia in patients difficult to intubate. Minerva Anestesiol, 76(10):780-6. Cerca con Google

189. Perry SM, Whelan E, Shay S, Wood AJ, Wood M. (1991) Effect of i.v. anaesthesia with propofol on drug distribution and metabolism in the dog. Br J Anaesth, 66(1):66-72. Cerca con Google

190. Pilla T, Franci P, Meneghini C, Mollo A, Montesissa C, Busetto R. (2010) Anestesia tramite Target Controlled Infusion di Propofol nel gatto. Un caso pilota. In: Atti XVII Congresso Soc. It. di Chir. Vet. Olbia, 24-26 giugno 2010. Cerca con Google

191. Plummer GF. (1987) Improvement method for the determination of propofol in blood by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Journal of Chromatography, 421:171-176. Cerca con Google

192. Ponte J, Sadler CL. (1989) Effect of thiopentone, etomidate and propofol on carotid body chemoreceptor activity in the rabbit and the cat. Br J Anaesth, 62(1):41-5. Cerca con Google

193. Quandt JE, Robinson EP, Rivers WJ, Raffe MR. (1998) Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of propofol and thiopental in dogs. Am J Vet Res, 59(9):1137-43. Cerca con Google

194. Quinn AC, Newman PJ, New LC, Grounds RM. (1993) Clinical significance of the growth of micro-organisms in propofol. Anaesthesia, 48(10):923. Cerca con Google

195. Raemer DB, Buschman A, Johnson MD, Philip BK, Shafer SL, Stanski DR. (1988) Alfentanil pharmacokinetic model applied to ambulatory surgical patients: Does a computerized infusion improve predictability? Anesthesiology, 69:A243. Cerca con Google

196. Rai MR, Parry TM, Dombrovskis A, Warner OJ. (2008) Remifentanil target-controlled infusion vs propofol target-controlled infusion for conscious sedation for awake fibreoptic intubation: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Br J Anaesth, 100(1):125-30. Cerca con Google

197. Raoof AA, van Obbergh LJ, de Ville de Goyet J, Verbeeck RK. (1996) Extrahepatic glucuronidation of propofol in man: possible contribution of gut wall and kidney. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 50(1-2):91-6. Cerca con Google

198. Reekers M, Boer F, Vuyk J. Basic concepts of recirculatory pharmacokinetic modelling. In “Advances in modelling and clinical application of intravenous anaesthesia”. Ed. VuyK e Schraag, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York 2003; 19-22. Cerca con Google

199. Rehberg B, Ryll C, Hadzidiakos D, Baars J. (2007) Use of a target-controlled infusion system for propofol does not improve subjective assessment of anaesthetic depth by inexperienced anaesthesiologists. Eur J Anaesthesiol, 24(11):920-6. Cerca con Google

200. Reid J, Nolan AM, Welsh E. (1993) Propofol as an induction agent in the goat: a pharmacokinetic study. J Vet Pharmacol Ther, 16(4):488-93. Cerca con Google

201. Reid J, Nolan AM. (1993) Pharmacokinetics of propofol in dogs premedicated with acepromazine and maintained with halothane and nitrous oxide. J Vet Pharmacol Ther, 16(4):501-5. Cerca con Google

202. Robertson SA, Johnston S, Beemsterboer J. (1992) Cardiopulmonary, anesthetic, and postanesthetic effects of intravenous infusions of propofol in greyhounds and non-greyhounds. Am J Vet Res, 53(6):1027-32. Cerca con Google

203. Robinson D, Williams RT. (1958) Do cats form glucuronides? Biochem J, 68:23-24. Cerca con Google

204. Russell D. (1998) Intravenous anaesthesia: manual infusion schemes versus TCI systems. Anaesthesia, 53 Suppl 1:42-5. Cerca con Google

205. Ryu JH, So YM, Hwang JW, Do SH. (2010) Optimal target concentration of remifentanil during cataract surgery with monitored anesthesia care. J Clin Anesth, 22(7):533-7. Cerca con Google

206. Sano T, Nishimura R, Mochizuki M, Sasaki N. (2003) Effects of midazolam-butorphanol, acepromazine-butorphanol and medetomidine on an induction dose of propofol and their compatibility in dogs. J Vet Med Sci, 65(10):1141-3. Cerca con Google

207. Savides M, Oehme F, Nash S, Leipold HW. (1984) The toxicity and biotransformation of single doses of acetaminophen in dogs and cats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 74:26-34. Cerca con Google

208. Schumacher J, Citino SB, Hernandez K, Hutt J, Dixon B. (1997) Cardiopulmonary and anesthetic effects of propofol in wild turkeys. Am J Vet Res, 58(9):1014-7. Cerca con Google

209. Schuttler J, Ihmsen H. (2000) Population pharmacokinetics of propofol: a multicenter study, Anesthesiology, 92: 727-738. Cerca con Google

210. Schüttler J, Kloos S, Schwilden H, Stoeckel H. (1988) Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and alfentanil by computer-assisted infusion. Anaesthesia, 43 Suppl:2-7. Cerca con Google

211. Schüttler J, Stoeckel H, Schwilden H. (1985) Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling of propofol ('Diprivan') in volunteers and surgical patients. Postgrad Med J, 61 S3:53-4. Cerca con Google

212. Schwilden H, Schüttler J. (2008) Target controlled anaesthetic drug dosing. Handb Exp Pharmacol,182:425-50. Cerca con Google

213. Schwilden H. (1981) A general method for calculating the dosage scheme in linear pharmacokinetics, Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol, 20:379-386 Cerca con Google

214. Scott RP, Saunders DA, Norman J. (1988) Propofol: clinical strategies for preventing the pain of injection. Anaesthesia, 43(6):492-494. Cerca con Google

215. Sebel PS, Lowdon JD. (1989) Propofol: a new intravenous anesthetic. Anesthesiology, 71(2):260-77. Cerca con Google

216. Sellgren J, Ejnell H, Elam M, Pontén J, Wallin BG. (1994) Sympathetic muscle nerve activity, peripheral blood flows, and baroreceptor reflexes in humans during propofol anesthesia and surgery. Anesthesiology, 80(3):534-44. Cerca con Google

217. Shafer A, Doze VA, Shafer SL, White PF. (1988) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of propofol infusions during general anesthesia. Anesthesiology, 69(3):348-56. Cerca con Google

218. Shafer SL. (1993) Advances in propofol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, 5:14S-21S. Cerca con Google

219. Short CE, Bufalari A. (1999) Propofol anesthesia. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, 29(3):747-78. Cerca con Google

220. Short TG, Lim TA, Tam YH. (1996) Prospective evaluation of pharmacokinetic model-controlled infusion of propofol in adult patients. Br J Anaesth, 76(2):313-5. Cerca con Google

221. Simons PJ, Cockshott ID, Douglas EJ, Gordon EA, Knott S, Ruane RJ. (1991) Species differences in blood profiles, metabolism and excretion of 14C- propofol after intravenous dosing to rat, dog and rabbit, Xenobiotica, 21(10):1243-1256. Cerca con Google

222. Simons PJ, Cockshott ID, Douglas EJ, Hopkins K, Rowland M. (1988) Disposition in male volunteers of a subanaesthetic intravenous dose of an oil in water emulsion of 14C-propofol, Xenobiotica, 18: 429-440. Cerca con Google

223. Slepchenko G, Simon N, Goubaux B, Levron JC, Le Moing JP, Raucoules-Aimé M. (2003) Performance of target-controlled sufentanil infusion in obese patients. Anesthesiology, 98(1):65-73. Cerca con Google

224. Smedile LE, Duke T, Taylor SM. (1996) Excitatory movements in a dog following propofol anesthesia. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc, 32(4):365-8. Cerca con Google

225. Smith FD. (2010) Management of exposure to waste anesthetic gases. AORN J, 91(4):482-94. Cerca con Google

226. Smith I, White PF, Nathanson M, Gouldson R. (1994) Propofol. An update on its clinical use. Anesthesiology, 81(4):1005-43. Cerca con Google

227. Smith I, White PF. Historical and scientific background of intravenous anaesthesia. In Total Intravenous Anaesthesia, 1st edn, C. E. W. Hahn and A. P. Adams, edrs, BMJ Books, 1998a, London: 1-17. Cerca con Google

228. Smith I, White PF. Intravenous anaesthesia delivery and monitoring systems. In Total Intravenous Anaesthesia, 1st edn, C. E. W. Hahn and A. P. Adams, edrs, BMJ Books, 1998c, London: 98-127. Cerca con Google

229. Smith I, White PF. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of drugs used in total intraveous anaesthesia. In Total Intravenous Anaesthesia, 1st edn, C. E. W. Hahn and A. P. Adams, edrs, BMJ Books, 1998b, London: 29-80. Cerca con Google

230. Smith I, White PF. Use of intravenous anaesthesia techniques in special patient populations. In Total Intravenous Anaesthesia, 1st edn, C. E. W. Hahn and A. P. Adams, edrs, BMJ Books, 1998d, London: 81-97. Cerca con Google

231. Smith JA, Gaynor JS, Bednarski RM, Muir WW. (1993) Adverse effects of administration of propofol with various preanesthetic regimens in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 202(7):1111-5. Cerca con Google

232. Snellen F, Lauwers P, Demeyere R, Byttebier G, Van Aken H. (1990) The use of midazolam versus propofol for short-term sedation following coronary artery bypass grafting. Intensive Care Med, 16(5):312-6. Cerca con Google

233. Sneyd JR, Rigby-Jones AE. (2010) New drugs and technologies, intravenous anaesthesia is on the move (again). Br J Anaesth, 105(3):246-54. Cerca con Google

234. Sosis MB, Braverman B, Villaflor E. (1995) Propofol, but not thiopental, supports the growth of Candida albicans. Anesth Analg, 81(1):132-4. Cerca con Google

235. Sosis MB, Braverman B. (1993) Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in four intravenous anesthetics. Anesth Analg, 77(4):766-8. Cerca con Google

236. Steffey, E.P. Howland, D. Jr. (1977) Isoflurane Potency in the Dog and Cat. Am. J. Vet. Res, 38(11): 1833-1836. Cerca con Google

237. Stegmann GF, Bester L. (2001) Some clinical effects of midazolam premedication in propofol-induced and isoflurane-maintained anaesthesia in dogs during ovariohysterectomy. J S Afr Vet Assoc, 72(4):214-6. Cerca con Google

238. Strachan FA, Mansel JC, Clutton RE. (2008) A comparison of microbial growth in alfaxalone, propofol and thiopental. J Small Anim Pract, 49(4):186-90. Cerca con Google

239. Struys M, Versichelen L, Rolly G. (1998) Influence of pre-anaesthetic medication on target propofol concentration using a 'Diprifusor' TCI system during ambulatory surgery. Anaesthesia, 53 Suppl 1:68-71. Cerca con Google

240. Struys M, Versichelen L, Thas O, Herregods L, Rolly G. (1997) Comparison of computer-controlled administration of propofol with two manually controlled infusion techniques. Anaesthesia, 52(1):41-50. Cerca con Google

241. Suarez E, Calvo R, Zamacona MK, Lukas J. (2000) Binding of propofol to blood components. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 49(4):380-1. Cerca con Google

242. Swinhoe CF, Peacock JE, Glen JB, Reilly CS. (1998) Evaluation of the predictive performance of a 'Diprifusor' TCI system. Anaesthesia, 53 Suppl 1:61-7. Cerca con Google

243. Takata K, Kurita T, Morishima Y, Morita K, Uraoka M, Sato S. (2008) Do the kidneys contribute to propofol elimination? Br J Anaesth, 101(5):648-52. Cerca con Google

244. Takizawa D, Hiraoka H, Goto F, Yamamoto K, Horiuchi R. (2005a) Human kidneys play an important role in the elimination of propofol. Anesthesiology, 102(2):327-30. Cerca con Google

245. Takizawa D, Hiraoka H, Nakamura K, Yamamoto K, Horiuchi R. (2004a) Propofol concentrations during the anhepatic phase of living-related donor liver transplantation. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 76(6):648-9. Cerca con Google

246. Takizawa D, Sato E, Hiraoka H, Tomioka A, Yamamoto K, Horiuchi R, Goto F. (2005b) Changes in apparent systemic clearance of propofol during transplantation of living related donor liver. Br J Anaesth, 95(5):643-647. Cerca con Google

247. Takizawa E, Hiraoka H, Takizawa D, Goto F. (2006) Changes in the effect of propofol in response to altered plasma protein binding during normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Br J Anaesth, 96(2):179-85. Cerca con Google

248. Taylor I, White M, Kenny GN. (1993) Assessment of the value and pattern of use of a target controlled propofol infusion system. Int J Clin Monit Comput, 10(3):175-80. Cerca con Google

249. Thompson KA, Goodale DB. (2000) The recent development of propofol (DIPRIVAN). Intensive Care Med, 26(suppl 4):S400–4. Cerca con Google

250. Trench AJ, Buckley FP, Drummond GB, Arthur GR, Scott DB. (1978) Propranolol in thyrotoxicosis. Cardiovascular changes during thyroidectomy in patients pre-treated with propranolol. Anaesthesia, 33(6):535-9. Cerca con Google

251. Umar MA, Yamashita K, Kushiro T, Muir WW 3rd. (2007) Evaluation of cardiovascular effects of total intravenous anesthesia with propofol or a combination of ketamine-medetomidine-propofol in horses. Am J Vet Res, 68(2):121-7. Cerca con Google

252. Umar MA, Yamashita K, Kushiro T, Muir WW. (2006) Evaluation of total intravenous anesthesia with propofol or ketamine-medetomidine-propofol combination in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc, 228(8):1221-7. Cerca con Google

253. Upton RN, Ludbrook GL, Grant C, Martinez AM. (1999) Cardiac output is a determinant of the initial concentrations of propofol after short-infusion administration. Anesth Analg, 89(3):545-52. Cerca con Google

254. Upton RN, Ludbrook GL. (1997) A physiological model of induction of anaesthesia with propofol in sheep. 1. Structure and estimation of variables. Br J Anaesth, 79(4):497-504. Cerca con Google

255. Upton RN, Ludbrook GL. (2005) A Physiologically Based, Recirculatory Model of the Kinetics and Dynamics of Propofol in Man. Anesthesiology, 103:344-352. Cerca con Google

256. Varvel JR, Donoho DL, Shafer SL. (1992) Measuring the Predictive Performance of Computer-Controlled Infusion Pumps. Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics, 20:63-94. Cerca con Google

257. Varveris DA, Morton NS. (2002) Target controlled infusion of propofol for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia using the paedfusor: an open pilot study. Paediatr Anaesth, 12(7):589-93. Cerca con Google

258. Veroli P, O'Kelly B, Bertrand F, Trouvin JH, Farinotti R, Ecoffey C. (1992) Extraheptic metabolism of propofol in man during the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation, British Journal of Anaesthesia, 68: 183-186. Cerca con Google

259. Vuyk J, Engbers FH, Burm AG, Vletter AA, Bovill JG. (1995) Performance of computer-controlled infusion of propofol: an evaluation of five pharmacokinetic parameter sets. Anesth Analg, 81(6):1275-82. Cerca con Google

260. Wagner JG. (1974) A safe method for rapidly achieving plasma concentration plateaus. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 16(4):691-700. Cerca con Google

261. Watkins SB, Hall LW, Clarke KW. (1987) Propofol as an intravenous anaesthetic agent in dogs. Vet Rec, 120(14):326-9. Cerca con Google

262. Watney GC, Pablo LS. (1992) Median effective dosage of propofol for induction of anesthesia in dogs. Am J Vet Res, 53(12):2320-2. Cerca con Google

263. Weaver BM, Raptopoulos D. (1990) Induction of anaesthesia in dogs and cats with propofol. Vet Rec, 126(25):617-20. Cerca con Google

264. White M, Kenny GN, Schraag S. (2008) Use of target controlled infusion to derive age and gender covariates for propofol clearance. Clin Pharmacokinet, 47(2):119-27. Cerca con Google

265. White M, Kenny GN, Schraag S. (2008) Use of target controlled infusion to derive age and gender covariates for propofol clearance. Clin Pharmacokinet, 47(2):119-27. Cerca con Google

266. White M, Kenny GNC. (1990) Intravenous propofol anaesthesia using a computerised infusion system. Anaesthesia, 45:204-209. Cerca con Google

267. White PF. Propofol. In: White P.F. ed. Textbook of intravenous anesthesia. 1st ed. 1997; 111-141 Cerca con Google

268. Wilcke J. (1984) Idiosyncrasies of drug metabolism in cats: effects on pharmacotherapeutics in feline practice. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract, 14, 1345-1353. Cerca con Google

269. Wilkinson GR, Shand DG. (1975) Commentary: a physiological approach to hepatic drug clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 18(4):377-90. Cerca con Google

270. Yamaoka K, Nakagawa T, Uno T. (1978) Application of Akaike's information criterion (AIC) in the evaluation of linear pharmacokinetic equations. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm, Apr;6(2):165-75. Cerca con Google

271. Yang CY, Luk HN, Chen SY, Wu WC, Chai CY. (1997) Propofol inhibits medullary pressor mechanisms in cats. Can J Anaesth, 44(7):775-81. Cerca con Google

272. Yeh S, Chernov H, Woods L. (1971) Metabolism of morphine by cats. J Pharm Sci, 60:469-471. Cerca con Google

273. Zacny JP, Coalson DW, Young CJ, Klafta JM, Lichtor JL, Rupani G, Thapar P, Apfelbaum JL. (1996) Propofol at conscious sedation doses produces mild analgesia to cold pressor-induced pain in healthy volunteers. J Clin Anesth, 8(6):469-74. Cerca con Google

274. Zhang SH, Yao SL, Zeng BX. (2001) Subcellular expression of UGT1A6 and CYP1A1 responsible for propofol metabolism in human brain. Acta Anaesthesiologica Sinica, 22:1013-1017. Cerca con Google

275. Zonca A, Ravasio G, Franci P, Pilla T, Gallo M, Villa R, Carli S, Montesissa C, Cagnardi P. (2010) Aspetti farmacocinetici del propofolo dopo somministrazione endovenosa nel gatto. Atti della Società Italiana delle Scienze Veterinarie (S.I.S.Vet.), Asti 8-10 Settembre 2010, vol. LXIV, 166-168. Cerca con Google

276. Zoran DL, Riedesel DH, Dyer DC. (1993) Pharmacokinetics of propofol in mixed-breed dogs and greyhounds. Am J Vet Res, 54(5):755-60. Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record