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Berlanda, Michele (2012) Aspetti clinici ed eziopatogenetici della dermatite ed otite da Malassezia sp. nel cane. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Malassezia spp. yeasts are commensal organisms of human and animal skin and occasionally act as pathogens.
The aim of this study was to get a further insight into pathogenetic and clinical aspects of Malassezia dermatitis and otitis in the dog through a comparison between patients with Malassezia overgrowth to those of a control group. All animals enrolled in the study were presented at the Department of Veterinary Clinical Science for a dermatological consultancy.
After a complete physical and dermatologic examination, samples were obtained from four regions: axilla, interdigital area, ear pinna and one skin lesion.
Citology was performed from the above regions in order to identify and count yeasts. In positive cases a yeast culture, phenotypic and genotypic identification were carried out.
Ninety-seven animals were enrolled in the study: 84 patients with Malassezia sp. overgrowth and 13 healthy dogs. German shepherd, labrador and boxer were overrepresented among breeds (10/11,9%; 6/7,1%; 5/5,9%, respectively) and females were more than males (50 vs 34).
The history of most patients (32/44,5%) revealed that they have not received any medication before examination. In fact, antibiotic or steroid therapy may affect Malassezia overgrowth in some way but there is still not enough evidence to confirm it.
In affected patients parasites were isolated more often from external auditory canal (33/ 46,5%), skin lesions (31/43,7%) and interdigital areas (29/40,8%).
The number of yeasts resulting from the skin cytology seems to be the most important predisposing factor for the clinical presentation of Malassezia dermatitis as evidenced by the comparison between pathological and healthy dogs.
The cytology, performed following the technique of the adhesive tape strips and stained with modified Diff-Quick®, seems to be more sensitive in detecting an overgrowth of Malassezia than culture. This result is in disagreement with previous studies.
The only species of the genus Malassezia, isolated in the present study, was Malassezia pachydermatis.
Further studies on yeast and host genotype could provide new insights into the etiopathogenetic aspects of Malassezia dermatitis and otitis in the dog.

Abstract (italiano)

I lieviti appartenenti al genere Malassezia sono organismi commensali della cute umana ed animale che in talune condizioni predisponenti possono diventare patogeni. Obiettivo del presente lavoro è stato di approfondire le conoscenze di alcuni aspetti clinici ed eziopatogenetici di dermatite ed otite da Malassezia sp. nel cane. Per raggiungere tali obiettivi sono stati messi a confronto i risultati ottenuti da un gruppo di controllo e quelli di tutti gli animali che sulla base della visita clinica e degli esami citologici sono stati riconosciuti affetti da sovraccrescita di Malassezia sp. In tutti i soggetti, dopo visita dermatologica, sono state campionate tre regioni standard (ascella, interdigitale, padiglione) ed una coinvolta da lesioni. Di tali regioni è stato eseguito l’esame citologico per l’identificazione e la conta dei lieviti. Nei casi di positività citologica sono stati eseguiti l’esame colturale, l’identificazione fenotipica e genotipica.
Sono stati inclusi 97 animali di cui 84 affetti da sovraccrescita di Malassezia sp. Fra questi le razze maggiormente rappresentate sono state il pastore tedesco, il Labrador ed il boxer (10/11,9%; 6/7,1%; 5/5,9%, rispettivamente); le femmine sono risultate in numero superiore ai maschi (50 vs 34).
Un elevato numero di pazienti (32/44,5%) non aveva ricevuto, in precedenza alla visita, alcuna terapia farmacologica. I risultati non escludono che la somministrazione di antibiotici e/o cortisonici possa avere un’influenza parziale sulla sovraccrescita di Malassezia sp.
Negli animali malati la maggior frequenza d’isolamento si è avuta nel condotto uditivo esterno (33/46,5%), seguito dalle regioni coinvolte da lesioni (31/43,7%) e dagli spazi interdigitali (29/40,8%).

La maggior numerosità dei lieviti riscontrata con esame citologico nei cani malati rispetto ai sani sembra essere uno dei fattori sostanziali per lo sviluppo dei segni clinici della dermatite da Malassezia.
I risultati ottenuti dal confronto fra la citologia e l’esame colturale appaiono in disaccordo con quanto affermato in letteratura. L’esame citologico, realizzato con la tecnica del nastro adesivo e colorato con la tecnica Diff-Quick® modificata, sembra maggiormente sensibile nel rilevare una sovraccrescita di Malassezia rispetto all’esame colturale ottenuto secondo la tecnica adottata in questo studio.
L’unica specie del genere Malassezia isolata nel presente lavoro è stata Malassezia pachydermatis.
È auspicabile che in futuro, ulteriori informazioni possano giungere dall’approfondimento di aspetti clinici correlati al genotipo dei lieviti e dell’ospite per chiarire definitivamente gli aspetti irrisolti dell’eziopatogenesi della dermatite da Malassezia.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Poser, Helen
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 23 > Scuole per il 23simo ciclo > SCIENZE VETERINARIE > SCIENZE CLINICHE VETERINARIE
Data di deposito della tesi:27 Gennaio 2012
Anno di Pubblicazione:27 Gennaio 2012
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Malassezia sp., cane, dermatite, otite, lieviti/ Malassezia sp., dog, dermatitis, otitis, yeasts
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > VET/08 Clinica medica veterinaria
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > pre 2012 - Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Veterinarie
Codice ID:4582
Depositato il:05 Nov 2012 12:26
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