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Fardo, Francesca (2013) Influence of body position, emotions, placebo and cognitive modulation on pain experience and pain-related somatosensory ERPs. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

The present work contributed to our understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying pain modulation through sensory, attentional, emotional and cognitive processes. We used subjective, behavioral, and electrophysiological indexes to reveal the effects of body position, emotions, placebo expectations and cognitive reappraisal on subjective pain experience and pain-related somatosensory potentials. Four studies were conducted to investigate different forms of pain modulation. Study 1 tested the hypothesis that the horizontal body position reduces pain perception and cortical pain processing. We demonstrated that the supine vs. sitting body position was associated with dampened perception of non-painful stimuli and inhibited cortical late processing (300-600 ms) of non-painful and painful stimuli, related to neural activity within frontal right regions (anterior cingulate cortex and superior frontal gyrus). Study 2 investigated gender differences in the emotional modulation of pain. Although males and females did not differ at the behavioral level and reported reduced pain ratings only during the visual perception of erotic pictures, striking gender differences emerged in the N2 and P2 potentials, elicited by painful stimuli. Males showed inhibited cortical processing of pain stimuli when viewing erotic pictures only, whereas females showed a differentiated cortical pain modulation for each emotional content took into consideration (erotic vs. sport/adventure vs. neutral vs. fear/threat vs. mutilation pictures), in particular for N2 potentials. In Study 3, we examine the role of individual beliefs on the effectiveness of a traditional and a homeopathic analgesic treatment. We utilized a deceptive paradigm, i.e., neither the participants nor the experimenters were aware that the administered treatment was an inert substance. We found that only the participants who took a treatment that was coherent with their beliefs showed a reduced cortical pain processing, indicated by dampened P2 amplitudes. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that healthy participants are able to modify their pain experience using an imaginary-based reappraisal strategy. Perceived pain intensity and unpleasantness were either reduced or enhanced with respect to a neutral condition, and an effective pain inhibition was associated with increased N2 and decreased P2 amplitudes

Abstract (italiano)

Il presente lavoro di ricerca ha contribuito alla comprensione dei meccanismi neurocognitivi sottostanti alla modulazione del dolore da parte di processi sensoriali, attenzionali, emozionali e cognitivi. Abbiamo preso in considerazione indici soggettivi, comportamentali ed elettrofisiologici per rilevare gli effetti della posizione del corpo, delle emozioni, delle aspettative legate al placebo, e del reappraisal cognitivo sull’esperienza soggettiva del dolore e sui potenziali somatosensoriali dolore-relati. Quattro studi sono stati condotti per indagare differenti tipologie di modulazione del dolore. Lo Studio 1 ha testato l’ipotesi che la posizione orizzontale del corpo riduca la percezione e l’elaborazione corticale del dolore. Abbiamo dimostrato che la posizione del corpo supina vs. seduta era associata ad una diminuita percezione di stimoli non dolorosi e ad una inibita elaborazione corticale tardiva (300-600) di stimoli dolorosi e non dolorosi, relata ad attività neurale in regioni frontali destre (corteccia cingolata anteriore e giro frontale superiore). Lo Studio 2 ha indagato le differenze di genere nella modulazione emozionale del dolore. Sebbene maschi e femmine non differissero a livello comportamentale e mostrassero ridotti punteggi di dolore solamente durante la visione di immagini erotiche, delle notevoli differenze di genere sono emerse nei potenziali N2 e P2 elicitati da stimoli dolorosi. I maschi avevano mostrato una inibita elaborazione corticale del dolore solamente durante la visione di immagini erotiche, mentre le femmine hanno mostrato una modulazione corticale del dolore diversificata per ogni contenuto emozionale preso in considerazione (immagine erotiche vs. sport/avventura vs. neutre vs. paura/minaccia vs. mutilazione), in particolare per la N2. Nello Studio 3, abbiamo esaminato il ruolo delle credenze individuali nell’efficacia di un trattamento analgesico tradizionale e di uno omeopatico. Abbiamo utilizzato un paradigma decettivo, i.e., né i partecipanti, né le sperimentatrici erano a conoscenza che il trattamento somministrato era una sostanza inerte. Abbiamo trovato che solamente i partecipanti che assumevano un trattamento che era coerente con le loro credenze mostravano una ridotta elaborazione corticale del dolore, indicata da diminuite ampiezze della P2. Infine, lo Studio 4 ha dimostrato che i partecipanti sani sono in grado di modificare la propria esperienza del dolore, utilizzando una strategia di reappraisal cognitiva che fa uso di immagini mentali. L’intensità di dolore percepita era o diminuita o aumentata rispetto ad una condizione neutra e un’efficace inibizione del dolore era associata ad incrementate ampiezze N2 e diminuite ampiezze P2

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Angrilli, Alessandro
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 25 > Scuole 25 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PSICOBIOLOGIA SPERIMENTALE E CLINICA
Data di deposito della tesi:29 Gennaio 2013
Anno di Pubblicazione:29 Gennaio 2013
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Pain, ERP, body position, emotion, placebo, reappraisal
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/02 Psicobiologia e psicologia fisiologica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:5701
Depositato il:15 Ott 2013 09:16
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