Duso, C. and Mori, N. and Pozzebon, A. and Marchesini, E. and Girolami, V. (2010) Problems, approaches and innovations in the control of grapevine pests. I. Grape berry moths and leafhoppers. [Online journal papers]
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In this review, climate change, invasive pests, changes in horticultural techniques and plant protection strategies are considered as major factors potentially involved in problems associated with grape pests. Temperature increase can alter pest phenology, determining an increase in the number of generations per year. Temperature increase can also induce an expansion of the geographic distribution of grape berry moths and leafhoppers. The invasion by nearctic pests has complicated the plant-protection management in some areas. The impact of horticultural techniques on grapevine arthropod communities is increasing in importance and interesting examples are provided by the effect of weed management on Bois Noir spread, and the interactions between water management and Empoasca vitis. Grape berry moth control is more often based on the use of insect growth regulators regardless of prior risk assessments. Flavescence dorÃ©e spread determined an increase in insecticide applications, since the control of its vector, i.e. Scaphoideus titanus, has became mandatory in several Italian regions. The recent research on E. vitis has focused on the spatial-temporal distribution of the populations, the effect of horticultural techniques on species abundance, the interactions with parasitoids, and the impact of insecticides. The effects of uncultivated areas contiguous to vineyards on the population dynamics of leafhoppers and their parasitoids have been widely studied. Outbreaks of Jacobiasca lybica in southern Italy as well as Erasmoneura vulnerata occurrence in northern Italy are matter of concern in grape pest management. On the other hand, Metcalfa pruinosa outbreaks are becoming rare. The phenology of Lobesia botrana, its relationships with Botrytis cinerea and fungi producing OTA, as well as grape variety effects on berry moth abundance, have been matter of study in different investigations. Grape berry moth control strategies include a widespread use of IGRs, but Bacillus thuringiensis formulations can represent a suitable alternative to the use of insecticides. Mating disruption has been successfully applied in some areas and further sex pheromones-based techniques are under development. Interactions between grape pests and their antagonists are dramatically affected by pesticide use even in organic farms. Further investigations involve the study and exploitation of plant derived volatiles attractive to grape berry moth females. Spatial distribution of L. botrana appears of major importance for sequential sampling plan definition and in the interpretation of adults migration within agro-ecosystems.
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