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Devigili, Andrea (2011) Correlati Elettrofisiologici del Bias Attentivo nella Fobia del Sangue. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

People seem to automatically appraise the salience of stimuli relevant to survival and automatically direct attention toward whatever may constitute a potential danger. The phenomenon by which threatening stimuli capture more attention in comparison to neutral and pleasant ones is called attentional bias. In the literature, many hypotheses were advanced about attentional processes involved in this bias: it could consist in an early facilitation of the automatic encoding of threatening information, followed by a difficulty in disengaging attention (delayed disengagement), or in an initial orienting of attention toward threat stimuli followed by cognitive avoidance, that inhibits more detailed processing (vigilance-avoidance).
Many behavioural and electrophysiological data support the rapid and preferential processing of threatening stimuli, and these have been obtained by using a variety of experimental paradigms: threat stimuli are detected more quickly, require more processing resources, interfere with the execution of other tasks, maintain the subject’s attention for a longer time and make orienting of attention toward other stimuli more difficult. Several studies show that the attentional bias is enhanced in individuals with high levels of trait anxiety or with anxiety disorders, and that it is specifically related to disorder-related stimuli.
In specific phobias, information processing usually prioritises the detection and the analysis of phobia-related stimuli. However, this does not seem to occur in blood-injection-injury phobia. Blood phobics do not seem to show a facilitated processing of phobia-related stimuli. In contrast, an attentional bias towards phobia-related stimuli, reflected in larger amplitudes of event-related potential P300 and late positive potentials, can be effectively highlighted during passive viewing in other specific phobics.
Blood phobia is peculiar in many ways: at subjective, behavioural and physiological levels. Unlike other specific phobias, disgust is not a secondary emotion, that accompanies fear, but it is the predominant emotion elicited by phobic stimuli. At physiological level, a pattern of cardiovascular activation leading to fainting can be observed. Such a physiological response is associated with uncertainty as to the best behavioural strategy to adopt upon encounter with the phobic stimulus: action or motor inhibition.
The present dissertation describes three studies which aimed at investigating the presence of an attentional bias in blood-injection-injury phobia through behavioural and electrocortical measures. Different experimental paradigms and emotional control categories were used to test the specificity of the attentional bias towards phobia-related stimuli and to identify the underlying attentional mechanisms.

Abstract (italiano)

Rilevare uno stimolo minaccioso nell’ambiente il più velocemente possibile è una funzione essenziale per gli esseri viventi, in quanto permette una risposta di difesa più efficace e comporta maggiori possibilità di sopravvivenza. Il fenomeno per cui gli stimoli minacciosi catturano attenzione in modo più efficace rispetto a stimoli neutri o piacevoli prende il nome di bias attentivo. Esistono numerose ipotesi in letteratura sui meccanismi attentivi alla base di questo bias. In particolare, vi sono due modelli: il primo sostiene che vi sia una facilitazione precoce nella codifica dell’informazione minacciosa, seguita da una difficoltà nello spostare l’attenzione da tale informazione verso altri stimoli (disingaggio ritardato); il secondo sostiene invece che l’iniziale orientamento dell’attenzione verso l’informazione minacciosa sia seguito da evitamento cognitivo, che ne inibisce una elaborazione più dettagliata (vigilanza-evitamento).
Vi sono numerosi studi che hanno prodotto dati comportamentali ed elettrofisiologici a sostegno dell’esistenza di una elaborazione preferenziale degli stimoli minacciosi: ad esempio, gli stimoli di minaccia sono rilevati più velocemente, richiedono più risorse di elaborazione, interferiscono maggiormente nell’esecuzione di compiti concomitanti, mantengono l’attenzione per un periodo di tempo maggiore e rendono difficoltoso lo spostamento dell’attenzione su altri stimoli. Molteplici studi hanno inoltre dimostrato che gli individui con disturbi d’ansia, o con elevati livelli di ansia di tratto, presentano un bias attentivo più marcato, specificatamente nei confronti di stimoli legati al disturbo.
E’ noto che nelle fobie specifiche l’elaborazione dell’informazione privilegia la detezione e l’analisi dello stimolo fobigeno. Tuttavia, questo non sembra verificarsi per la fobia di sangue-iniezioni-ferite. A livello elettrocorticale, nelle fobie specifiche si rileva solitamente un bias associato all’elaborazione dello stimolo fobico, che si riflette in compiti di visione passiva in una maggiore ampiezza della componente P300 dei potenziali evento-relati e in una maggiore positività tardiva (LPP). Questo effetto non è tuttavia emerso per la fobia del sangue. Questo disturbo d’ansia è infatti singolare da molteplici punti di vista: a livello soggettivo, è caratterizzato dall’emozione di disgusto, piuttosto che da quella di paura; a livello fisiologico, è caratterizzato da un pattern di attivazione cardiovascolare che spesso conduce allo svenimento; a livello comportamentale, è caratterizzato da un conflitto tra azione e inibizione motoria.
Il presente lavoro di tesi descrive tre studi che avevano l’obiettivo di indagare la presenza di un bias attentivo nella fobia di sangue-iniezioni-ferite attraverso misure comportamentali ed elettrocorticali. Sono stati impiegati paradigmi sperimentali e categorie emozionali di controllo differenti al fine di testare la specificità del bias attentivo nei confronti del materiale fobigeno e di identificare i meccanismi attentivi coinvolti.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Sarlo, M
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 23 > Scuole per il 23simo ciclo > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PSICOBIOLOGIA
Data di deposito della tesi:NON SPECIFICATO
Anno di Pubblicazione:31 Gennaio 2011
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):bias attentivo, attentional bias, fobia del sangue, blood phobia
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/02 Psicobiologia e psicologia fisiologica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:4052
Depositato il:20 Lug 2011 09:41
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