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Favara, Irene (2012) Consequences and antecedents of intergroup contact: field and experimental evidence. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

A great deal of social-psychological studies have shown that intergroup contact represents a powerful instrument for reducing prejudice. The contact hypothesis (Allport, 1954), according to which cooperative interactions between members of different groups can lead to more harmonious intergroup relations, has been widely tested over the last 50 years and has been confirmed in a wide variety of groups, situations and cultural contexts (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Recently, research on contact has focused on some more intimate forms of contact, such as intergroup friendships (Pettigrew, 1997, 1998), and on alternative forms of intergroup contact, such as extended contact (Wright et al., 1997). Although the extensive literature on this topic has contributed in creating a broad consensus on the effectiveness of contact in improving intergroup relations, some problems require further investigation.
In the first study, the aim was to test, for the first time, the effects of direct and extended intergroup friendships on the attributions of humanity of the outgroup. A further objective was to investigate the processes of mediation which favour the attribution of uniquely human characteristics to the outgroup. A model of double mediation was tested: direct and extended friendships are the initial variables; inclusion of the outgroup in the self, (IOS; Wright et al., 1997), ingroup norms (Wright et al., 1997) and outgroup norms (Wright et al., 1997) are the first level mediators; feelings of anxiety, empathy and trust towards the outgroup are the second level mediators; the attribution of uniquely human traits to the outgroup was used as the final variable. The intergroup relationship considered was: Northerners/Southerners in Italy. Participants were all Northerners and they completed a questionnaire containing the measures included in the model. The results showed different processes of mediation for direct and indirect contact. Direct contact improves perceptions of humanity because it increases IOS which, in turn, reduces anxiety and increases empathy and trust towards the outgroup, with positive effects on outgroup humanization. Indirect contact, instead, improves perceptions of humanity by acting positively on ingroup norms (the perception that members of the ingroup are favourable to the outgroup), this perception, in turn, reduces anxiety and increases empathy and trust towards the outgroup, with positive effects on outgroup humanization. This study highlights the effectiveness of direct and extended friendships, in promoting outgroup humanization, and highlights how they operate through different processes.
Despite the extensive literature on the moderators of direct contact (Brown & Hewstone, 2005), few studies have investigated the factors which moderate the effects of indirect contact. For this reason, after having examined in the first study the mediating variables of extended contact, in the second study we proposed extending these results and testing when indirect contact is more effective. The aim of the second study was to test, in the context of indirect contact, the prototypicality of the representative ingroup and outgroup member. In accordance with the self categorization theory (Turner, 1991), social influence is exerted above all by members perceived as prototypical of the group of membership. Adopting the paradigm of minimal groups (see Tajfel,1970; van Leeuwen et al., 2003), the prototypicality (similarity to the other members of the group) perceived by the exemplar of the ingroup and that of the outgroup was manipulated. The experimental design included four conditions among participants: both the exemplar of the ingroup and that of the outgroup are presented as prototypical; the exemplar of the ingroup is presented as prototypical that of the outgroup is not; the exemplar of the ingroup is not prototypical that of the outgroup is; the two representatives are both non prototypical. The experiment was introduced to the participants as a study on the productivity of groups in brainstorming tasks. On the basis of false feedback, the experimental manipulation was introduced. Participants were told that, on the basis of the answers given concerning the brainstorming, the group member who had performed the task in most similar way to the participant and to the other group members (prototypicality) or who had provided solutions similar to some members of the group and different from others (non prototypicality) had been selected. For the outgroup, they were told that the exemplar had provided similar vs different solution from other group member. Afterwards, participants were asked to imagine the meeting between their representative and that of the outgroup (imagined contact, Crisp et al., 2010). At the end of this task, participants filled in a questionnaire containing the dependent variables. Findings showed that the condition in which both the exemplars are prototypical, is the most effective for improving intergroup relations.
Coherently with previous literature, these studies demonstrate that direct and indirect contact has positive effects for intergroup relations. However, only a few studies have paid attention to which variables lead people to engage in contact with members of the outgroup (Butz & Plant, 2011; Plant et al., 2010). In fact, despite the fact that contact is a useful strategy to improve intergroup relations, people do not choose spontaneously to enter into contact with the outgroup. In many contemporary societies, people belonging to different groups, despite living side by side, avoid opportunities for contact, generating forms of segregation among groups (for example, Alexander & Tredoux, 2010, Castelli, De Amicis & Sherman, 2007; Dixon & Durrheim, 2003). Across three studies, we tried to bridge this gap, identifying factors and processes which determine the inclination of people to engage in contact. In the studies which follow, for the first time in the field of intergroup relations, self-expansion (Aron, Aron, & Norman, 2001; Aron et al., 2004; Wright, Aron, & Tropp, 2002; Lewandowski et al., 2011): a motivational variable which orients towards approach was tested. According to the authors (Aron et al., 2001), the desire to expand the self is a core motivation for human beings. One way in which people attempt this expansion is through the formation of close relationships with others: this facilitates the inclusion into the self of new points of view, identities and resources. For these reasons, in these studies self-expansion was studied as antecedent of contact. Intergroup anxiety, widely studied as an emotion which reduces contact , was introduced as a control variable for the effects of self-expansion. The aim of the first study, correlational, was to analyze the predictive capacity of self-expansion, in both intragroup and intergroup relations. Participants were Australian students (N = 443). The intergroup relationship considered was City/Rural. Findings showed that self-expansion is associated to intergroup variables (such as, for example, the number of friendships) and to a greater number of close and positive relationships within the ingroup.
In the second study, experimental, the hypothesis was that, when individual arefaced with a forced choice between the possibility of establishing new relations with the ingroup or with the outgroup, self-expansion should lead to prefer new relations with the outgroup. The intergroup relationship considered was between Whites vs. other Ethnic groups in the Australian university context. Participants (N = 63 whites and N = 41 from other ethnic groups) were university students. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the conditions of the experimental design 2 (Self-expansion: high vs. low) × 2 (Anxiety: high vs. low); the two factors are between participants. Findings showed a significant interaction between the participants’ ethnic group and the manipulation of self-expansion on the variable: preference of the ethnic group. This interaction reflects the fact that the white participants expressed more interest in entering into contact with members of the outgroup, when placed in the high self-expansion condition; the participants from other ethnic groups, instead, expressed a greater interest in intergroup relations, in the low self-expansion condition. Findings, moreover, showed a significant interaction between the participants’ ethnic group and the manipulation of self-expansion on the variable: preference of the white group. The white participants prefer an intragroup relationship in the low self-expansion condition, whereas the ethnic group participants expressed more interest in entering into contact with members of the outgroup, when placed in the high self-expansion condition.
In the third study, the same experimental design was used as in the previous study. Participants (N = 80) were psychology students and university staff, recruited from the majority group of white Anglo-Saxons. The aim was to extend the results obtained in the two previous studies. The dependent variable was an implicit measure of approach-avoidance (Paladino & Castelli, 2006). Immediately after the manipulation, participants carried out a computer task which consisted of a series of categorization tests. In each of these tests, at the centre of the monitor a stimulus appeared; participants were asked to classify it as quickly and as accurately as possible. The stimuli were individual faces of white people (ingroup) or individual faces belonging to other ethnic groups (outgroup). Findings showed two different patterns of responses. In the conditions of low self-expansion/low anxiety, high self-expansion/low anxiety, and high self-expansion/low anxiety, participants were quicker in approaching the white faces (ingroup). In the condition of high self-expansion/high anxiety, they were quicker in approaching the outgroup than the ingroup and quicker in avoiding the ingroup than approaching it.
To sum up, in this research programme was shown that:
1. also indirect contact can favour the humanization of the outgroup;
2. in indirect contact, the prototypicality of the exemplars favours the positive effects of contact;
3. the motivational variable self-expansion promotes the search for contact with other groups.

Abstract (italiano)

Numerose ricerche di psicologia sociale hanno dimostrato come il contatto intergruppi rappresenti un potente strumento in grado di ridurre il pregiudizio. L'ipotesi del contatto (Allport, 1954), secondo cui gli incontri cooperativi tra membri di gruppi diversi possono portare a rapporti intergruppi più armoniosi, è stata ampiamente testata negli ultimi 50 anni e ha ricevuto conferma in una grande varietà di gruppi, situazioni e contesti culturali (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Recentemente, la ricerca sul contatto si è concentrata su alcune forme più intime di contatto, come le amicizie intergruppi (Pettigrew, 1997, 1998), e su forme alternative al contatto diretto come, ad esempio, il contatto esteso (Wright et al., 1997). Sebbene la vasta letteratura sull’argomento abbia contribuito a creare un ampio consenso sull’efficacia del contatto nel miglioramento delle relazioni intergruppi, alcuni problemi necessitano di essere ulteriormente investigati.
Nel primo studio, l’obiettivo era di testare, per la prima volta, gli effetti delle amicizie intergruppi dirette ed estese sulle attribuzioni di umanità dell’outgroup. Un ulteriore obiettivo era di indagare i processi di mediazione che favoriscono l’attribuzione di caratteristiche unicamente umane all’outgroup. È stato testato un modello di doppia mediazione in cui: le amicizie dirette ed estese sono le variabili iniziali; l’inclusione dell’outgroup nel sé, (IOS;Wright et al., 1997), le norme dell’ingroup (Wright et al., 1997) e le norme dell’outgroup (Wright et al., 1997) sono i mediatori di primo livello; le emozioni di ansia, empatia e fiducia nei confronti dell’outgroup sono i mediatori di secondo livello; come variabile finale si è utilizzata l’attribuzione di tratti unicamente umani all’outgroup. Il rapporto intergruppi considerato era: Settentrionali/Meridionali. I partecipanti erano tutti Settentrionali e compilavano un questionario contenente le misure incluse nel modello. I risultati hanno mostrato processi di mediazione diversi per il contatto diretto e indiretto. Il contatto diretto migliora le percezioni d’umanità perché aumenta l’ IOS che, a sua volta, diminuisce l’ansia e aumenta l’ empatia e la fiducia nei confronti dell’outgroup, con effetti positivi sull’umanizzazione dell’outgroup. Il contatto indiretto, invece, migliora le percezioni d’umanità poiché agisce positivamente sulle norme dell’ingroup (la percezione che i membri dell’ingroup sono favorevoli all’outgroup), tale percezione, a sua volta, diminuisce l’ansia e aumenta l’empatia e la fiducia nei confronti dell’outgroup, con effetti positivi sull’umanizzazione dell’outgroup. Questo studio mette in evidenza l’efficacia delle amicizie dirette ed estese, nel promuovere l’umanizzazione dell’outgroup, e sottolinea come esse operino attraverso processi diversi.
Nonostante vi sia un’ampia letteratura relativa ai moderatori del contatto diretto (Brown & Hewstone, 2005), pochi studi hanno indagato i fattori che moderano gli effetti del contatto indiretto. Per questo, dopo aver esaminato nel primo studio le variabili mediatrici del contatto esteso, nel secondo studio ci siamo proposti di estendere tali risultati e di testare quando il contatto indiretto sia maggiormente efficace. L’obiettivo del secondo studio era di testare, nell’ambito del contatto indiretto, la prototipicità del rappresentante, membro dell’ingroup e dell’outgroup. In accordo con la teoria della categorizzazione di sè (Turner, 1991), l'influenza sociale viene esercitata soprattutto dai membri percepiti come prototipici del gruppo d'appartenenza. Adottando il paradigma dei gruppi minimali (vedi Tajfel,1970), si è manipolata la prototipicità (similarità agli altri membri del gruppo) percepita dell’esemplare dell’ingroup e di quello dell’outgroup. Il disegno sperimentale comprendeva quattro condizioni tra i partecipanti: sia l’esemplare dell’ingroup sia quello dell’outgroup sono presentati come prototipici; l’esemplare dell’ingroup è presentato come prototipico quello dell’outgroup no; l’esemplare dell’ingroup non è prototipico quello dell’outgroup si; i due rappresentanti sono entrambi non prototipici. L’esperimento veniva introdotto, ai partecipanti, come uno studio sulla produttività dei gruppi in compiti di brainstorming. Sulla base di un falso feedback, veniva introdotta la manipolazione sperimentale in cui si diceva che, in base alla risposte fornite al brainstorming, era stato selezionato il membro del gruppo che aveva eseguito il compito in maniera: più simile al partecipante e agli altri membri del gruppo (prototipicità) o che aveva fornito soluzioni simili ad alcuni membri del gruppo e diverse da altri (non prototipicità). Per l’outgroup, si diceva che l’esemplare aveva dato soluzioni simili vs. diverse dagli altri membri del suo gruppo. A questo punto ai partecipanti si chiedeva di immaginare, l’incontro del loro rappresentante con quello dell’outgroup (contatto immaginato, Crisp et al., 2010). Al termine del compito d’immaginazione i partecipanti compilavano un questionario contenente le variabili dipendenti. I risultati hanno mostrato che la condizione che più di tutte migliora il rapporto intergruppi è quella in cui entrambi gli esemplari sono prototipici.
Coerentemente con la precedente letteratura, questi studi dimostrano che il contatto, diretto e indiretto, ha effetti positivi per le relazioni intergruppi. Tuttavia, solo pochi studi hanno dato attenzione a quali variabili portino le persone ad impegnarsi nel contatto con i membri dell’outgroup (Butz & Plant, 2011; Plant et al., 2010). Nonostante, infatti, il contatto sia una strategia utile per migliorare i rapporti intergruppi, le persone non scelgono spontaneamente di entrare in contatto con l’outgroup. In molte società contemporanee, persone appartenenti a gruppi diversi, pur vivendo fianco a fianco, evitano le opportunità di contatto, generando forme di segregazione tra gruppi (ad esempio, Alexander & Tredoux, 2010, Castelli, De Amicis & Sherman, 2007; Dixon & Durrheim, 2003). Con la successione di tre studi, si è cercato di colmare questa lacuna, identificando fattori e processi che determinano la disponibilità delle persone ad impegnarsi nel contatto. Negli studi che seguono, è stata studiata, per la prima volta nell’ambito delle relazioni intergruppi, la self-expansion (Aron, Aron, & Norman, 2001; Aron et al., 2004; Wright, Aron, & Tropp, 2002; Lewandowski et al., 2011): una variabile motivazionale che orienta all’approccio. Secondo gli autori (Aron et al., 2001), il desiderio di espandere il sé è una motivazione centrale degli esseri umani. Un modo in cui le persone cercano una tale espansione è attraverso la formazione di stretti rapporti con gli altri: questo facilita l’inclusione nel sé di nuovi punti di vista, identità e risorse. Per tali motivi, in questi studi, la self-expansion è stata studiata come variabile precursore del contatto. L’ansia integruppi, estensivamente studiata come emozione che riduce il contatto, è stata introdotta come controllo degli effetti della self-expansion. L’obiettivo del primo studio, correlazionale, era di analizzare la capacità predittiva della self-espansion, sia nelle relazioni intragruppo sia in quelle intergruppi. I partecipanti erano studenti australiani (N = 443). Il rapporto intergruppi considerato era City/Rural. I risultati hanno mostrato che la self-expansion è associata a variabili intergruppi (quali ad esempio, il numero di amicizie) e ad un numero maggiore di relazioni intime e positive entro l’ingroup.
Nel secondo studio, sperimentale, l’ipotesi era che, di fronte ad una scelta forzata tra la possibilità di stabilire nuove relazioni con l’ingroup o con l’outgroup, la self-expansion porti a preferire nuove relazioni con l’outgroup. Il rapporto intergruppi considerato era quello tra Bianchi vs. altre Etnie nel contesto universitario australiano. I partecipanti (N = 63 bianchi and N = 41 di altre etnie) erano studenti universitari. I partecipanti sono stati assegnati in maniera randomizzata ad una delle condizioni del disegno sperimentale 2 (Self-expansion: alta vs. bassa) × 2 (Ansia: alta vs. bassa); i due fattori sono tra i partecipanti. I risultati hanno mostrato un’interazione significativa tra l’etnia dei partecipanti e la manipolazione di self-expansion sulla variabile: preferenza del gruppo etnico. Questa interazione riflette il fatto che i partecipanti bianchi hanno espresso più interesse ad entrare in contatto con i membri dell’outgroup, quando posti nella condizione di alta self-expansion; i partecipanti di altre etnie, invece, hanno espresso un maggiore interesse per le relazioni intragruppo, nella condizione di bassa self-expansion. I risultati hanno, inoltre, mostrato un’interazione significativa tra l’etnia dei partecipanti e la manipolazione di self-expansion sulla variabile: preferenza del gruppo bianco. I partecipanti bianchi preferiscono una relazione intragruppo nella condizione di bassa self-expansion, mentre i partecipanti etnici hanno espresso più interesse ad entrare in contatto con i membri dell’outgroup, quando posti nella condizione di alta self-expansion.
Nel terzo studio si è adottato lo stesso disegno sperimentale dello studio precedente. I partecipanti (N = 80) erano studenti di psicologia e personale universitario, reclutati entro il gruppo di maggioranza degli anglosassoni bianchi. L’obiettivo era di estendere i risultati ottenuti nelle due precedenti ricerche. La variabile dipendente era una misura implicita di approach-avoidance (Paladino & Castelli, 2006). Subito dopo la manipolazione, i partecipanti eseguivano un compito al computer che consisteva in una serie di prove di categorizzazione. In ciascuna di queste prove, al centro del monitor compariva uno stimolo; al partecipante veniva chiesto di classificarlo il più velocemente ed accuratamente possibile. Gli stimoli erano singoli volti di persone bianche (ingroup) o singoli volti appartenenti ad altre etnie (outgroup). I risultati hanno mostrato due diversi pattern di risposte. Nelle condizioni di bassa self-expansion/bassa ansia, alta self-expansion/bassa ansia, e alta self-expansion/bassa ansia, i partecipanti sono stati più veloci nell’avvicinare i volti dei bianchi (l’ingroup). Nella condizione di alta self-expansion/alta ansia, sono stati più veloci nell’avvicinare l’outgroup che l’ingroup e più veloci nell’evitare l’ingroup che nell’avvicinarlo.
In sintesi, in questo programma di ricerca si è dimostrato che:
1.anche il contatto indiretto può favorire l’umanizzazione dell’outgroup;
2. nel contatto indiretto, la prototipicità degli esemplari favorisce gli effetti positivi del contatto;
3. la variabile motivazionale espansione del sé promuove la ricerca del contatto con i gruppi estranei.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Capozza, Dora
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 24 > Scuole 24 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PSICOLOGIA SOCIALE E DELLA PERSONALITA'
Data di deposito della tesi:31 Gennaio 2012
Anno di Pubblicazione:31 Gennaio 2012
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):intergroup contact, self-expansion
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/05 Psicologia sociale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:5015
Depositato il:15 Nov 2012 12:00
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