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Bottesi, Gioia (2013) Pathological Gambling: Compulsive-Impulsive Spectrum Disorder, Behavioural Addiction, or Both? [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Pathological gambling (PG) is a chronic and progressive condition, defined as “persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behaviour”; it is currently classified among the Impulse control disorders (Not Elsewhere Classified) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition - Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The diagnostic criteria for PG resemble those of both Substance use disorders (SUDs) and Compulsive disorders (in particular, Obsessive compulsive disorder [OCD]).
The terms compulsivity and impulsivity are interchangeably used to describe difficulties in self-control leading to repetitive psychopathological behaviours; nonetheless, they represent two distinct constructs. Compulsive behaviours are driven by “a tendency to perform unpleasantly repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner to prevent perceived negative consequences, leading to functional impairment”, whereas impulsivity has been described as “a predisposition toward rapid, unplanned reactions to internal or external stimuli with diminished regard to the negative consequences of these reactions to the impulsive individual or others”. Features of both compulsivity and impulsivity are involved in PG phenomenology, and a large body of literature investigated these aspects mainly making use of clinical observation and results obtained through self-report questionnaires. PG can be conceptualized as a compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder or as a behavioural addiction: these two theoretical frameworks have been proposed for PG categorization in DSM-5, thus and understanding which of them is better suited to PG symptoms is relevant for diagnostic classification issues. Although these two approaches are not mutually exclusive, adopting one rather than the other has important clinical implications.
Recently, the importance of integrating phenotypic (i.e. phenomenological) and endophenotypic (i.e. behavioural/physiological) indicators in psychodiagnostic assessment has been highlighted. Endophenotypes are measures of the individual neuropsychological, neurophysiological and biochemical functioning, and consequently anomalies in endophenotypes are supposed to reflect impairments in the underlying neurocognitive processes. Impairments in motor inhibition ability and difficulties in delaying gratification and decision making, which are prefrontally-mediated cognitive functions, have been suggested to underlie problems in behavioural regulation (i.e. compulsive and impulsive behaviours). From this perspective, both compulsive and impulsive behaviours would represent: a. the performance of an action before its complete processing or the failure of interrupting already activated actions; b. a dysfunction in behavioural choices, which are perpetrated despite bad consequences for the individual. Therefore, cognitive measures of motor inhibition and decision making abilities may represent promising endophenotipic indicators of behavioural regulation, and deficits in these functions are hypothesized to underpin PG, OCD, and SUDs.
The present dissertation was conducted in the light of these considerations, and following the recommendation that directly comparing PGs with OCD patients and individuals with SUDs can represent a viable way to identify the most suitable classification for PG.

A group of treatment-seeking PGs was compared with patients with OCD, Alcohol dependents (ADs) and healthy controls (HCs) on both self-report questionnaires and cognitive measures of compulsivity and impulsivity. The main aims were to investigate similarities and differences between clinical groups in such measures, as well as potentially different patterns of response in cognitive tasks. The Go/Nogo task was used to assess motor inhibition ability, whereas the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was administered to evaluate decision making processes.
A preliminary comparison between small groups of PGs and croupiers on the same measures was also conducted; croupiers were chosen as gambling represents a relevant activity for both groups of individuals, and also in the light of the higher risks of developing problem or pathological gambling observed in casino employees than in general population. Consequently, the study of compulsivity and impulsivity in croupiers may be helpful in identifying the factors potentially involved in the development of PG.
The main results showed that PGs reported higher levels of both self-reported compulsivity and impulsivity than healthy individuals. Furthermore, a number of similarities between PGs, OCD patients and ADs in the phenotypic measures of both dimensions was observed. No evidence of impaired motor inhibition ability in PGs, OCD patients or ADs emerged. In regards to decision making processes, deficits in the IGT performance were found in PGs and ADs, whereas OCD patients did as good as HCs. Both PGs and ADs were characterized by a decline of their performance towards the end of the task, which indicated difficulties in the maintenance of learning to shift from disadvantageous to advantageous decisions.
The comparison between PGs and croupiers revealed that the former obtained higher scores on measures of compulsivity, whereas the latter did not differ from HCs. However, both PGs and croupiers reported similar and higher self-reported impulsivity than HCs. As regards the cognitive tasks, no significant difference between groups emerged; nonetheless, IGT profiles of learning showed that PGs had a poor performance and croupiers differed from HCs in that they did not improve in the last block of the task.
Several conclusions may be drawn from present results.
First of all, data from self-report measures suggest that both the compulsive-impulsive spectrum hypothesis and the behavioural addiction one might be adequate for PG categorization, as compulsivity and impulsivity co-occur in PGs. Furthermore, the numerous analogies emerged between PGs, OCD patients and ADs further support to include the three of them in a common spectrum of disorders.
On the other hand, IGT findings highlighted the presence of similar deficits in PGs and ADs. This result is in line with literature reporting dysfunctions in the brain circuitry underlying decision making ability, and therefore it supports the conceptualization of PG as an addictive disorder. Data emerged from the comparison between PGs and croupiers seem also to be consistent with this hypothesis, as probable vulnerability factors for addictions (i.e. impulsivity personality trait and potentially altered decision making processes) have been observed also in healthy individuals at risk for the development of PG. However, given the small samples sizes further studies are recommended.
To conclude, results from the present dissertation indicate that both classifications are equally appropriate for PG, depending on the adopted indicators. Other studies are required to further clarify which is the best diagnostic category for PG.

Abstract (italiano)

Il Gioco d’azzardo patologico (GAP) è una condizione cronica e progressiva, definita come “una condotta persistente e ricorrente di gioco maladattivo”; attualmente è incluso tra i Disturbi del controllo degli impulsi (non altrove classificati) nel Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition - Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). I criteri diagnostici per il GAP richiamano sia quelli tipici dei Disturbi da uso di sostanze (DUS) sia quelli che caratterizzano i disturbi compulsivi (in particolare, quelli del Disturbo ossessivo compulsivo [DOC]).
I termini compulsività e impulsività vengono di norma utilizzati in maniera interscambiabile per definire le difficoltà nel controllo del comportamento che determinano la messa in atto di condotte psicopatologiche in maniera ripetuta e persistente; tuttavia, con essi si fa riferimento a due costrutti distinti. Per compulsività si intende la “tendenza a mettere in atto comportamenti ripetitivi in modo automatico o stereotipato, al fine di prevenire eventuali conseguenze negative, che determina compromissione del funzionamento”; d’altro canto, l’impulsività viene generalmente descritta come la “predisposizione a reagire a stimoli interni o esterni in maniera rapida e non pianificata, prestando scarsa considerazione a ciò che di negativo può derivare, per sé e per gli altri, dall’esecuzione di tali azioni”.
Nella fenomenologia del GAP sono coinvolte caratteristiche sia compulsive che impulsive; vari autori hanno indagato tali aspetti avvalendosi primariamente di strumenti quali l’osservazione clinica e la somministrazione di questionari di autovalutazione. Sulla base della letteratura, il GAP può essere concettualizzato sia come un disturbo appartenente allo spettro compulsivo-impulsivo, sia come una dipendenza comportamentale. Entrambi questi quadri teorici sono stati presi in considerazione per la futura categorizzazione del GAP all’interno del DSM-5: comprendere quale sia il migliore è fondamentale da un punto di vista diagnostico. Sebbene i due approcci non siano mutualmente esclusivi, infatti, adottare l’uno piuttosto che l’altro ha importanti risvolti a livello clinico.
Di recente si è riconosciuta la necessità di integrare indicatori di tipo sia fenotipico (i.e. fenomenologici) sia endofenotipico (i.e. comportamentali/fisiologici) nel corso dell’assessment psicodiagnostico. Gli endofenotipi sono delle misure del funzionamento neuropsicologico, neurofisiologico e biochimico dell’individuo; di conseguenza, anomalie riscontrabili a livello endofenotipico riflettono la presenza di una compromissione nei processi cognitivi sottostanti. E’ stato suggerito che la presenza di deficit in due funzioni esecutive mediate dalla corteccia prefrontale, quali l’abilità di inibizione della risposta motoria e l’abilità di presa di decisione, sia implicata nelle difficoltà di auto-regolazione comportamentale (i.e., comportamenti compulsivi e impulsivi) che caratterizzano particolari categorie di individui. Da questo punto di vista, i comportamenti di tipo compulsivo e impulsivo sarebbero da intendersi come: a. la conseguenza dell’emissione di una risposta precoce, messa in atto prima che uno specifico stimolo sia stato completamente processato, o il fallimento nell’inibizione di una risposta già iniziata; oppure b. la presenza di processi decisionali disfunzionali, che persistono indipendentemente dal fatto che le conseguenze del comportamento attuato siano negative o non ottimali. Per tale motivo, misure cognitive delle abilità di inibizione della risposta motoria e di presa di decisione potrebbero rappresentare promettenti indicatori endofenotipici della regolazione comportamentale; è stato infatti ipotizzato che le problematiche comportamentali manifestate da giocatori d’azzardo, pazienti con DOC e individui con DUS siano legate alla presenza di deficit in tali funzioni.
La presente tesi di dottorato è stata realizzata sulla base di queste considerazioni, e alla luce del fatto che un confronto diretto tra giocatori d’azzardo, pazienti con DOC e individui con DUS possa rappresentare una via percorribile al fine di identificare la classificazione diagnostica più adatta per il GAP.

Un gruppo di pazienti con GAP è stato messo a confronto con un gruppo di pazienti con DOC, un gruppo di dipendenti da alcol e uno di individui sani avvalendosi sia di questionari di autovalutazione che di prove cognitive atte a valutare compulsività e impulsività. Gli obiettivi principali erano l’indagine di somiglianze e differenze tra i tre gruppi clinici in tali dimensioni, e l’analisi degli di stili di risposta di ciascun gruppo alle prove cognitive. Per misurare l’abilità di inibizione della risposta motoria è stato impiegato un paradigma Go/Nogo, mentre per valutare i processi di presa di decisione si è utilizzato l’Iowa Gambling Task (IGT).
Inoltre, i dati relativi a prove self-report e cognitive di un piccolo gruppo di giocatori d’azzardo sono stati confrontati con quelli ottenuti da un gruppo di croupier. Il gioco d’azzardo rappresenta l’attività principale per entrambe le categorie di individui; inoltre, è stato riscontrato che i croupier hanno un rischio di sviluppare condotte di gioco d’azzardo problematico o patologico maggiore rispetto a quello rilevato nella popolazione generale. Di conseguenza, esaminare caratteristiche di compulsività e impulsività in tale gruppo di individui può rivelarsi utile al fine di individuare i fattori potenzialmente coinvolti nello sviluppo del disturbo.
I risultati principali hanno evidenziato maggiori livelli sia di compulsività che di impulsività nei pazienti con GAP rispetto ai controlli sani. Inoltre, i tre gruppi clinici si sono caratterizzati per punteggi molto simili tra loro nei questionari di autovalutazione, sia rispetto alle caratteristiche compulsive che a quelle impulsive. I tre gruppi clinici non hanno dimostrato la presenza di deficit nell’abilità della risposta motoria. Per quanto riguarda i processi di presa decisionale, invece, i pazienti con GAP e i dipendenti da alcol hanno mostrato una prestazione complessivamente deficitaria rispetto ai controlli sani, mentre nei pazienti con DOC non si sono riscontrate difficoltà. La prestazione dei giocatori d’azzardo e dei dipendenti da alcol si è caratterizzata per un declino verso la fine della prova, il che è indicativo della presenza di deficit nei processi di mantenimento dell’apprendimento: entrambi i gruppi tendono quindi a preferire le scelte svantaggiose a quelle vantaggiose.
Dal confronto tra pazienti con GAP e croupier è emerso che i primi si caratterizzavano per la presenza di compulsività rispetto agli individui sani, mentre i secondi non hanno mostrato differenze rispetto ai controlli. Sia i giocatori che i croupier hanno invece riportato punteggi di impulsività auto-riferita comparabili e significativamente superiori rispetto a quelli ottenuti dal gruppo di controllo. Rispetto alle prove cognitive, i tre gruppi hanno ottenuto prestazioni simili. Tuttavia, l’analisi dei profili di apprendimento all’IGT ha evidenziato come i pazienti con GAP abbiano conseguito una prestazione tendenzialmente deficitaria rispetto agli altri gruppi; inoltre i croupier, a differenza dei controlli sani, non hanno mostrato un miglioramento nell’ultimo blocco della prova. Ciononostante, tali differenze non raggiungono la significatività statistica.
Sulla base dei presenti risultati, è possibile trarre alcune conclusioni.
In primo luogo, quanto emerso dalla somministrazione dei questionari di autovalutazione suggerisce che sia l’ipotesi dello spettro compulsivo-impulsivo, sia la concettualizzazione del GAP come dipendenza comportamentale potrebbero essere adeguate ai fini della categorizzazione del disturbo: infatti, caratteristiche di compulsività e impulsività coesistono nei pazienti con GAP. Inoltre, le numerose somiglianze riscontrate tra pazienti con GAP, individui con DOC e dipendenti da alcol forniscono ulteriore sostegno alla possibilità di includere queste tre condizioni in un medesimo spettro di disturbi.
D’altro canto, i risultati ottenuti tramite l’IGT hanno messo in luce che giocatori d’azzardo e dipendenti da alcol si caratterizzano per deficit analoghi. Ciò è in linea con i dati di letteratura, che riportano la presenza di simili alterazioni nel funzionamento dei circuiti cerebrali sottostanti all’abilità di presa di decisione in queste due categorie cliniche; da questo punto di vista, quindi, classificare il GAP come una dipendenza potrebbe essere più appropriato. I dati emersi dal confronto tra pazienti con GAP e croupier sembrano inoltre in linea con tale ipotesi, dal momento che alcuni dei probabili fattori di vulnerabilità per le dipendenze (personalità impulsiva e processi di presa decisionale potenzialmente alterati) sono stati osservati anche in una categoria di individui sani particolarmente a rischio di sviluppare il disturbo. Tuttavia, data la scarsa numerosità campionaria, questo risultato è da intendersi come puramente preliminare; è auspicabile che ulteriori indagini vadano ad approfondirne la validità.
Quanto emerso dal presente lavoro consente pertanto di affermare che entrambe le classificazioni proposte sono appropriate, a seconda che si utilizzino indicatori fenotipici o endofenotipici. La conduzione di altri studi si rende necessaria, al fine di chiarire quale sia la categoria diagnostica migliore per l’inquadramento del GAP.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Sanavio, Ezio
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 25 > Scuole 25 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PSICOLOGIA SOCIALE E DELLA PERSONALITA'
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Gennaio 2013
Anno di Pubblicazione:28 Gennaio 2013
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):gioco d'azzardo patologico, compulsività, impulsività, spettro compulsivo-impulsivo, dipendenza comportamentale, pathological gambling, compulsivity, impulsivity, compulsive-impulsive spectrum, behavioural addiction
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/08 Psicologia clinica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:5530
Depositato il:21 Ott 2013 12:24
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