Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Pellegrini, Marco (2012) Support tools for planning and management of a forest road network. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]
Preview
PDF Document - Published Version
40Mb

Abstract (english)

Forest roads represent a strategic component for the socio-economic development of the populations living in mountainous and hilly areas. Adequate forest road networks are considered essential to exercise a rational and economic management of forests, mountain pastures and agricultural lands.
On the other hand, one must take into consideration that the presence of a road into the forest as well as poor forest road management can have many impacts on the surrounding environment.
The correct planning and management strategies are thus fundamental in order to minimize negative impacts due to the presence of forest roads while at the same time satisfying the accessibility needs of the territory.
In this thesis, a series of tools have been created to support the management of the existing forest road networks.
Firstly, the thesis will present the methodology used to create a geographic database which contains all the sections of roads within the mountainous area of Veneto Region. To achieve this objective, the latest technologies have been used both to gather information by GPS instruments, in order to manage and data-process using spatial information management software (GIS).
Using the information contained in the new informative layer, the extension and the characteristic of the regional forest roads system has been estimated and a series of indexes to evaluate the presence of forest roads at a municipality level that can be used to rank projects in founding sharing decision have been calculated.
The second part regards the development of three GIS-based decision support tools that use in an effective way the data contained in the geo-database, moving from an informative use to an operative one through data elaboration. The models have been built on a GIS environment with the Arc-GIS Model-Builder.
The first model (FORACCESS) evaluates the accessibility of the territory based on determining the time that an operator takes to reach a determined point in the forest starting from the road-side and considering the geo-morphologic characteristics of the terrain. The result can be used to define the areas where the construction of new forest roads is more needed.
Second model (FORSE) produces a map representing the feasible working area for each wood extraction system, considering the geo-morphologic characteristics of the terrain and the condition of the present road network. The result can be used for example to analyze the effects of the construction of a new road in the execution of forest operation.
The third model (ROADGRAD) evaluates the vertical gradient of the forest roads based on the digital terrain model (DTM). The resulted map contains fundamental information of the road that can be used to determine the presence of limiting point for the transit or to evaluate the needs of drainage structures.
In the last part of the thesis a methodology will be presented, using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and GIS software, to rank the maintenance priority according to the actual condition and the actual needs of a forest road network.
The use of integrated GIS tools and AHP analysis showed that different aspects related to the forest road network presence can be effectively integrated. Consequently, the approach could be used to improve the effective administration and management of maintenance planning, especially considering that existing forest road systems need to evolve toward a paradigm where other benefits (e.g. recreational value) and priorities (e.g. environmental aspects) are included.

Abstract (italian)

La viabilità agro-silvo-pastorale rappresenta un elemento fondamentale per lo sviluppo socio-economico delle aree montane e collinari. Un adeguata presenza di viabilità è infatti essenziale per poter esercitare una razionale ed economica gestione del territorio e delle sue risorse. Và tuttavia considerato che la presenza di una strada porta con sé anche una serie di effetti negativi sull'ambiente circostante.
Per questa ragione è molto importante adottare una corretta strategia di gestione e pianificazione della rete viabile, in modo da minimizzarne gli impatti negativi e da soddisfare, al contempo, le esigenze di accessibilità del territorio.
Nel presente lavoro saranno sviluppati una serie di strumenti di supporto alla gestione della viabilità agro-silvo-pastorale.
Sarà dapprima presentata la metodologia usata per la creazione del database geografico rappresentativo della viabilità forestale all'interno dell'area montana della Regione Veneto, in quanto un'adeguata conoscenza della rete viabile rappresenta il presupposto fondamentale per la sua corretta gestione.
Nella predisposizione del nuovo strato informativo relativo alla viabilità forestale sono stati utilizzati sistemi GPS per il rilievo e strumenti GIS per l'organizzazione, la gestione e l'analisi delle informazioni.
Utilizzando i dati contenuti nel geo-database sono state successivamente analizzate l'estensione e le caratteristiche della viabilità forestale a livello regionale e sono stati calcolati una serie di indici per valutarne la dotazione a livello comunale e di Comunità Montana.
La seconda parte della tesi riguarda lo sviluppo di tre strumenti GIS che utilizzando i dati contenuti nel geo-database permettono di elaborare delle mappe da utilizzare a supporto delle scelte di gestione.
Il primo modello (FORACCESS) valuta il livello di accessibilità del territorio calcolando il tempo impiegato da un operatore per raggiungere un determinato punto partendo dalla più vicina strada forestale, considerando le condizioni morfologiche del terreno. Il risultato può quindi essere utilizzato per l'individuazione di massima delle aree che maggiormente necessitano della costruzione di nuove strade forestali.
Il secondo modello (FORSE) valuta le aree in cui una determinata tecnica di esbosco risulta più adatta, in relazione alla morfologia del terreno. La mappa risultante può essere quindi utilizzata per valutare gli effetti della costruzione di una nuova strada sulle tecniche di esbosco applicabili.
Il terzo modello (ROADGRAD) calcola la pendenza delle strade forestali, sulla base del modello digitale del terreno. Il risultato rappresenta un informazione molto importante che può essere usata sia per valutare l'eventuale presenza di punti limitanti al transito sia per valutare l'esigenza di adeguati sistemi di smaltimento delle acque sulle strade.
Nell'ultimo capitolo viene infine presentata una metodologia per la valutazione delle priorità di manutenzione della viabilità forestale utilizzando una tecnica di analisi multi-criteriale (AHP) che considera i benefici e i rischi connessi con la presenza della rete stradale.
L'utilizzo integrato dell'analisi AHP e di un software GIS si è dimostrato un valido strumento per l'integrazione dei molteplici aspetti coinvolti nella presenza della viabilità forestale e il conseguente miglioramento delle attuali strategie di gestione e manutenzione.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Cavalli, Raffaele
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 24 > Scuole 24 > TERRITORIO, AMBIENTE, RISORSE E SALUTE > TECNOLOGIE MECCANICHE DEI PROCESSI AGRICOLI E FORESTALI
Data di deposito della tesi:24 January 2012
Anno di Pubblicazione:31 January 2012
Key Words:Viabilità forestale, GIS, multifunzionalità, AHP / Forest road network, GIS, planning, multifunctionality, AHP
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/09 Meccanica agraria
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali
Codice ID:4454
Depositato il:07 Dec 2012 09:10
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

1978. Legge Regionale 13.9.1978 n. 52. Legge Forestale Regionale. Bollettino Ufficiale Regionale della Regione del Veneto n. 43/1978 Cerca con Google

1992. Legge Regionale 31.3.1992 n. 14. Disciplina della viabilità silvo-pastorale. Bollettino Ufficiale Regionale della Regione del Veneto n. 36/1992 Cerca con Google

Abdi E. Majnounian B. Darvishsefat A. Mashayekhi Z. Sessions J. 2009. A GIS-MCE based model for forest road planning. Journal of Forest Science, 55 (4): 171–176 Cerca con Google

Akay A.E. Sessions J. 2005. Applying the decision support system, TRACER to forest road design. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 20 (3): 184-191 and Systematics, 207–232 Cerca con Google

Anderson A.E. Nelson J. 2004. Projecting vector-based road networks with a shortest path algorithm. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34: 1444-1457 Cerca con Google

Angelsen A. Kaimowitz D. 1999. Rethinking the Causes of Deforestation: Lessons from Economic Models. The World Bank Research Observer, 14(1): 73-98. Cerca con Google

B.C. Ministry of Forests. 2002. Forest road engineering guidebook. For. Prac. Br., B.C. Min. For., Victoria, B.C. Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Guidebook Cerca con Google

Bernetti G. 1965. La rete stradale forestale come problema di assestamento. L’Italia Forestale e Montana, 20 (6): 261-267 Cerca con Google

Bhattacharya M. Primack R.B. Gerwein J. 2003. Are roads and railroads barriers to bumblebee movement in a temperate suburban conservation area? Biological Conservation, 109:37-45 Cerca con Google

Bilby R. E. 1985. Contributions of road surface sediment to a western Washington stream. Forest Science, 31:827-838 Cerca con Google

Bohrn G. and Stampfer K. 2010. Forststraßenvermessung-was bringer elektronische Geräte? Forstzeitung, 3-2010. 12-13 Cerca con Google

Brassel and Lische. 2001. Swiss National Forest Inventory: Methods and Models of the Second Assessment. WSL Swiss Federal Research Institute, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, 2001 Cerca con Google

Brown M. 2000. Better Planning for Better Road Maintenance: reducing transportation and maintenance costs by focusing maintenance on the sections that need it most. 6th International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Proceedings 2000, 7-22 June 2000 Cerca con Google

Calvani G. Marchi E. Piegai. F. Tesi E. 1999. Funzioni, classificazione, caratteristiche e pianificazione della viabilità forestale per l’attività di antincendio boschivo. L’Italia Forestale e Montana 54 (3):109-125 Cerca con Google

Cavalli R. 1997. Il trattore agricolo a 4 RM e il verricello nel concentramento e nell’esbosco del legname. Sherwood, 21 (3): 31-39 Cerca con Google

Cavalli R. Cappellari E. Grigolato S. 2010. Metodologia per la valutazione delle esigenze di viabilità silvo-pastorale in un contesto montano (Method for assessment of forest road network requirement in a mountain area). L'Italia Forestale e Montana, 65 (3): 313-330 Cerca con Google

Cavalli R. and Grigolato S. 2010. Influence of characteristics and extension of a forest road network on the supply cost of forest woodchips. Journal of Forest Research, 15 (3):202-209 Cerca con Google

Cavalli R. and Menegus G. 2003. Lavorare sicuri per migliorare l’ambiente, linee guida per l’esecuzione delle utilizzazioni forestali. Regione del Veneto, Direzione Foreste ed Economia Montana. Venezia Cerca con Google

Chankong, V. and Haimes Y.Y. 1983. Multiobjective decision making: theory and methodology. New York: North-Holland Cerca con Google

Chirici G. Marchi E. Rossi V. Scotti R. 2003. Analisi e valorizzazione della viabilità forestale tramite G.I.S.: la foresta di Badia Prataglia (AR). L’Italia Forestale e Montana, 58 (6): 460-481 Cerca con Google

Cielo P. and Gottero F. 2004. Piano della viabilità. Finalità, analisi ed elaborati. Sherwood, 10 (10): 33-38 Cerca con Google

Cielo P. Gottero F. Morera A. Terzuolo P. 2003. La viabilità agro-silvopastorale: elementi di pianificazione e progettazione. IPLA. 106 pp. Torino: Regione Piemonte. www.regione.piemonte.it Vai! Cerca con Google

Coffin A.W. 2007. From roadkill to road ecology: a review of the ecological effects of roads. Journal of Transport Geography, 15, 396-406 Cerca con Google

Coulter E.D. Sessions J. Wing M. G. 2006. Scheduling forest road maintenance using the analytic hierarchy process and heuristics. Silva Fennica, 40 (1): 143-160 Cerca con Google

De Smith M.J. Goodchild M.F. Longley P.A. 2006-2011. Geospatial Analysis - a comprehensive guide - Third Editions. Free web-based resource, http://www.spatialanalysisonline.com/output/ Vai! Cerca con Google

Densham P.J. 1991. Spatial Decision Support Systems. In Maguire D.J., Goodchild M.F., Rhind D.W. Geographical Informations Systems – principles and Applications. Longman Scientific & Technical, Essex, 1: 403-412 Cerca con Google

Dietz P. W. Knigge H. Loeffler. 1984. Walderschliessung. Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg and Berlin, Germany Cerca con Google

Dubè, K., Megahan,W., Mccalmon, M. 2004. Washington Road Surface Erosion Model (WARSEM) Manual. Department of Natural Resources, State of Washington Cerca con Google

Eastman J. R. Kyem P. A. K. Toledano J. Jin W. 1993. GIS and decision making. Explorations in Geographic Information System Technology, 4. Geneva: UNITAR Cerca con Google

Elliot W. J. L. M. Tysdal. 1999. Understanding and reducing erosion from insloping roads. Journal of Forestry, 97:30-34 Cerca con Google

ESRI. 2011. ArcGIS 10. Redland, CA: Enviromental System Reseach Institure. http://webhelp.esri.com/ Vai! Cerca con Google

FAO. 1998. Watershed management field guide. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome. Cerca con Google

FESA. 2005. South African Forest Road Handbook. http://www.icfr.ukzn.ac.za/collaboration/forest-engineering-southern-africa/fesa-publications/ Vai! Cerca con Google

Floris. A. Picci M. Scrizi G. 1999. Analisi in ambiente GIS per la valutazione del grado di infrastrutturazione viaria delle aree forestali. Dendronatura, 35 (2): 24-33 Cerca con Google

Forman R.T.T. Alexander L.E. 1998. Roads and their major ecological effects. Annual Review of Ecology Cerca con Google

Fu B. Lachlan T.H. Newham L.T.H. Ramos-Scharron C.E. 2010. A review of surface erosion and sediment delivery models for unsealed roads. Environmental Modelling and Software, 25 (2010), 1-14 Cerca con Google

Ghaffariyan M.R. Stampfer K. Sessions J. Durston T. Kuehmaier M. Kanzian CH. 2010. Road network optimization using heuristic and linear programming. Journal of Forest Science, 56, 2010 (3): 137-145 Cerca con Google

Gorry A., Morton M.S., 1971. A Framework for Information Systems. Sloan Management Review, 13 (1): 56-79 Cerca con Google

Grant S.B. Rekhi N.V. Pise N.R. Reeves R.L. Matsumoto M. Wistrom A. Moussa L. Bay S. Kayhanian M.A. 2003. Review of the contaminants and toxicity associated with particles in storm-water runoff. CTSW-RT-03-059.73.15. Caltrans, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA. Cerca con Google

Grayson R.B. Haydon S.R. Jayasuriya M.D.A. Finlayson B.L. 1993. Water quality in mountain ash forests – separating the impacts of roads from those of logging operations. Journal of Hydrology, 150 (2–4), 459–480 Cerca con Google

Gucinski, H. M.J. Furniss R.R. Ziemer M.H. Brookes. 2001. Forest Roads: A Synthesis of Scientific Information. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-509. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, Oregon. Cerca con Google

Gumus S. 2009. Constitution of the forest road evaluation form for Turkish forestry. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 8 (20), pp.5389-5394 Cerca con Google

Gumus S. Acar H.H. e Toksoy D. 2007. Functional forest road network planning by consideration of environmental impact assessment for wood harvesting. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. On-line first. www.springerlink.com Vai! Cerca con Google

Haggett, P. 1965. Locational Analysis in Human Geography. Edward Arnold, London Cerca con Google

Heinimann H.R. 1999. Ground-based harvesting systems for steep slopes. In Proceedings of the International Mountain Logging and 10th Pacific Northwest Skyline Symposium, J. Session and W. Chung (eds.), Corvallis OR, March 28 – April 1, 1999, p.1-19. Department of Forest Engineering. Oregon State University. Corvallis, OR 97331 Cerca con Google

Hippoliti G. 1976. Sulla determinazione delle caratteristiche della rete viabile forestale. L’Italia Forestale e Montana, 31 (6): 241-255 Cerca con Google

INFC. 2005. Inventario Nazionale delle Foreste e dei Serbatoi Forestali di Carbonio. Ministero delle Politiche Agricole Alimentari e Forestali, Ispettorato Generale - Corpo Forestale dello Stato. CRA - Istituto Sperimentale per l’Assestamento Forestale e per l’Alpicoltura Cerca con Google

Keeney R.L. 1980. Siting energy facilities. San Diego, CA: Academic Press Cerca con Google

Keeney R.L. Raiffa H. 1976. Decision with multiple objectives: preferences and value tradeoffs. New York: Wiley Cerca con Google

Klč P. 2005. Research on principles of making access to mountain forests by forest road network. Journal of Forest Product, 51(3):115-126 Cerca con Google

Lai S.-K. Hopkins L.D. 1989. The meaning of trade-offs in multi-attribute evaluation methods: a comparison. Environment and Planning, 16(2): 155-170 Cerca con Google

Luce C.H. Black T.A. 1999b Changes in erosion from gravel surfaced forest roads through time. In Proceedings of the International Mountain Logging and 10th Pacific Northwest Skyline Symposium, International Union of Forestry Research Organizations and Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. p. 204-218 Cerca con Google

Luce, C. H. Black T. A. 1999a. Sediment Production from Forest Roads in Western Oregon. Water Resources Research 35, 2561-2570 Cerca con Google

MacCrimmon K.R. 1969. Improving the system design and evaluation process by the use of trade-off information: an application to northeast corridor transportation planning. RM-5877-DOT. Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation Cerca con Google

MacDonald L.H., Coe D.B.R. 2008. Road sediment production and delivery: processes and management. In: Proceedings of the First World Landslide Forum, International Programme on Landslides and International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 381–384. Cerca con Google

Malczewski J. 1996. The multiple criteria location problem: 2. Preference based techniques and interactive decision support. Environment and Planning A, 28(1): 69-98 Cerca con Google

Malczewski J. 1999. GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis. 408 pp. New York: John Wiley Cerca con Google

Marchi E. Spinelli R. 1997. L’impatto ambientale delle strade forestali. L’Italia Forestale e Montana, LII (4): 221-239 Cerca con Google

Marinoni O. 2004a. Implementation of the analytical hierarchy process with VBA in ArcGIS. Computers and Geosciences, 30 (6): 637-646 Cerca con Google

Marinoni O. 2004b. Some words on the analytic hierarchy process and the provided ArcGIS extension ext_ahp. http://arcscripts.esri.com/details.asp?dbid=13764 Vai! Cerca con Google

Massam B.H. 1988. Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) techniques in planning. Progress in planning, 30(1); 1-84 Cerca con Google

Matthews D.M. 1942. Cost-control in the Logging Industry. New York, McGraw-Hill: 374 Cerca con Google

McDonald T. P. Carter E. A. Taylor S.E. 2002. Using the global positioning system to map disturbance patterns of forest harvesting machinery. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32: 310-319 Cerca con Google

Mohammadi Samani, K. Najafi A. Hosseiny S. A. Lotfalian M. 2010. Planning road network in mountain forests using GIS and Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP) , Caspian J. Env. Sci, 8, 151-162 Cerca con Google

Munda G. Nijkamp P. Rietveld P. 1995. Qualitative multi-criteria methods for fuzzy evaluation Cerca con Google

Najafi A. Sobhani H. Saeed A. Makhodom M. Mohajer M. 2008. Planning and assessment of alternative forest road and skidding networks. CroatianJournal of Forest Engineering, 29 (1): 63-73 Cerca con Google

Nellemann C. Vistnes I. Jordhoy P. Strand O. 2001. Winter distribution of wild reindeer in relation to power lines, roads and resorts. Biological Conservation, 101, 351–360 Cerca con Google

Nevecěrel H. Pentek T. Pičman D. Stankič I. 2007. Traffic load of roads as a criterion for their categorization – GIS analysis. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 28 (1): 27-38 Cerca con Google

Nyerges T.L. 1993. Understanding the scope of GIS: its relationship to environmental modeling. In: M. Goodchild, B. Packs, and L. Steyaert (eds.), Environmental modeling with GIS. Oxford University Press, pp. 75-93 Cerca con Google

Olsson L. Lohmander P. Optimal forest transportation with respect to road investments. Forest Policy and Economics, 7 (2005). 369-379 Cerca con Google

Omkarprasad S. Vaidya, Sushil Kumar. 2006. Analytic hierarchy process: An overview of applications European Journal of Operational Research, 169 (2006) 1–29 Cerca con Google

Oregon Department of forestry. 2000. State Forest Program - Forest Road Manual. http://www.oregon.gov/ODF/STATE_FORESTS/roadsmanual.shtml Vai! Cerca con Google

Oxley D.J. Fenton M.B. Carmody G.R. 1974. Effects of roads on populations of small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology, 11, 51–59 Cerca con Google

Packer, P. E. 1967. Criteria for designing and locating logging roads to control sediment. Forest Science, 13:2-18. Cerca con Google

Pentek T. Nevecerel H. Picman D. Porsinsky T. Forest road network in the Republic of Croatia-Status and perspectives. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 2007; 28(1):93-106 Cerca con Google

Pentek T. Nevecerel H. Porsinsky T. Picman D. Potocnik I. Lepoglavec K. Methodology for development of secondary forest traffic infrastructure cadastre. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 2008; 29(1):75-83 Cerca con Google

Pereira J.M.C. Duckstein L. 1993. A multiple criteria decision-making approach to GIS-based land suitability evaluation. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, 7(5): 407-424 Cerca con Google

Picman D and Pentek T. 1998. The influence of forest roads building and maintenance cost on their optimum density in low lying forests of Croatia. Proceeding of the seminar on Environmentally Sound Forest Roads and Wood Transport in Sinaia, Romania, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1998, 87-102. Cerca con Google

Potocnik I. 2006. Road traffic in Protected Forest Areas – Case Study in Triglav National Park, Slovenia. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering, 2006; 2(27): 116-121 Cerca con Google

Pozzati A. 1987. Criteri di pianificazione delle strade forestali in provincia di Trento. L’Italia Forestale e Montana, 43 (6): 445-452 Cerca con Google

Pozzatti A. Cerato M. 1984. Note pratiche sulla progettazione delle strade forestali. L’Italia Forestale e Montana, 39, (5), 263-274 Cerca con Google

Ramos-Scharron C.E. MacDonald L.H. 2005. Measurement and prediction of sediment production from unpaved roads. St John, US Virgin Islands. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 30 (10), 1283–1304 Cerca con Google

Reid L.M. 1981. Sediment production from gravel-surfaced roads. Clearwater basin, Washington. Publication FRI-UW-8108. University of Washington Fisheries Research Institute: Seattle, WA Cerca con Google

Reid L.M., Dunne T. 1984. Sediment production from forest road surfaces. Water Resources Research, 20 (11), 1753–1761 Cerca con Google

Rizos C. 2002. Introducing the global positioning system. In Manual of Geospatial Science and Technology, Editors Bossler E.D. 77-94, NewYork NY: Taylor&Francis Cerca con Google

Rogers L. 2001. PEGGER and ROADVIEW – A New GIS Tool to assist engineers in operation planning. The international mountain logging and 11th Pacific Northwest Skyline Symposium, Seattle, University of Washington: 177 – 182 Cerca con Google

Rogers L. 2005. Automating contour-based route projection for preliminary forest road design using GIS (MS Thesis) Washington, University of Washington: 87 Cerca con Google

Ryan T., Phillips H. Ramsay J. Dempsey J. 2004. Forest Road Manual. Guidelines for the design, construction and management of forest roads. COFORD, Dublin Cerca con Google

Saaty T. L. 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process: Planning, Priority Setting, Resource Allocation. McGraw-Hill, New York. 287 p. Cerca con Google

Schmoldt D. L. J. J. Kangas G. A. Mendoza M. Pesonen. 2001. The Analytic Hierarchy Process in Natural Resource and Environmental Decision Making. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers Cerca con Google

Sessions J. 1978. A heuristic algorithm for the solution of the variable and fixed cost transportation problem. In: Proceedings The 1985 Symposium on System Analysis in Forest Resources. Athens, University of Georgia: 324–336 Cerca con Google

Sessions J. Chung W. 2003. NETWORK 2000: A program for optimizing large fixed and variable cost transportation problems. In proceedings the 2000 System Analysis Symposium in Forest Resources, Aspen, September 28-30 Cerca con Google

Sheridan G.J. Noske P.J. 2007. A quantitative study of sediment delivery and stream pollution from different forest road types. Hydrological Processes, 21 (3), 387–398 Cerca con Google

Shiba M. 1995. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based multi attribute benefit structure analysis of road network system in mountainous rural areas of Japan. International Journal of Forest Engineering, 7: 14-50. Cerca con Google

Simon H.A. 1960. The new science of management decision. New York: Harper and Row Cerca con Google

Smith L.L. Smith K.G. Barichivich W.J. Dodd Jr. C.K. Sorensen K. 2005. Roads and Florida’s herpetofauna: a review and mitigation case study. In: Meshaka, W.E., Jr., Babbitt, K.J. (Eds.), Status and Conservation of Florida Amphibians and Reptiles. Krieger Publications, Malabar, FL Cerca con Google

Sol H.G. 1983. Processes and tools for decision support: Inferences for future developments. In Processes and Tools for Decision Support, 1-6, ed. Sol H.G., North Holland, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Cerca con Google

Sprague R.H., Watson H.J., 1986. Decision Support Systems: Putting Theory into Practice. Prentice Hall, New Jersey Cerca con Google

Starr M.K. Zeleny M. 1977. MCDM: state and future of the arts. In Starr M.K. Zeleny M. (eds.), Multiple criteria decision making. Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 5-29 Cerca con Google

Stuekelberger J. A. Heinimann, H.R. Chung W. M. Ulber. 2006. Automatic road network planning for multiple objectives. The 29th COFE meeting, Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, July 30-August 2, W. Chung and H.S. Han, editors. 233-248 Cerca con Google

Swift L. W. Jr. 1984. Soil losses from roadbeds and cut and fill slopes in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 8:209-216 Cerca con Google

Tachiki Y. Yoshimura T. Hasegawa H. Mita T. Sakai T. Nakamura F. 2005. Effects of polline simplification of dynamic GPS data under forest canopy on area and perimeter estimation. Journal of Forest Research, 10: 419-427 Cerca con Google

Tan J. 1992. Planning a forest road network by a spatial data handling-network routing system. Acta Forestalia Fennica 227. The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute. Helsinki Cerca con Google

Tan J. 1999. Locating forest roads by a spatial and heuristic procedure. Journal of Forest Engineering, 10 (2): 91-100 Cerca con Google

Triantaphyllou E. 2000. Multi-Criteria Decision Making Methods: A Comparative Study. Dordrecht , Kluwer Academic Publishers, 288p Cerca con Google

Ullman, E.L. 1956. The role of transportation and the bases for interaction. In: Thomas, W.L., Jr. (Ed.), Man’s Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago Cerca con Google

USDA Forest Service. 1999. Road Analysis: Informing Decision about managing the National Forest Transportation System. Washington DC, USDA Forest Service Cerca con Google

USDA Forest Service. 1999b. Interim rule suspending road construction in unroaded areas of National Forest System Land. Washington DC, USDA Forest Service Cerca con Google

USDA Forest Service. 1999c. Roads Analysis: Informing Decisions about Managing the National Forest Transportation System. Misc. Rep. FS-643. Washington, D.C.:U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service. 222 p Cerca con Google

Vincent K. R. 1985. Runoff and erosion from a logging road in response to snowmelt and rainfall. Master of Science Thesis, University of California, Berkeley Cerca con Google

Voogd, H. 1983. Multicriteria evaluation for urban and regional planning. London: Pion Cerca con Google

Weintraub A. 1986. NETCOST, a heuristic approach for roading and forest management planning. COOP Agreement Report. Berkeley, University of California Cerca con Google

Wing M. G. Bettinger P. 2003. GIS: An updated primer on a powerful management tool”. Journal of Forestry, 101: 4-8 Cerca con Google

Wing M. G. Eklund A. Kellogg L. D. 2005. Consumer-grade global positioning system (GPS) accuracy and reliability”. Journal of Forestry, 103: 169-173 Cerca con Google

Wing M. G. Kellogg L. D. 2004. Digital data collection and analysis techniques for forestry applications. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics, University of Gävle, Sweden, June 7 2004, p. 77-83 Cerca con Google

Winpenny J.T. 1991. Values for the environment: a guide to economic appraisal. London: Her Majesty,s Office. Cerca con Google

Yoshimura T. Gandaseca S. Gumus S. Acar H. 2002. Evaluating the accuracy of GPS positioning in the foresto f the Macka region. In The Second National Black Sea Forestry Congress Proceedings, 1: 62-69 Cerca con Google

Ziegler A. D. R. A. Sutherland and T. W. Giambelluca. 2001a. Interstorm surface preparation and sediment detachment by vehicle traffic on unpaved mountain roads. Earth Surface Process and Landforms 26:235-250 Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record