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Zannoni, Diego (2012) Il telerilevamento via satellite ai fini della gestione dei disastri naturali. La disciplina giuridica internazionale ed europea. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (english)

The study aims to offer a clarification and a recognition of the general international and European regulation of remote sensing and, meanwhile, to point out the special regime applicable to remote sensing programs carried out for the prevention, mitigation and management of natural disasters, and to the sensed images relevant in the same field.
This hermeneutic method guides the analysis, which aims to propose a fair balance between two opposite demands: on the one hand the promotion of the development of the remote sensing sector through private investment, and on the other hand the proper protection of the public interest in the field of disaster management lato sensu, with the corollary of the prevalence of the logic of solidarity with the one of profit.
After introducing fundamental concepts such as remote sensing, natural disaster, outer space, taking into account the relevant regulation, the legal questions arising from the launch of the satellite to the diffusion and use of sensed images are identified and analysed in depth, using the general principles of international space law and international environmental law and examining the praxis shaped by space operators and humanitarian organizations. The research focuses on the unique international instrument specifically dedicated to remote sensing, the General Assembly Resolution 41/65 of 1986. Therefore its correspondence to general international law is scrutinized principle by principle.
Next the research explores the international cooperation that has developed in the field of natural disaster management through remote sensing and in particular the system created by the International Charter on Space and Major Disasters on the global level and by the European Union on the regional level.
Furthermore, concerning the rules applicable to the access of sensed data, the study analyses how the restrictions to access and diffusion foreseen by national space legislations, even the recently adopted ones, can be conciliated with the unconditioned duty of early warning and of the assistance that international law provides for natural disasters. The conclusion is in a sense that, whenever sensed data are relevant in the sector of natural disasters, all the imposed exceptions and restrictions fall down.
Finally, with regard to the legal instruments of protection of remote sensing satellites and of sensed data, during the downlink phase and on fixed support, their gaps and the need of clarification are stressed. Even if it is necessary to guarantee an adequate degree of protection of intellectual property for sensed data, whatever their level of elaboration is, the study supports the thesis that protection should be ignored if data are relevant for natural disaster management, in order to increase their diffusion.
In short in the study the access to data relevant for natural disaster management is treated as a public service (servizio pubblico, offentiche Aufgaben, service public) of the international community and as an essential element of a gradually evolving system founded in solidarity among all States participating in the remote sensing chain and on the principle of common benefit for which the exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out according to art. I of the Outer Space Treaty.

Abstract (italian)

Il presente lavoro mira ad offrire una chiarificazione e ricognizione della disciplina generale internazionale ed europea del remote sensing e nel contempo ad individuare il regime speciale applicabile ai programmi di remote sensing condotti per la prevenzione, la mitigazione e la gestione dei disastri naturali e alle immagini telerilevate rilevanti nello stesso ambito. Tale opera ermeneutica, che ne costituisce il filo conduttore ed unificante le varie parti, è animata dall’obiettivo di proporre un equo bilanciamento fra due esigenze contrapposte: quella di promuovere lo sviluppo del settore del remote sensing stimolando l’investimento privato e quella di tutelare adeguatamente l’interesse pubblico in materia di gestione, in senso lato, dei disastri naturali con il corollario della prevalenza, in tale ambito, della logica della solidarietà su quella del profitto.
Dopo una parte introduttiva dedicata alla definizione, alla stregua della normativa rilevante, di alcuni concetti fondamentali come telerilevamento, disastro naturale, spazio extra-atmosferico, vengono enucleate e sviscerate le questioni giuridiche che il remote sensing pone durante tutto il suo svolgimento, dal lancio del satellite da telerilevamento fino al momento della diffusione e dell’utilizzo delle immagini telerilevate, facendo ampio appello ai principi generali di diritto internazionale spaziale e dell’ambiente ed esaminando la prassi che si sta sviluppando ad opera degli operatori spaziali e delle organizzazioni di carattere umanitario. In questa parte viene dedicata particolare attenzione all’unico strumento internazionale dedicato in modo specifico al remote sensing, la risoluzione dell’Assemblea Generale 41/65 del 1986, la cui corrispondenza al diritto internazionale generale viene pertanto vagliata principio per principio.
L’indagine si concentra poi sulla cooperazione internazionale che si è sviluppata nel settore della gestione tramite remote sensing dei disastri naturali, prendendo in esame più da vicino il sistema messo a punto a livello globale dall’International Charter on Space and Major Disasters e, a livello regionale, dall’Unione Europea.
E’apparso poi necessario analizzare la disciplina applicabile all’accesso ai dati telerilevati in particolare per verificare come le restrizioni all’accesso e alla diffusione previste da tutte le legislazioni spaziali nazionali, anche di recente adozione, interagiscono e possono essere conciliate con l’incondizionato obbligo di avviso (early warning) e di soccorso che il diritto internazionale pone in caso di disastri naturali concludendo nel senso che, quando i dati telerilevati sono rilevanti nel settore dei disastri naturali, cadono tutte le eccezioni e le restrizioni eventualmente imposte.
Passando infine a considerare gli strumenti utilizzabili a protezione dei satelliti da telerilevamento e degli stessi dati telerilevati, nella fase di downlink o su supporto fisso, ne vengono messe in evidenza le lacune e viene sottolineata l’esigenza di chiarificazione che permea la materia. Ferma la necessità di garantire una adeguata protezione della proprietà intellettuale ai dati telerilevati, quale sia il loro livello di elaborazione, si ritene che tale protezione dovrebbe venir meno se i dati sono rilevanti nella gestione dei disastri naturali, a tutto vantaggio della loro più ampia condivisione.
In sintesi nel presente lavoro l’accesso ai dati telerilevati rilevanti nella gestione dei disastri naturali viene configurato come un servizio pubblico (public service, offentiche Aufgaben, service public) della comunità internazionale e si pone come elemento essenziale di un sistema in corso di progressiva definizione fondato sulla solidarietà fra tutti gli Stati partecipanti alla catena della attività telerilevanti e sul principio del beneficio comune cui debbono essere finalizzate, ai sensi dell’art. I del Trattato sullo spazio, l’esplorazione e l’utilizzazione dello spazio extra-atmosferico.

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EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Back Impallomeni, Elisabeth
Supervisor:Zagato, Lauso
Ph.D. course:?? DIRITTOINTERNAZIONALE%22ALBERICOGENTILI%22_scuole_24 ??
Ciclo 24 > Scuole 24 > GIURISPRUDENZA
Data di deposito della tesi:19 January 2012
Anno di Pubblicazione:19 January 2012
Key Words:remote sensing, disastro naturale
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 12 - Scienze giuridiche > IUS/13 Diritto internazionale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > pre 2012 - Dipartimento di Diritto Comparato
Codice ID:4393
Depositato il:25 Oct 2012 17:24
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