Duso, Carlo and Mori, Nicola and Pozzebon, Alberto and Marchesini, Enrico and Girolami, Vincenzo (2010) Problems, tendencies and innovations in the control of arthropod pests of grape. II. Vectors of phytoplasmas, coccids, leafminers, thrips and mites. [Online journal papers]
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In this paper recent issues related to arthropod pests are reviewed. The management of vectors of phytoplasmas, of Scaphoideus titanus in particular, represents a crucial point in grapevine protection. Flavescence dorÃ©e (FD) remains a major concern in some North Italian viticultural areas. The results of studies carried out to improve monitoring and control of S. titanus populations are here reported. The occurrence of Bois Noir (BN) is increasing in several Italian regions. A correlation exists between Hyalesthes obsoletus primary host plants (i.e., Convolvulus arvensis and Urtica dioica) and phytoplasma types associated to BN. BN spread in vineyards has been associated to the distribution of primary host plants, thus their management can be of importance in reducing the incidence of phytoplasma induced disease. Infestations by coccids and pseudococcids in vineyards are increasing in importance in several Italian regions. Winter temperature increase, toxicity of some insecticides towards beneficials, and some horticultural techniques have been considered as major factors involved in this phenomenon. The use of Planococcus ficus sex pheromone is a useful tool in the population monitoring and phenological studies. Planococcus ficus and some coccids can transmit viruses, resulting an important concern in nurseries and commercial vineyards. Recently, a new leafminer species belonging to the genus Antispila has been detected in Italy. Infestations by this species as well by Holocacista rivillei and Phyllocnistis vitegenella can be associated to biocontrol disruption caused by repeated insecticide applications. Problems related to thrips are traditionally attributed to Drepanothrips reuteri, although Frankliniella occidentalis is becoming more important in southern Italy. Tetranychid outbreaks are less frequent than in the past, likely due to the spread of predatory mites resistant to pesticides. Spider mites management is strictly related to that of predatory mites populations and the latter is influenced by alternative foods availability. The importance of update information in side-effects towards beneficials is particularly required for a successful IPM in viticulture.
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