Vai ai contenuti. | Spostati sulla navigazione | Spostati sulla ricerca | Vai al menu | Contatti | Accessibilità

| Crea un account

De Toni, Luca (2013) Espressione e rilascio di osteocalcina da parte delle piastrine: ruolo nella calcificazione delle placche aterosclerotiche? [Tesi di dottorato]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]
Anteprima
Documento PDF
4Mb

Abstract (inglese)

Background: Vascular-calcification mechanisms are only partially understood, but the role of circulating calcifying cells and non-collagenous bone matrix proteins in the bone-vascular axis is emerging. Despite platelets represent a cellular interface between hemostasis, inflammation and atherosclerosis and have a myeloid precursor, a possible involvement in the modulation of vascular calcification has been scarcely investigated. We investigated the hypothesis of OC platelet release and its expression in patients with carotid artery occlusive disease.
Methods: Expression and release of OC were determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence, FACS, and ELISA in human resting and activated platelets and megakaryocytes. Co-localization of platelet aggregates, macrophages, OC, and calcifications was studied in carotid endoarterectomy specimens and in normal tissues.
Results: We found that platelets express OC and co-localize with CD63 in delta-granules. Upon activation with an endogenous mechanism, platelets release OC in the extracellular medium. Expression of OC in megakaryocytes suggests a lineage specificity. Human platelets contain and release OC in circulating platelets were significantly higher in patients with carotid artery occlusive disease than in healthy controls (P<0.0001), despite similar serum levels. In atherosclerotic plaques but not in normal tissues OC strongly overlapped with CD41+ platelets in the early stage of calcification. CD68+OC+ cells were present at the periphery of the calcified zone. Conclusions: Given the active role played by platelets in the atherosclerotic process, the involvement of OC release from platelets in atherosclerotic lesions and the impact of genetic and cardiovascular risk factors in mediating bone-marrow preconditioning should be investigated further

Abstract (italiano)

Background: I meccanismi di calcificazione vascolare sono noti solo parzialmente, è però sempre più evidente il ruolo delle cellule osteogeniche circolanti e delle proteine della matrice ossea non collagenosa. Nonostante le piastrine abbiano un precursore mieloide e costituiscano un'interfaccia cellulare tra emostasi, l'infiammazione e l'aterosclerosi, un loro eventuale coinvolgimento nella modulazione della calcificazione vascolare è stato scarsamente studiato. In questo studio è stata valutata l'ipotesi di rilascio di osteocalcina (OCN) delle piastrine e la sua espressione nei vasi dei pazienti affetti da patologia occlusiva dell'arteria carotide.
Metodi: L’espressione e il rilascio di OCN sono stati determinati mediante ELISA, immunofluorescenza, citometria a flusso e Western blot, nei megacariociti e nelle piastrine umane attivate e non attivate. La co-localizzazione di OCN con aggregati piastrinici, macrofagi, ed aree di calcificazione è stato studiato in campioni di tessuto non patologico ed in reperti di carotide da endoarterectomia.
Risultati: Si è potuto evidenziare che le piastrine esprimono OCN nei granuli-delta CD63-positivi. In seguito ad l'attivazione con stimoli fisiologici, le piastrine rilasciano OCN nel mezzo extracellulare. Espressione di OCN nei megacariociti midollari suggerisce una specificità espressione nella linea differenziativa. Inoltre i trombociti circolanti da pazienti con patologia occlusiva dell'arteria carotide contengono e rilasciano significativamente più OCN rispetto alle piastrine dei controlli sani (P < 0,0001), nonostante simili livelli sierici della proteina. Nelle placche aterosclerotiche, ma non nei tessuti normali, il segnale per OCN risultava fortemente sovrapposto alle piastrine CD41-positive nelle aree di calcificazione precoce. Macrofagi CD68-positivi esprimenti OCN, erano presenti alla periferia delle aree calcifiche.
Conclusioni: Considerando il ruolo svolto dalle piastrine nel processo aterosclerotico, il coinvolgimento delle piastrine nel rilascio di OCN nelle lesioni aterosclerotiche, i risultati ottenuti suggeriscono l’approfondimento dell’impatto dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolare e genetici nel precondizionamento del microambiente midollare osseo

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Foresta, Carlo
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 25 > Scuole 25 > SCIENZE MEDICHE, CLINICHE E SPERIMENTALI > SCIENZE GERIATRICHE ED EMATOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:17 Gennaio 2013
Anno di Pubblicazione:17 Gennaio 2013
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Piastrine, Megacariociti, aterosclerosi, calcificazione vascolare/Platelets, Megakaryocyte, Atherosclerosis, Vascular Calcification
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/11 Malattie dell'apparato cardiovascolare
Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/46 Scienze tecniche di medicina di laboratorio
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Scienze Cardiologiche, Toraciche e Vascolari
Codice ID:5367
Depositato il:14 Ott 2013 09:45
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

- Abedin M, Tintut Y, Demer LL. Vascular calcification: mechanisms and clinical ramifications. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004, 24:1161-1170. Cerca con Google

- Adeva MM, Souto G. Diet-induced metabolic acidosis. Clin Nutr 2011,30: 416-421. Cerca con Google

- Afek A, Kogan E, Maysel-Auslender S, Mor A, Regev E, Rubinstein A, et al. Clopidogrel attenuates atheroma formation and induces a stable plaque phenotype in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Microvasc Res 2009,77: 364–369. Cerca con Google

- American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2010,33: S62-S99. Cerca con Google

- Arnaud C, Poulain L, Lévy P, Dematteis M. Inflammation contributes to the atherogenic role of intermittent hypoxia in apolipoprotein-E knock out mice. Atherosclerosis 2011,219: 425-431. Cerca con Google

- Asahara T, Murohara T, Sullivan A, Silver M, van der Zee R, Li T, Witzenbichler B, Schatteman G, Isner JM. Isolation of putative progenitor endothelial cells for angiogenesis. Science 1997,275: 964-967. Cerca con Google

- Bini A, Mann KG, Kudryk BJ, Schoen FJ. Noncollagenous bone matrix proteins, calcification, and thrombosis in carotid artery atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999,19: 1852-1861. Cerca con Google

- Borissoff JI, Spronk HM, ten Cate H. The hemostatic system as a modulator of atherosclerosis. N Engl J Med 2011,364: 1746-1760. Cerca con Google

- Brevetti G, Schiano V, Chiariello M. Endothelial dysfunction: a key to the pathophysiology and natural history of peripheral arterial disease? Atherosclerosis. 2008,197: 1-11. Cerca con Google

- Caplan BA, Schwartz CJ. Increased endothelial cell turnover in areas of in vivo Evans Blue uptake in the pig aorta. Atherosclerosis 1973,17: 401-417. Cerca con Google

- Chen JL, Hunt P, McElvain M, Black T, Kaufman S, Choi ESH. Osteoblast precursor cells are found in CD34-cells from human bone marrow. Stem Cells 1997,15: 368 –377. Cerca con Google

- Coppinger JA, Cagney G, Toomey S, Kislinger T, Belton O, McRedmond JP, Cahill DJ, Emili A, Fitzgerald DJ, Maguire PB. Characterization of the proteins released from activated platelets leads to localization of novel platelet proteins in human atherosclerotic lesions. Blood 2004,103: 2096-2104. Cerca con Google

- Croce K, Libby P. Intertwining of thrombosis and inflammation in atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Hematol 2007,14: 55– 61. Cerca con Google

- De Vriese AS, Verbeuren TJ, Van de Voorde J, et al. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Br J Pharmacol. 2000,130:963-974. Cerca con Google

- Doherty MJ, Canfield AE. Gene expression during vascular pericyte differentiation. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 1999,9: 1-17. Cerca con Google

- Eghbali-Fatourechi GZ, Lamsam J, Fraser D, Nagel DA, Riggs BL, Khosla S. Circulating osteoblast-lineage cells in humans. N Engl J Med 2005,352: 1959–1966. Cerca con Google

- Eghbali-Fatourechi GZ, Moedder UI, Charatcharoenwitthaya N, et al. Characterization of circulating osteoblast linage cells in humans. Bone 2007,40: 1370 –1377. Cerca con Google

- Eipers PG, Kale S, Taichman RS, et al. Bone marrow accessory cells regulate human bone precursor cell development. Exp Hematol 2000,28: 815–825. Cerca con Google

- Endemann DH, Schiffrin EL. Endothelial dysfunction. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004,15: 1983-1992. Cerca con Google

- Fadini GP, Albiero M, Menegazzo L, Boscaro E, Vigili de Kreutzenberg S, Agostini C, Cabrelle A, Binotto G, Rattazzi M, Bertacco E, Bertorelle R, Biasini L, Mion M, Plebani M, Ceolotto G, Angelini A, Castellani C, Menegolo M, Grego F, Dimmeler S, Seeger F, Zeiher A, Tiengo A, Avogaro A. Widespread increase in myeloid calcifying cells contributes to ectopic vascular calcification in type 2 diabetes. Circ Res 2011,108: 1112-1121. Cerca con Google

- Farzaneh-Far A, Shanahan CM. Biology of vascular calcification in renal disease. Nephron Exp Nephrol 2005,101: e134-138. Cerca con Google

- Ferlin A, Pepe A, Facciolli A, Gianesello L, Foresta C. Relaxin stimulates osteoclast differentiation and activation. Bone 2010,46: 504-413. Cerca con Google

- Flammer AJ, Gössl M, Widmer RJ, Reriani M, Lennon R, Loeffler D, Shonyo S, Simari RD,Lerman LO, Khosla S, Lerman A. Osteocalcin positive CD133+/CD34-/KDR+ progenitor cells as an independent marker for unstable atherosclerosis. Eur Heart J 2012, Epub ahead of print Cerca con Google

- Foresta C, De Toni L, Biagioli A, Ganz F, Magagna S, Caretta N. Increased levels of osteocalcin-positive endothelial progenitor cells in patients affected by erectile dysfunction and cavernous atherosclerosis. J Sex Med. 2010,7: 751-757. Cerca con Google

- Foresta C, De Toni L, Selice R, Garolla A, Di Mambro A. Increased osteocalcin-positive endothelial progenitor cells in hypogonadal male patients. J Endocrinol Invest 2010,33: 439-442. Cerca con Google

- Friedenstein AJ, Petrakova KV, Kurolesova AI, Frolova GP. Heterotopic of bone marrow. Analysis of precursor cells for osteogenic and hematopoietic tissues. Transplantation 1968,6: 230–247. Cerca con Google

- Gawaz M, Stellos K, Langer HF. Platelets modulate atherogenesis and progression of atherosclerotic plaques via interaction with progenitor and dendritic cells. J Thromb Haemost. 2008,6: 235-242. Cerca con Google

- Giacco F, Brownlee M Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circ Res 2010,107: 1058-1070. Cerca con Google

- Giachelli CM. Vascular calcification: in vitro evidence for the role of inorganic phosphate. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003,14: S300-S304. Cerca con Google

- Gkaliagkousi E, Ferro A. Nitric oxide signalling in the regulation of cardiovascular and platelet function. Front Biosci. 2011,16: 1873-1897. Cerca con Google

- Gössl M, Mödder UI, Atkinson EJ, Lerman A, Khosla S. Osteocalcin expression by circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with coronary atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008,52: 1314-1325. Cerca con Google

- Harrison P, Cramer EM. Platelet alpha-granules. Blood Rev 1993,7: 52-62. Cerca con Google

- Healy AM, Pickard MD, Pradhan AD, et al. Platelet expression profiling and clinical validation of myeloid-related protein-14 as a novel determinant of cardiovascular events. Circulation 2006,113: 2278–2284. Cerca con Google

- Hirao M, Hashimoto J, Yamasaki N, Ando W, Tsuboi H, Myoui A, Yoshikawa H. Oxygen tension is an important mediator of the transformation of osteoblasts to osteocytes. J Bone Miner Metab 2007,25: 266-276. Cerca con Google

- Hursting SD, Hursting MJ. Growth signals, inflammation, and vascular perturbations: mechanistic links between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2012,32: 1766-1770. Cerca con Google

- Idelevich A, Rais Y, Monsonego-Ornan E. Bone Gla Protein Increases HIF-1{alpha}-Dependent Glucose Metabolism and Induces Cartilage and Vascular Calcification. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011,31: e55-71. Cerca con Google

- Iyemere VP, Proudfoot D, Weissberg PL, Shanahan CM. Vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic plasticity and the regulation of vascular calcification. J Intern Med. 2006,260: 192-210. Cerca con Google

- Johnson RC, Leopold JA, Loscalzo J. Vascular calcification: pathobiological mechanisms and clinical implications. Circ Res 2006,99:1044-1059. Cerca con Google

- Jono S, Shioi A, Ikari Y, Nishizawa Y. Vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease. J Bone Miner Metab 2006,24:176-181. Cerca con Google

- Kamat BR, Galli SJ, Barger AC, Lainey LL, Silverman KJ. Neovascularization and coronary atherosclerotic plaque: cinematographic localization and quantitative histologic analysis. Hum Pathol 1987,18: 1036-1042 Cerca con Google

- Katsume A, Okigaki M, Matsui A, Che J, Adachi Y, Kishita E, Yamaguchi S, Ikeda K, Ueyama T, Matoba S, Yamada H, Matsubara H. Early inflammatory reactions in atherosclerosis are induced by proline-rich tyrosine kinase/reactive oxygen species-mediated release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and subsequent activation of the p21Cip1/Ets-1/p300 system. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011,31: 1084-1092. Cerca con Google

- Kim KH, Bender JR. Membrane-initiated actions of estrogen on the endothelium. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009,308: 3-8. Cerca con Google

- Libby P. Current concept of the pathogenesis of the acute coronary syndromes Circulation 2001,104: 365-372. Cerca con Google

- Long MW, Robinson JA, Ashcraft EA, Mann KG. Regulation of human bone marrow-derived osteoprogenitor cells by osteogenic growth factors. J Clin Invest 1995,95:881–887. Cerca con Google

- Long MW, Williams JL, Mann KG. Expression of human bone related proteins in the hematopoietic microenvironment. J Clin Invest 1990,86: 1387–1395. Cerca con Google

- Lusis, AJ. Atherosclerosis. Nature 2000,407: 233-41. Cerca con Google

- Matsumoto T, Kawamoto A, Kuroda R, et al. Therapeutic potential of vasculogenesis and osteogenesis promoted by peripheral blood CD34-positive cells for functional bone healing. Am J Pathol 2006,169: 1440 –1457. Cerca con Google

- McGrath RT, McRae E, Smith OP, O'Donnell JS. Platelet von Willebrand factor--structure, function and biological importance. Br J Haematol 2010,148: 834-843. Cerca con Google

- Morrow DA, Wang Y, Croce K, et al. Myeloid-related protein 8/14 and the risk of cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction after an acute coronary syndrome in the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy: Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (PROVE IT-TIMI 22) trial. Am Heart J 2008,155: 49 –55. Cerca con Google

- Nakagami H, Kaneda Y, Ogihara T, Morishita R Endothelial dysfunction in hyperglycemia as a trigger of atherosclerosis. Curr Diabetes Rev 2005,1: 59-63. Cerca con Google

- Neven E, D'Haese PC. Vascular calcification in chronic renal failure: what have we learned from animal studies? Circ Res 2011,108: 249-264. Cerca con Google

- Owen DR, Lindsay AC, Choudhury RP, Fayad ZA. Imaging of atherosclerosis. Annu Rev Med 2011,62: 25-40. Cerca con Google

- Pi M, Faber P, Ekema G, Jackson PD, Ting A, Wang N, Fontilla-Poole M, Mays RW, Brunden KR, Harrington JJ, Quarles LD. Identification of a novel extracellular cation-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor. J Biol Chem 2005,280: 40201-40209. Cerca con Google

- Pitsilos S, Hunt J, Mohler ER, Prabhakar AM, Poncz M, Dawicki J, Khalapyan TZ, Wolfe ML, Fairman R, Mitchell M, Carpenter J, Golden MA, Cines DB, Sachais BS. Platelet factor 4 localization in carotid atherosclerotic plaques: correlation with clinical parameters. Thromb Haemost 2003,90: 1112-1120. Cerca con Google

- Potier E, Ferreira E, Andriamanalijaona R, Pujol JP, Oudina K, Logeart-Avramoglou D, Petite H. Rafii S, Lyden D. Therapeutic stem and progenitor cell transplantation for organ vascularization and regeneration. Nat Med 2003,9: 702-712. Cerca con Google

- Pozzati A, Abrignani MG. Patogenesi dell’aterosclerosi nel diabete mellito. Ital Heart J 2004;5(Suppl 4): 7S-11S. Cerca con Google

- Proudfoot D, Skepper JN, Hegyi L, Bennett MR, Shanahan CM, Weissberg PL. Apoptosis regulates human vascular calcification in vitro: evidence for initiation of vascular calcification by apoptotic bodies. Circ Res 2000,87: 1055-1062. Cerca con Google

- Rafii S, Lyden D. Therapeutic stem and progenitor cell transplantation for organ vascularization and regeneration. Nat Med 2003,9: 702-712. Cerca con Google

- Ramström AS, Fagerberg IH, Lindahl TL. A flow cytometric assay for the study of dense granule storage and release in human platelets. Platelets 1999,10: 153-158. Cerca con Google

- Reel B, Sala-Newby GB, Huang WC, Newby AC. Diverse patterns of cyclooxygenase-independent metalloproteinase gene regulation in human monocytes. Br J Pharmacol 2011,163:1679-1690. Cerca con Google

- Renè R, Packard S, Libby P. Inflammation in atherosclerosis: from vascular biology to biomarker discovery and risk prediction. Clin Chem 2008,54: 24-38. Cerca con Google

- Rubenstein DA, Yin W. Glycated albumin modulates platelet susceptibility to flow induced activation and aggregation. Platelets 2009,20: 206-215. Cerca con Google

- Schoen FJ. Vasi sanguigni. In: Le basi patologiche delle malattie, Robbins e Cotran; Elsevier Masson, 7a edizione, 2006; pp. 511-554. Cerca con Google

- Shanahan CM. Vascular calcification. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2005,14: 361-367. Cerca con Google

- Steitz SA, Speer MY, Curinga G, Yang HY, Haynes P, Aebersold R, Schinke T, Karsenty G, Giachelli CM. Smooth muscle cell phenotypic transition associated with calcification: upregulation of Cbfa1 and downregulation of smooth muscle lineage markers. Circ Res 2001,89:1147-1154. Cerca con Google

- Stenner DD, Tracy RP, Riggs BL, Mann KG. Human platelets contain and secrete osteonectin, a major protein of mineralized bone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986,83:6892-6896. Cerca con Google

- Stoner L, Sabatier MJ. Use of ultrasound for non-invasive assessment of flow-mediated dilation. J Atheroscler Thromb 2012,19: 407-421. Cerca con Google

- Tai LK, Okuda M, Abe J, Berk BC. Fluid shear stress activates proline-rich tyrosine kinase via reactive oxygen species– dependent pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002,22: 1790 –1796. Cerca con Google

- Takahashi T, Hato F, Yamane T, Fukumasu H, Suzuki K, Ogita S, Nishizawa Y, Kitagawa S. Activation of human neutrophil by cytokine-activated endothelial cells. Circ Res. 2001,88: 422-429. Cerca con Google

- Theilmeier G, Michiels C, Spaepen E, Vreys I, Collen D, Vermylen J, Hoylaerts MF. Endothelial von Willebrand factor recruits platelets to atherosclerosis-prone sites in response to hypercholesterolemia. Blood. 2002,99: 4486-4493. Cerca con Google

- Thiede MA, Smock SL, Petersen DN, Grasser WA, Thompson DD, Nishimoto SK. Presence of messenger ribonucleic acid encoding osteocalcin, a marker of bone turnover, in bone marrow megakaryocytes and peripheral blood platelets. Endocrinology 1994,135: 929-937. Cerca con Google

- Tilton RG. Capillary pericytes: perspectives and future trends. J Electron Microsc Tech 1991,19: 327-344. Cerca con Google

- Tripathy D, Mohanty P, Dhindsa S, Syed T, Ghanim H, Aljada A, Dandona P. Elevation of free fatty acids induces inflammation and impairs vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Diabetes 2003,52: 2882–2887. Cerca con Google

- Uzui H, Harpf A, Liu M, Doherty TM, Shukla A, Chai NN, Tripathi PV, Jovinge S, Wilkin DJ, Asotra K, Shah PK, Rajavashisth TB. Increased expression of membrane type 3-matrix metalloproteinase in human atherosclerotic plaque: role of activated macrophages and inflammatory cytokines. Circulation 2002,106: 3024-3030. Cerca con Google

- van Hinsbergh VW Endothelium-role in regulation of coagulation and inflammation. Semin Immunopathol. 2012,34: 93-106. Cerca con Google

- Viemann D, Barczyk K, Vogl T, et al. MRP8/MRP14 impairs endothelial integrity and induces a caspase-dependent and -independent cell death program. Blood 2007,109: 2453–2460. Cerca con Google

- Viisoreanu D, Gear A. Effect of physiologic shear stresses and calcium on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, secretion, and thromboxane A2 formation. Thromb Res 2007,120: 885-892. Cerca con Google

- Vladykovskaya E, Sithu SD, Haberzettl P, Wickramasinghe NS, Merchant ML, Hill BG, McCracken J, Agarwal A, Dougherty S, Gordon SA, Schuschke DA, Barski OA, O'Toole T, D'Souza SE, Bhatnagar A, Srivastava S. Lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal causes endothelial activation by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress. J Biol Chem. 2012;287: 11398-11409. Cerca con Google

- Vogl T, Tenbrock K, Ludwig S, et al. Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous activators of Toll-like receptor 4, promoting lethal, endotoxin-induced shock. Nat Med 2007,13: 1042–1049. Cerca con Google

- Wagegg M, Gaber T, Lohanatha FL, Hahne M, Strehl C, Fangradt M, Tran CL, Schönbeck K, Hoff P, Ode A, Perka C, Duda GN, Buttgereit F. Hypoxia promotes osteogenesis but suppresses adipogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1 dependent manner. PLoS One. 2012,7: e46483. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046483 Cerca con Google

- Ward JR, Wilson HL, Francis SE, Crossman DC, Sabroe I. Translational mini-review series on immunology of vascular disease: inflammation, infections and Toll-like receptors in cardiovascular disease. Clin Exp Immunol 2009,156: 386-394. Cerca con Google

- Watson KE, Boström K, Ravindranath R, Lam T, Norton B, Demer LL. TGF-b1 and 25-hydrocholesterol stimulate osteoblast-like vascular cells to calcify. J Clin Invest 1994,93: 2106-2113. Cerca con Google

- Yang H, Curinga G, Giachelli CM. Elevated extracellular calcium levels induce smooth muscle cell matrix mineralization in vitro. Kidney Int 2004,66: 2293-2299. Cerca con Google

- Young B, Heath JW. Il sistema circolatorio. In: Istologia e Anatomia Microscopica, testo atlante, Wheather; CEA, terza edizione, 2001; pp.144-156. Cerca con Google

- Fukumoto H, Naito Z, Asano G et al. Immunohistochemical and morphometric evaluations of coronary atherosclerotic plaques associated with myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus. J Atheroscler Thromb 2000,7: 132-137. Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record