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Guadagnin, Matteo (2013) Nutritional value of canola expellers produced "€œon farm"€ by cold extraction of oil used as bio fuel. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

General aim of this thesis was to study canola expellers (CE) extracted by cold pressing in a small plant (on farm) and to evaluate the validity to use this by-product in ruminant feeding. The thesis includes the results of four experimental contributes: the first one aimed to evaluate the stability of CE at different times and temperatures of storage in order to determine if the conditions usually found in the farms, especially during the hot season, can result in changes in fatty acids profile and in some oxidative parameters. Results found that under different temperatures (12, 24, and 36°C) and times of storage (10, 20, and 30 d), CE maintained a good oxidative stability, as evidenced by low peroxide values (< 10 mEq/kg fat) in all samples collected, by negative response for Kreis test and by low changes in fatty acids profile. From these results it could be hypothesized that the storage of these by-products did not change the characteristics of the lipid fraction. In the second contribute in vitro gas production (GP) values obtained from the incubation of CE, whole soybean seed (WSS) and soybean meal (SBM) were compared, incubating feed samples with two media containing N-rich buffer or N-free buffer, in order to compare the effect of the availability of feed as unique protein source. Results of the experiment showed that CE is an easily degradable protein source. In the first hours of incubation with limiting N availability, higher gas production was recorded compared to the two soybeans. On this basis, CE could be interesting in diets at low protein content, currently suggested in order to reduce nitrogen excretion. No toxic effects on the microbial yield were observed during the fermentation of the three different feeds. The third contribute compared four diets formulated for beef cattle, based on corn silage and containing WSS or CE as protein sources at two different inclusion levels, in order to obtain 15 and 11 % CP of DM in the diets. Diets were tested using Rusitec fermenter. Compared to WSS, CE provided greater NDF degradability (P < 0.01), produced less acetate and propionate (P < 0.001) but more butyrate and branched-chain VFA. The total VFA production was similar for the two protein sources. With regard to nitrogen balance, CE showed greater 15N enrichment in the non-ammonia N (P < 0.01) and nominally lower values of microbial N derived from ammonia compared to WSS (P = 0.06). At high inclusion level, the 15N enrichments for ammonia N, non-ammonia N and total bacteria N were also greater than observed at low inclusion levels (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the two feeds showed different fermentation patterns. The manipulation of dietary protein level seemed to lead primarily to a variation of bypass protein, without effects on the synthesis of microbial N.
In the fourth contribute the same diets tested in Rusitec fermenter (third contribute) were evaluated using RF system (Ankom Technology, Macedon, NY, USA) in order to evaluate their gas production kinetics. Results showed that both NDFd and TDMd values were greater (P<0.05) for CE diets compared to WSS, confirming the results obtained with Rusitec and as expected were lower (P=0.04) for L compared to H diets. Compared to WSS, CE inclusion in the diets increased the rate of GP (P<0.05;) but did not affect the total amount of GP. The reduction of CP level in the diets from 15 to 11% decreased the rate of GP without effects on total GP. Ammonia content increased (P<0.01), as expected, with the level of dietary CP. In conclusion, when diets with low CE levels are used, the inclusion of rapeseed cake in replacement to soybean seeds could improve the rate of degradation during the first hours of fermentation. In general CE obtained by cold extraction on farm could be an interesting feed in ruminant feeding with economical and environmental benefits.

Abstract (italiano)

Obiettivo generale di questa tesi è stato quello di studiare e valutare il panello di colza (CE) estratto a freddo in impianti aziendali di piccole dimensioni per un potenziale utilizzo nell'alimentazione dei ruminanti. Nella tesi sono riportati i risultati di quattro prove sperimentali: nel primo contributo è stata valutata la stabilità  della frazione lipidica del CE a temperature diverse e per diversi periodi di tempo al fine di valutare se la conservazione in condizioni anche particolari (durante la stagione estiva) in azienda, possa modificare il profilo degli acidi grassi e alcuni parametri di ossidazione lipidica. I risultati hanno evidenziato che a diverse temperature (12, 24, e 36°C) e tempi di stoccaggio (10, 20, e 30 d), CE ha mantenuto una buona stabilità ossidativa, come evidenziato dai bassi valori del numero di perossidi (<10 mEqO2/kg grasso), dal test di Kreis sempre negativo, e dalle scarse variazioni del contenuto di acidi grassi. Da questi risultati preliminari si può ipotizzare che lo stoccaggio aziendale per i panelli sottoprodotti ottenuti dal colza in azienda, non determina grosse variazioni della componente lipidica.
Nel secondo contributo sono state valutate, in vitro, le produzioni di gas prodotti da campioni di CE e da semi di soia integrale incubando i questi alimenti con due differenti media: uno ricco in a N e uno senza N in modo da confrontare l’andamento delle fermentazioni quando l’unica fonte di N risulta l’alimento. I risultati hanno evidenziato che CE è una fonte proteica rapidamente degradabile; in caso di diete ipoproteiche come quelle suggerite per ridurre l’escrezione azotata, la sua inclusione potrebbe favorire l'€™attività  microbica ruminale. Non sono sati rilevati effetti tossici sulla microflora ruminale durante la fermentazione dei due alimenti.
Nel terzo contributo sono state confrontate in vitro quattro diete per bovini da carne a base di silomais con 2 livelli di inclusione di CE e WSS, in modo da ottenere un livello di proteina grezza paria al 15% e all’11% PG sulla sostanza secca. In questa prova è stato utilizzato il sistema semicontinuo di fermentazione Rusitec. Le diete contenenti CE hanno mostrato una maggior (P <0.01) degradabilità  dell'€™NDF, e prodotto meno (P <0.01) acetato e propionato ma più butirrato e acidi grassi ramificati. La produzione totale di AGV non è risultato diversa tra le due fonti proteiche. Il bilancio dell’N ha mostrato un maggior quantità (P <0.01) di arricchimento in15N nell’azoto non ammoniacale e valori tendenzialmente (P = 0.06) inferiori di N microbico derivato dall'€™uso di ammoniaca rispetto alle diete con inclusione di WSS. Nelle diete ad alto livello di inclusione i valori di arricchimento in 15N delle varie frazioni azotate sono risultati, come atteso, più alti (P <0.01) rispetto a quelle a basso livello di inclusione. In conclusione i due supplementi hanno mostrato andamenti fermentativi molto diversi. I due diversi livelli di inclusione hanno influito principalmente sulla disponibilità di proteina by pass senza effetti sulla sintesi microbica.
Nel quarto contributo sono state testate, con la tecnica della gas production, le stesse quattro diete usate nel precedente esperimento. E’ stato utilizzato il sistema RF Ankom® per testare la cinetica della produzione di gas nel corso della fermentazione. I risultati hanno mostrato che sia i valori di degradabilità dell'NDF che della SS sono stati maggiori (P < 0.05) per le diete contenenti CE rispetto a quelle con WSS e, come atteso, sono risultati inferiori nella diete a basso livello di inclusione delle due fonti proteiche. Le diete CE sono state caratterizzate da una produzione oraria di gas superiore (P < 0.05) in, ma non è variata la quantità totale di gas prodotto. La riduzione del livello di CP da 15 all'11% SS ha diminuito il tasso di produzione di gas ma non la quantità totale.
Il contenuto di ammoniaca nel liquido ruminale al termine dell’incubazione è risultato più alto (P < 0.001) nelle diete ad alto livello di inclusione. Concludendo possiamo affermare che con diete a basso livello di proteina, l'€™uso di CE in sostituzione alla soia, può migliorare la velocità di degradazione durante le prime ore di fermentazione. In generale, il panello di colza ottenuto per estrazione a freddo in azienda potrebbe essere un alimento interessante nell'€™alimentazione dei ruminanti con effetti favorevoli sia dal punto di vista economico che ambientale

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Bailoni, Lucia
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 25 > Scuole 25 > SCIENZE ANIMALI > ALLEVAMENTO, ALIMENTAZIONE AMBIENTE, BENESSERE ANIMALE E QUALITA' DEI PRODOTTI
Data di deposito della tesi:14 Gennaio 2013
Anno di Pubblicazione:14 Dicembre 2013
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Canola expeller, Rusitec, Microbial growth, Rumen degradability, in vitro gas production, high-protein feeds.
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/18 Nutrizione e alimentazione animale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e Ambiente
Codice ID:5338
Depositato il:16 Ott 2013 09:21
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